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Here attached are are thesis abstracts on

1. comparing dyslexia students with those who are not;



2. different teaching strategies used to help them.


系統編號:

092CYCU5071009




出版年:

-




研究生:

黃芸




學號:







論文名稱:

中文閱讀障礙研究 — 以國中小學生為例




指導教授:

鄭谷苑 Tzeng, Angela Ku-Yuan

學位類別:

碩士




校院名稱:

中原大學




系所名稱:

心理學研究所




學年度:

92




語文別:

中文




論文頁數:

161




開放範圍:

網際網路




中文關鍵字:

語音區分性假說 ,閱讀障礙 ,拼字缺陷 ,語音缺陷




英文關鍵字:

orthographic defecit ,dyslexia ,phonological deficit ,phonological representation distinctness hypothesis







[摘要]

摘要
發展性閱讀障礙是指有正常的智力以及學習機會,但是仍無法獲得其年齡對等的閱讀技巧者。許多不同來源的證據指出語音的缺陷例如語音覺識、語音的短期記憶是拼音文字系統中閱讀障礙的形成原因,除此之外,連結論以及雙缺陷理論也暗示了拼字的缺陷也可能造成識字的困難。而本研究者認為中文的閱讀障礙也同樣有這兩種主要的缺陷—即語音及拼字缺陷,其中語音的缺陷是來自於深層的語音表徵,而拼字的缺陷和唸名速度緩慢有關,並且可能作用在部件與部件的視覺連結當中。我們比較在排除智力的影響後,三組受試者(D組、RL組、CA組)在六個實驗上的表現來驗證中文閱讀障礙的語音及拼字缺陷,其中D組代表閱讀障礙組,RL組代表閱讀能力控制組,CA組代表年齡控制組。
實驗一及實驗二檢驗有關語音的缺陷。實驗一要驗證閱讀障礙的語音缺陷是否源自於語音表徵的不夠清楚,而實驗結果顯示在700毫秒的相似音情境下,D組的反應時間及正確率顯著低於其他兩組正常控制組,因此驗證了閱讀障礙對於相似音之間的區分性表徵不足的想法。實驗二要驗證閱讀障礙內在的相似音表徵之間的連結是觸發大於抑制的,因而導致在辨識中文字的歷程中產生錯誤的語意。雖然實驗二的結果顯示D組的反應形態和其他兩組正常組沒有顯著差異,但是這需要後續的研究來探討。
實驗三包含四種唸名速度的測驗—物件、數字、注音及顏色。實驗三發現D組和RL組之間在四種唸名速度測驗上都沒有顯著差異,但是在物件、數字及注音唸名上顯著慢於CA組。
實驗四、實驗五以及實驗六是有關拼字缺陷的實驗。實驗四是組字規則測驗,結果發現三組在組字規則上沒有顯著差異,這表示大部分的閱讀障礙沒有組字規則的缺陷。實驗五是同音異字測驗,結果在正確率上為CA組 >RL組 > D組。實驗六為視覺部件連結實驗,該實驗包含兩種刺激材料—合法假字及沒有意義的圖形,實驗結果發現D組在視覺連結的確有顯著的缺陷,而這種缺陷並不侷限在文字上。在排除智力因素後,視覺連結實驗以及唸名速度測驗間的淨相關顯示閱讀障礙的視覺連結缺陷與緩慢的唸名速度有關。
根據上述的六個實驗,我們認為中文的閱讀障礙存在有語音及拼字的缺陷,其中語音的缺陷是來自於語音表徵之間的區分性不足,而拼字缺陷作用在部件及部件的視覺連結上。

Abstract

Developmental dyslexia is the failure to acquire age-appropriate reading skills despite adequate intelligence and education opportunity. Many sources of evidence pointed out that phonological deficits, such as phonological awareness and phonological short term memory, are causes underlying dyslexia in alphabetic writing system. Nevertheless, both connectionist models and double deficits theory imply that orthographic deficit could cause failure to word recognition. We argue that dyslexia in Mandarin would also have two major problems —phonological deficit and orthographic deficit. Phonological deficit is due to indistinctness in phonological representation. Orthographic deficit is related to slow naming and affect visual association of radicals. Keep intelligence constant, we compared three groups (D、RL、CA)in six experiments to test phonological and orthographic deficit in Mandarin dyslexia. Among them group D represents dyslexia, group RL represents reading level control, and group CA represents chronological-age control.


