Abstract From raingauge data, it is possible to mathematically model rainfall field as a spatio-temporal intermittent process (superposition of inner variability field and rainfall indicator field, both influenced by advection). Geostatistics enables investigation of the link between an instantaneous process spatio-temporal structure and the evolution of spatial structure with time aggregation. A method is proposed to infer a relevant instantaneous process from observed rainfall statistics. The benefits and limits of this approach are investigated using daily rainfall data from the Loire basin in France. Two sub-regions are highlighted. A downstream zone where a quite homogeneous rainfall process can be modelled by the spatio-temporal model, and an upstream zone where interaction with orography is more present and the homogenity assumption questionable.
Long-term discharge and evapotranspiration of a forested catchment in the Harz Mountains, Germany: evaluation of silvicultural adaptation strategies to climate change Henning Meesenburg, Johannes Sutmöller & Swen Hentschel
email@example.com Abstract Forests with their high surface area and forest management practices have an important impact on hydrological processes at the atmosphere–land interface. Since 1948, water fluxes have been studied in different compartments of the Lange Bramke catchment, Harz Mountains, Germany, which was completely clear-cut in 1947 and reforested with Norway spruce. The catchment is characterized by a humid climate. Water budgets for the period 1950–2008 have been simulated using the hydrological model WaSiM-ETH, which was coupled to a forest growth model for the estimation of stand characteristics. As adaptation options to climate change, the conversion from drought sensitive Norway spruce stands to less sensitive European beech and different thinning regimes have been simulated until 2050. Discharge of Lange Bramke has decreased since 1948 due to a combined effect of forest development and climatic changes. Tree transpiration will likely further increase until 2050 (due to projected climate change) resulting in higher risk of drought stress. Conversion of Norway spruce stands to European beech and intensified thinning would result in reduced drought stress and increased discharge.
2 Institute of Hydrology, University of Freiburg, Fahnenbergplatz, 79089 Freiburg, Germany Abstract The study addresses the need to evaluate the vulnerability of streamflow allocations in transboundary rivers with scarce hydro-climatic data. Two open-source gridded climate data sets, ERA-40 reanalysis and CRU TS 2.1, were employed in hydrological models for the rivers Kunene, Upper Niger and Upper Jordan. These climate data sets served as input to two different models, a simple bucket water-balance model and the IHACRES rainfall–runoff model. Error ranges of the resulting streamflow simulations were then compared with existing terms of transboundary water allocation commitments. The results show considerable variations in the precipitation inputs in time and space. Modelling on a daily time step was unsuccessful based on this input. Modelling on a monthly time step reflects the large input range during the wet season. The unreliability of climate input and model inaccuracy suggest that the applied method is insufficient for predicting the vulnerability of streamflow allocations.
Key words international river basin; water allocation agreement; vulnerability; gridded climate data; IHACRES;
simple bucket model
Global change: Facing Risks and Threats to Water Resources (Proc. of the Sixth World FRIEND Conference, Fez, Morocco, October 2010). IAHS Publ. 340, 2010, 273-278.
Implementation of the Water Framework Directive and adaptation strategies in the Czech Republic OLDŘICH NOVICKÝ, MAGDALENA MRKVIČKOVÁ &
TG Masaryk Water Research Institute, Podbabská 30, CZ-160 00 Prague 6, Czech Republic
firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract Since the mid-20th century, the focus of water policies in European countries has gradually changed from replenishment of water resources to saving them, and during the last 30 years attention has increasingly been paid to water resource protection. The latest policy was incorporated into the Water Framework Directive (WFD – Directive 2000/60/EC), which introduced water planning and preparation of programmes of measures on a Europe-wide scale. The water planning was almost exclusively focused on chemical water quality, biological quality of surface waters, and naturalisation of water bodies. Subsequent frequent occurrence of drought periods and floods and increasing water scarcity problems in Europe indicated that the WFD water policy has to be modified towards establishing robust water management systems, which will ensure water protection, availability of water resources, and protection against harmful impacts of water. These conclusions agree with the experience in the Czech Republic described in this paper.
Key words Water Framework Directive; water planning; drought; flood; water policy