Halons Technical Options Committee



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MONTREAL PROTOCOL
ON SUBSTANCES THAT DEPLETE
THE OZONE LAYER




UNEP

2010 REPORT OF THE
HALONS TECHNICAL OPTIONS COMMITTEE


2010 ASSESSMENT

Montreal Protocol
On Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer


United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

2010 Assessment Report of the
Halons Technical Options Committee

The text of this report is composed in Times New Roman

Coordination: Halons Technical Options Committee

Reproduction: UNEP Ozone Secretariat

Date: March 2011

Under certain conditions, printed copies of this report are available from:

United Nations Environment Programme

Ozone Secretariat

P.O. Box 30552

Nairobi, Kenya

This document is also available in portable document format from:

http://ozone.unep.org/Assessment_Panels/TEAP/Reports/HTOC/index.shtml

No copyright involved. This publication may be freely copied, abstracted and cited, with acknowledgement of the source of the material.



ISBN: 9966-7319-9-7

Disclaimer


The United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel (TEAP) co-chairs and members, the Technical and Economics Options Committee, chairs, co-chairs and members, the TEAP Task Force co-chairs and members, and the companies and organisations that employ them do not endorse the performance, worker safety, or environmental acceptability of any of the technical options discussed. Every industrial operation requires consideration of worker safety and proper disposal of contaminants and waste products. Moreover, as work continues - including additional toxicity evaluation - more information on health, environmental and safety effects of alternatives and replacements will become available for use in selecting among the options discussed in this document.

UNEP, the TEAP co-chairs and members, the Technical and Economic Options Committee, chairs, co-chairs and members, and the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel Task Forces co-chairs and members, in furnishing or distributing the information that follows, do not make any warranty or representation, either express or implied, with respect to the accuracy, completeness or utility; nor do they assume any liability of any kind whatsoever resulting from the use or reliance upon any information, material, or procedure contained herein.

Mention of any company, association, or product in this document is for information purposes only and does not constitute a recommendation of any such company, association, or product, either expressed or implied by UNEP, the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel (TEAP) co-chairs and members, the Technical and Economics Options Committee, chairs, co-chairs and members, the TEAP Task Force co-chairs and members, and the companies and organisations that employ them.

Acknowledgements


The UNEP Halons Technical Options Committee (HTOC) acknowledges with thanks the outstanding contributions from all individuals and organisations that provided technical support to Committee members.

The opinions expressed are those of the Committee and do not necessarily reflect the views of any sponsoring or supporting organisations.

The following persons were instrumental in developing this report:

Committee Co-chairs

David Catchpole

PRA

United Kingdom


Dr. Sergey Kopylov

All Russian Research Institute for Fire Protection

Russian Federation
Dr. Daniel Verdonik

Hughes Associates, Inc.

USA
Committee Members

Tareq K. Al-Awad

King Abdullah II Design & Development Bureau

Jordan
Jamal Alfuzaie

Kuwait Fire Department

Kuwait
Seunghwan (Charles) Choi

Hanju Chemical Co., Ltd.

South Korea


Dr. Michelle Collins

EECO, Inc.

USA
Salomon Gomez

Tecnofuego

Venezuela

Andrew Greig

Protection Projects, Inc.

South Africa


Zhou Kaixuan

CAAC-AAD


China
H.S. Kaprwan

Consultant–Retired

India
Dr. Nikolai Kopylov

All Russian Research Institute for Fire Protection

Russia
Dr. David Liddy

UK Government/European Commission

United Kingdom
Bella Maranion

United States EPA

USA
John O’Sullivan, M.B.E.

Bureau Veritas

United Kingdom
Emma Palumbo

Safety Hi-tech srl

Italy
Erik Pedersen

Consultant–World Bank

Denmark
Donald Thomson

Manitoba Hydro & MOPIA

Canada
Caroline Vuillin

European Aviation Safety Agency

France
Robert Wickham

Consultant-Wickham Associates

USA
Mitsuru Yagi

Nohmi Bosai Ltd. & Fire and Environment Protection Network

Japan
Consulting Experts

Tom Cortina

Halon Alternatives Research Corporation

USA
Matsuo Ishiyama

Nohmi Bosai Ltd. & Fire and Environment Protection Network

Japan
Steve McCormick

United States Army

USA
John G. Owens

3M Company

USA
Dr. Mark Robin

DuPont, Inc.