Study 1 and study 2 are designed to test phonological deficits. Study 1 examined whether the phonological deficit of dyslexia is due to the lack of the distinctness of phonological representations. The results indicated that response latencies and accuracy of group D are significantly lower than two control groups in the 700ms semi-homophone condition. Therefore we argued that the distinctness between similar phonological representations are insufficient for dyslexia. Study 2 tested the connections of similar phonological representations are more activated than inhibited in dyslexia and this results in semantic mistakes in the process of Mandarin characters recognition. Though the result of study 2 indicated that the response latencies pattern of group D was not significantly different from the two control groups, further researches are needed before conclusion can be made。
Study 3 consisted of four measures of serial naming speed—objects、digits、zhu yin and colors. We found that group D was not significantly slower than group RL on four naming tasks but significantly slower than group CA on object、digits and zhu yin naming.
Study 4、study 5 and study 6 are about orthographic deficits. Study 4 investigated the rules of radicals-combination. We found that there is no significant difference among three groups on this task. It means that most dyslexia have no deficits in rules of radicals-combination. Study 5 is a homophone test. The result indicated group CA> group RL> group D on accuracy. Study 6 is visual radical association experiment. It contains two kinds of materials — persudowords and nonsense figures. The results indicated group D has specific deficits in visual association and this deficit is not bond to words. After partialing out the intelligence scores, the correlation of visual association and measures of naming speed indicated that visual association deficit of dyslexia is related to slow naming.
According to these six experiments, we therefore argue that Mandarin dyslexia demonstrates the phonological deficit and the orthographic deficit. The phonological deficit possibly results from indistinctness of phonological representation;whereas orthographic deficit affect visual association of radicals.

[ 論文目次 ]

目錄
中文摘要----------------------------------------------------- I
英文摘要----------------------------------------------------- II
誌謝辭------------------------------------------------------- IV
目錄--------------------------------------------------------- V
表目錄------------------------------------------------------- VII
圖目錄------------------------------------------------------- IX
第一章 緒 論--------------------------------------------- 1
第二章 文獻探討--------------------------------------------- 6
第一節 發展性閱讀障礙的研究--------------------------------------- 6
壹、什麼是發展性閱讀障礙------------------------------------ 6
貳、發展性閱讀障礙的缺陷來源-------------------------------- 7
第二節 文字辨識模式對閱讀障礙的分類---雙路徑理論及連結論的不同看法及分類----------------------------------------------------- 10
壹、什麼是雙路徑理論---------------------------------------- 10
貳、雙路徑理論的閱讀障礙分類-------------------------------- 11
參、雙路徑理論分類的問題------------------------------------ 13
肆、什麼是連結論-------------------------------------------- 17
伍、連結論與雙缺陷理論對有關閱讀問題的爭論------------------ 18
陸、連結論與雙路徑理論對發展性閱讀障礙看法的不同------------ 22
柒、連結論對閱讀障礙的模擬---------------------------------- 24
捌、研究者選擇連結論的原因---------------------------------- 37
第三節 雙缺陷理論和連結論的共同點--------------------------------- 39
壹、什麼是雙缺陷理論---------------------------------------- 39
貳、雙缺陷理論和連結論的共同點------------------------------ 50
第四節 語音區分性假說--------------------------------------------- 53
第五節 中文的閱讀障礙--------------------------------------------- 56
壹、國外有關閱讀障礙研究的啟示------------------------------ 56
貳、中文語音覺識能力與閱讀的相關研究------------------------ 59
參、拼字缺陷在學習中文識字歷程可能造成的影響---------------- 65
肆、我們的測驗與實驗---------------------------------------- 69
第三章 研究方法與結果討論---------------------------------- 74
第一節 受試者的篩選----------------------------------------------- 74
第二節 三類實驗------------------------------------------- 76
壹、語音部分------------------------------------------------ 77
貳、唸名速度部分-------------------------------------------- 93
参、拼字部分------------------------------------------------ 96
第四章 綜合討論-------------------------------------------- 121
壹、問題與討論----------------------------------------------- 126
貳、本研究的限制與未來的研究方向---------------------------- 140
參考文獻----------------------------------------------------- 143
附錄一:驗ㄧ「相似音gating區辨實驗」刺激材料-------------------------- 153
附錄二:實驗二「相似音觸發實驗」刺激材料------------------------------ 154
附錄三:實驗五「同音異字測驗」題目------------------------------------ 155
附錄四:實驗五同音異字測驗主試者指導語-------------------------------- 158
附錄五:實驗六「視覺部件連結實驗」刺激材料--------------------------- 160

