Global Change: Facing Risks and Threats to Water Resources

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Global change: Facing Risks and Threats to Water Resources (Proc. of the Sixth World FRIEND Conference, Fez, Morocco, October 2010). IAHS Publ. 340, 2010, 214-220.

Participatory modelling for locally proposed climate change adaptation related to water and agriculture in South Africa

1 Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI, S-601 76 Norrköping, Sweden

2 The School of Bioresources Engineering & Environmental Hydrology, BEEH, University of KwaZulu-Natal,
Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, South Africa

Abstract The participatory modelling project (PAMO) carried out in the Thukela River Basin, South Africa assessed vulnerability to climate variability and change on water resources through direct involvement of affected groups. The aim was to increase stakeholder confidence and ownership, and create a local adaptation plan. Meetings were held with three stakeholder groups: (a) government authorities, research institutes, NGOs, (b) commercial farmers, and (c) small-scale farm­ers, and complemented with interviews. Based on participants’ requests, modellers compiled regionally dynami­cally downscaled climate change projections, as well as their hydrological consequences. The project focused on agriculture, water resources/infrastructure and biodiversity. Though many future problems were shared, their pre-conditions for dealing with these were vastly different. Knowledge transfer within and across the farming communities and with government agencies on climate change, adapta­tion measures, and means to procure financing and permits for measures will aid local initiatives to prepare for climate variability and change.

Key words participatory modelling; climate change; adaptation; water resources; agriculture; catchment modelling; regional dynamic downscaling; RCM3; ACRU; South Africa

Global change: Facing Risks and Threats to Water Resources (Proc. of the Sixth World FRIEND Conference, Fez, Morocco, October 2010). IAHS Publ. 340, 2010, 221-228.

Impact des aménagements de conservation des eaux et des sols au niveau du Sahel Mauritanien: site pilote Kiffa
Mohamed Boufaroua1, Mohammed El Mourid2,
Walid Ben Khelifa
1 & Adouba ould Salem3

1 Direction Générale de l’Aménagement et de la Conservation des Terres Agricoles (DG-ACTA), 30 Rue Alain Savary, 1002 Tunis, Tunisie

2 Centre International de Recherche Agricole dans les zones Sèches (ICARDA), 1 Rue des Oliviers El Menzah 5, Tunis, Tunisie

3 Projet de Développement Pastoral et de Gestion de Parcours (PADEL), République Islamique de Mauritanie
Résumé L’objectif de cette étude est la quantification des dépôts solides et des quantités d’eau collectées au niveau des ouvrages de conservation des eaux et des sols (CES) du site pilote de Kiffa au Sahel en Mauritanie. L’échantillon comprend 20 cordons en pierres, cinq cuvettes individuelles, deux éléments de banquettes, un ouvrage d’épandage des eaux de crues et une digue de collecte de ruissellement. La superficie totale du site est de 18 ha destinée essentiellement aux parcours et à l’exploitation agricole en zones arides. L’évaluation des techniques réalisées pour une période de fonctionnement de 18 mois a montré leur rôle dans la lutte contre l’érosion et dans la maîtrise des eaux de ruissellement. Les cordons agissent comme un très bon piège à sédiments et retiennent de 775 à 2932 m3/ha selon l’objectif; et les travaux de terrassement permettent la mobilisation de quantités d’eau de surface importantes pour l’exploitation. La digue Essoufi permet de collecter jusqu’à 45 000 m3 d’eau pouvant servir aux usages domestiques, à l’abreuvement du bétail, à la micro-irrigation, etc.

Mots clef conservation; eau; sol; aride; impact; évaluation; érosion; Sahel

Impact of water and soil conservation techniques in the Sahel of Mauritania: pilot site of Kiffa

Abstract The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of soil and water conservation measures by estimating the sedimentation and the volumes of water in arid regions in the Sahel of Mauritania. The conservation measures applied in the pilot site of Kiffa in the Sahel region of Mauritania are of different types and tend to be site-specific and tailored to fit in with the local farming systems, customs and environmental conditions. We considered 20 stone ridges, five individual basins, two terraces, one deriva­tion structure and a small farm dam. The evaluation of the soil and water conservation techniques for a period of 18 months shows the important role they have played to limit erosion and to harvest rainwater. The stone cordons have been able to catch significant quantities of sediments varying from 775 to 2932 m3/ha, depending on the objective; and terracing works permitted the mobilization of large volumes of rain water to be exploited. The small farm dam at Essoufi, can provide up to 45 000 m3 of surface water to be used for different purposes: domestic use, livestock watering, micro-irrigation, etc.

Key words sedimentation; conservation; water; soil; arid; impact; evaluation; erosion; Sahel

Global change: Facing Risks and Threats to Water Resources (Proc. of the Sixth World FRIEND Conference, Fez, Morocco, October 2010). IAHS Publ. 340, 2010, 229-235.

Modelling water scarcity across Europe in terms of water quantity and quality

Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Maclean Building, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford OX10 8BB, UK
Abstract The need for integrated and sustainable water resources management has become an important driver behind large-scale gridded modelling. Such modelling has traditionally focused on water quantity. However, reduced water quality can also limit water resources, particularly for drinking water. The water availability model GWAVA has been further developed to include a water quality module. This module will initially focus on biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). The module considers drivers of BOD loading from land, such as agriculture and urban runoff, and transport and loss of BOD through sewage treatment and river networks. In an exploratory assessment, GWAVA was used to produce maps of water scarcity across Europe. The new module enhanced those maps with effects of BOD on water resources. This enhancement increased the modelled proportion of Europe experiencing water scarcity, which indicates that it is important to include both water quantity and quality in model estimates of water scarcity.

Key words water resources modelling; BOD; Europe; GWAVA; water quality; water scarcity

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