USA
Dr. Joseph Senecal

Kidde-Fenwal, Inc.

USA
Dr. Ronald Sheinson

Naval Research Laboratory - Retired

USA
Ronald Sibley

Consultant–Defence Supply Center

USA


Peer Reviewers

The Halons Technical Options Committee also acknowledges with thanks the following peer reviewers who took time from their busy schedules to review the draft of this report and provided constructive comments. At the sole discretion of the Halons Technical Options Committee, these comments may or may not have been accepted and incorporated into the report. Therefore, listing of the Peer Reviewers should not be taken as an indication that any reviewer endorses the content of the report, which remains solely the opinion of the members of the Committee.

John Allen – Tyco International, UK

Bradford Colton – American Pacific Corporation, USA

John Demeter – Wesco, USA

Anton Janssen – NL Ministry of Defence, The Netherlands

Dave Koehler – Prospective Technology, Inc., USA

Richard Marcus – RemTech International, USA

Steve Montzka – NOAA, USA

Pete Mullenhard – SAIC, USA

Yuko Saso – National Research Institute of Fire and Disaster, Japan

Dawn Turner – Manitoba Hydro, Canada



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Disclaimer iii

Disclaimer iii

Acknowledgements iv

Acknowledgements iv

Executive Summary xii

Executive Summary xii

E.1 Introduction xii

E.2 Global Production and Consumption Phase-out of Halons xii

E.3 Fire Protection Alternatives to Halon xii

E.4 Climate Considerations for Halons and Alternatives xiii

E.5 Global Halon 1211 and 1301 Banking xiii

E.6 Global Halon 2402 Banking xiv

E.7 Global/Regional Supply and Demand Balance xiv

E.8 Continued Reliance on Halons xv

E.9 Estimated Global Inventories of Halons 1211, 1301 and 2402 xvi

E.10 Practices to Ensure Recycled Halon Purity xvii

E.11 Halon Emission Reduction Strategies xvii

E.12 Destruction xviii

1.0 Global Production and Consumption Phase-out of Halons xviii

2.0 Fire Protection Alternatives to Halon xxiii

1. Halon Alternatives Research Corp., PBPK Model, ISO 14520-1, Annex G, 2nd Edition, 2006, http://www.harc.org/pbpkharc.pdf xlvi

2. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), “Carbon Dioxide as a Fire Suppressant: Examining the Risks”, EPA430-R-00-002, http://www.epa.gov/Ozone/


snap/fire/co2/co2report.pdf xlvi

3.0 Climate Considerations for Halons and Alternatives xlvii

1. TEAP Decision XX/8 Task Force Report, May 2009. xlix

2. Proposed amendment to the Montreal Protocol (submitted jointly by Canada, Mexico and the United States of America) – UNEP/OzL.Pro.22/5. xlix

3. Proposed amendment to the Montreal Protocol (submitted by the Federated States of Micronesia) – UNEP/OzL.Pro.22/6. xlix

4. Regulation (EC) No 842/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 May 2006 on certain fluorinated greenhouse gases. xlix

5. G.J.M., Velders, S.O., Andersen, J.S., Daniel, D.W., Fahey, and M. McFarland, “The importance of the Montreal Protocol in protecting climate”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, March 2007. xlix

4.0 Global Halon 1211 and 1301 Banking l

1. UNEP DTIE, “Study on Challenges Associated with Halon Banking in Developing Countries”, TBD. lxv

2. Final Evaluation Report on Halon Banking Projects for Countries with Low Volumes of Installed Capacities, UNEP/OzL.Pro/ExCom/44/10, 2 November 2004, http://www.multilateralfund.org/evalution_document_library_.htm lxv

3. Halon Banking and Reception Facilities, International Maritime Organisation, IMO FP.1/Circular 40, 8 January 2010. lxv

4. Fire protection – Fire extinguishing media – Halogenated hydrocarbons – Part I: Specifications for halon 1211 and halon 1301, ISO 7201-1:1989, International Organisation for Standardisation, 1989. lxv

5. Standard Specification for Halon 1301, Bromotrifluoromethane (CF3Br), ASTM D5632 – 08, ASTM International, 2008. lxv

5.0 Global Halon 2402 Banking lxvi

6.0 Global/Regional Supply and Demand Balance lxxv

7.0 Continued Reliance on Halons lxxvi

1. ICF International, Inc., “Estimated Usage and Emissions of Halon 1301, 1211, 2402 in Civil Aircraft Worldwide”, June 2006 and updated executive summary, November 2009. lxxxvii

2. Marker, T., “Development of a Minimum Performance Standard for Lavatory Trash Receptacle Automatic Fire Extinguishers”, DOT/FAA/AR-96/122, Final Report, February 1997. lxxxvii

3. Reinhardt, J., “Minimum Performance Standard for Aircraft Cargo Compartment Built-in Fire Suppression Systems”, International Aircraft Systems Fire Protection Working Group Meeting, October 30–31, 2002. lxxxvii

4. Reinhardt, J., “Minimum Performance Standard for Aircraft Cargo Compartment Halon Replacement Fire Suppression Systems”, DOT/FAA/AR-TN03/6, April 2003. lxxxvii

5. Reinhardt, J., “Water Mist Systems: MPS for Aircraft Cargo Compartment Test Results”, International Aircraft Systems Fire Protection Working Group Meeting, Wilson, NC, July 17–18, 2001. lxxxvii

6. Webster, H., “Development of a Minimum Performance Standard for Hand-held Fire Extinguishers as a Replacement for Halon 1211 on Civilian Transport Category Aircraft”, DOT/FAA/AR-01/37, Final Report, August 2002. lxxxvii

7. Airworthiness Communication from CAA-UK AIRCOM 2009/13, dated 12 Oct 2009. lxxxvii

8. Flight Ops Communication from CAA-UK FODCOM 30/2009, dated 12 October 2009. lxxxvii

9. Safety Information Bulletin from EASA SIB 2009-39, dated 23 October 2009. lxxxvii

10. ICAO State letter reference AN 3/25.1-10/2. lxxxvii

8.0 Estimated Inventories of Halons c

9.0 Practices to Ensure Recycled Halon Purity cxxxiv

1. “Fire Protection - Fire Extinguishing Media - Halogenated Hydrocarbons - Part 1: Specifications for Halon 1211 and Halon 1301”, ISO 7201-1; Second Edition; pp. 12-15, 1989. cxxxix

2. GOST 15899-93, Specification for 1,1,2,2-tetrafluorodibromethane (R-114B2). cxxxix

3. One such instrument is shown at http://www.refrigerantid.com/halon/identifier.html cxxxix

10.0 Halon Emission Reduction Strategies cxl

1. British Standards Institute (BSI), “Code of Practice for the Operation of Fire Protection Measures. Electrical Actuation of Gaseous Total Flooding Extinguishing Systems”, BS7273-1:2006, British Standards Institute, London, UK, 2006. clvii

2. European Community Directive 2004/108/EC, Office for Official Publications for European Communities, Luxembourg, 2004. clvii

3. Fenwal, “Analaser II”, Fenwal Protection Systems, Ashland, MA. clvii

4. Parker, J.W., “Changes in Science and Standards Open Door to High-Tech Detection”, NFPA Journal, September/October 1995. clvii

5. UNEP DTIE, List of Halon Recycling, Recovery and Reclaim Equipment Manufacturers, January 2002. clvii

6. NFPA 12A-2009, Halon 1301 Fire Extinguishing Systems, National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA, 2009. clvii

7. Underwriters Laboratories Inc., UL 1058, “Standard for Halogenated Agent Extinguishing System Units”, Third Edition, Underwriters Laboratories Inc., Northbrook, IL, 31 January 1995. clvii

8. Hughes Associates, Inc., 3610 Commerce Drive, Suite 817, Baltimore, MD. clvii

9. Civil Aviation Authority Fire Service Branch, Aviation House, South Area, Gatwick Airport, Gatwick, West Sussex, UK. clvii

10. Underwriters Laboratories Inc., UL 1093, “Standard for Halogenated Agent Fire Extinguishers”, Fifth Edition, Underwriters Laboratories Inc., Northbrook, IL, 30 November 1995. clvii

11. Eliminating Dependency on Halons: Self-Help Guide for Low Consuming Countries, UNEP DTIE, 1999, ISBN: 92-807-1783-9, www.unep.fr/ozonaction. clvii

12. Voluntary Code of Practice for the Reduction of Emissions of HFC & PFC Fire Protection Agents, developed and endorsed by FEMA, FSSA, HARC, NAFED, and EPA, March 2002, www.HARC.org.vcopdocument.pdf clvii

13. Standards and Codes of Practice to Eliminate Dependency on Halons: Handbook of Good Practices in the Halon Sector, UNEP, 2001, United National publication ISBN 92-807-1988-1, http://www.uneptie.org/Ozonaction. clvii

14. Guidance for the EPA Halon Emissions Reduction Rule (40 CFR Part 82, Subpart H), United States Environmental Protection Agency, EPA430-B-01-001, February 2001, www.epa.gov/ozone. clviii

15. Safety Guide for Decommissioning Halon Systems, Vol. 2 of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Outreach Report: Moving Towards a World Without Halon, www.halon.org clviii

16. Standard Practice for Handling, Transportation, and Storage of Halon 1301, Bromotrifluoromethane (CF3Br), ASTM D5631-08, ASTM International, 2008. clviii

11.0 Destruction clix

1. Ansul Inc., MSDS Halon 1211, www.ansul.com/AnsulGetDoc.asp?FileID=13402. clxiv

2. Dupont, MSDS Halon 1301, http://msds.dupont.com/msds/pdf/EN/PEN_
09004a2f8000768d.pdf clxiv

3. Ekokem, “Key figures of the parent company Ekokem Oy Ab for the year 2005”, Ekokem Oy Ab, 2006, http://www.ekokem.fi/main/FrontPage.asp?ItemId=2726 clxiv

4. ICF International, “ODS Destruction in the United States and Abroad”, prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, UNEP/OzL.Pro/Workshop.3/INF/1, May 2009. clxiv

5. ICF International, “Study on Financing the Destruction of Unwanted Ozone-Depleting Substances through the Voluntary Carbon Market”, prepared for the World Bank, February 2010. clxiv

6. ICF International, “Study on the Collection and Treatment of Unwanted Ozone-Depleting Substances in Article 5 and Non-Article 5 Countries”, prepared for the Executive Committee of the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol, UNEP/OzL.Pro/ExCom/54/Inf.3, March 2008. clxiv

7. Kennedy, E.M. and Dlugogorski, B. Z., “Conversion of Ozone-Depleting Substances (ODS) to Useful Products: Design of a Process for Conversion of Halons 1211 and 1301 to HFCs, Part A”, prepared under a grant with AOARD, with support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, The University of Newcastle (School of Engineering), Australia, June 2003, http://stinet.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA432193&Location=U2&doc


=GetTRDoc.pdf. clxiv

8. Multilateral Fund Secretariat (MFS), “Report of the Meeting of Experts to Assess the Extent of Current and Future Requirements for the Collection and Disposition of Non-Reusable and Unwanted ODS in Article 5 Countries (Follow Up To Decision 47/52)”, UNEP/OzL.Pro/ExCom/48/42, 20 March 2006, http://www.multilateralfund.org/


files/48/4842.pdf. clxiv

9. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), “Report of the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel (TEAP), Report of the Task Force on Destruction Technologies”, Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, Vol. 3B, United Nations Environment Programme, 2002, http://www.teap.org. clxiv

10. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), “Report of the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel (TEAP), Report of the Task Force on Collection, Recovery and Storage”, Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, Vol. 3A, 2002, United Nations Environment Programme, http://www.teap.org. clxiv

11. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), “Technology and Economic Assessment Panel (TEAP), Task Force Decision XX/7 – Phase 2 Report: Environmentally Sound Management of Banks of Ozone-Depleting Substances”, October 2009. clxv

Appendix A List of Acronyms and Abbreviations 1

Appendix B Definitions 1

Appendix C Halon Bank Management Programmes 1

Appendix D Airworthiness Directives (AD) 1





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