表目錄
表1 :比較語音損傷的模擬和Manis等人(1996)的閱讀障礙行為研究資料---- 32


表2 :連結論對「語音型閱讀障礙」的模擬-------------------------------- 33
表3 :連結論對「遲緩型閱讀障礙」的模擬--------------------------------- 36
表4 :雙缺陷假說的分類------------------------------------------------- 41
表5 :連結論中「遲緩型」閱障的模擬方式以及唸名速度缺陷的假設一「拼字」的比較表--------------------------------------------------------
51
表6 :拼字缺陷在中文識字可能造成的錯誤型態----------------------------- 69
表7 :本研究的假設、實驗或測驗以及統計分析------------------------------ 73
表8 :三組受試者的基本資料--------------------------------------------- 75
表9 -1:相似音gating區辨實驗的實驗設計(受試者內部分)-------------------- 78
表9 -2:三組受試者在相似音gating區辨實驗的敘述統計---------------------- 79
表9 -3:智力未做共變的相似音區辨的變異數摘要表--------------------------- 81
表9 -4:加入智力作共變項的相似音區辨的變異數摘要表----------------------- 83
表9 -5:智力作共變後三組學生相似音gating區辨實驗反應速率的敘述統計------ 84
表9 -6:智力共變後的相似音gating區辨實驗反應速率的變異數摘要表---------- 85
表9 -7:相似音gating區辨實驗反應時間的「呈現時間與組別」交互作用說明表--- 86
表9 -8:相似音gating區辨實驗不同情境下的組別多重比較整理---------------- 88
表10-1:相似音觸發實驗的敘述統計---------------------------------------- 90
表10-2:相似音觸發實驗的變異數摘要表------------------------------------ 91
表11-1:四種唸名速度的三組敘述統計表------------------------------------ 94
表11-2:四種唸名速度下的組別多重比較整理表------------------------------ 95
表12-1:三組學生在組字規則測驗的敘述統計-------------------------------- 99
表13-1:同音異字實驗設計(受試者內部分)---------------------------------- 101
表13-2:三組學生在同音異字測驗的敘述統計-------------------------------- 101
表13-3:智力共變後的同音異字測驗的變異數摘要表-------------------------- 103
表13-4:同音異字測驗「意義有無重疊」下的組別多重比較表-------------------- 104
表13-5:同音異字測驗「有無相同部件」下的組別多重比較表-------------------- 105
表13-6:部件變項下的意義比較-------------------------------------------- 106
表13-7:同音異字測驗不同情境下的組別比較表------------------------------ 107
表13-8:三組學生在意義及部件變項上的表現-------------------------------- 108
表14-1:假字正確率的敘述統計-------------------------------------------- 111
表14-2:假字正確率的變異數摘要表---------------------------------------- 112
表14-3:假字反應速率的敘述統計表---------------------------------------- 113
表14-4:假字反應速率的變異數摘要表-------------------------------------- 114
表14-5:圖形正確率的敘述統計表------------------------------------------ 114
表14-6 :圖形正確率的變異數摘要表--------------------------------------- 115
表14-7 :圖形正確率的「呈現次數與組別」交互作用說明表--------------------- 116
表14-8 :圖形反應率的敘述統計表----------------------------------------- 117
表14-9 :圖形反應速率的變異數摘要表------------------------------------- 118
表14-10:全體學生視覺連結實驗與唸名速度之間的兩兩淨相關----------------- 119
表14-11:D組學生視覺連結實驗與唸名速度之間的兩兩淨相關------------------ 119
表14-12:RL組學生視覺連結實驗與唸名速度之間的兩兩淨相關----------------- 119
表14-13:CA組學生視覺連結實驗與唸名速度之間的兩兩淨相關----------------- 119
表15 :三組參與者在六個實驗上的結果總整理-------------------------------------------- 125

圖目錄
圖1 :使用「CA組」以較不嚴格的分類方式(soft subtype)來分類閱讀障礙--- 13


圖2 :「表層型閱讀障礙」(Surf)和「較年輕的RL組」(Yn)展現出相似的閱讀型態-----------------------------------------------------------
15
圖3 :詞彙處理的一般架構--------------------------------------------------------------------- 18
圖4 :語音的attractor 網路的結構-------------------------------------- 26
圖5 :「輕度語音損傷」模擬的假字表現(左圖)有顯著的下降,而例外字的閱讀表現(右圖)未受影響---------------------------------------------
27
圖6 :「中度語音損傷」模擬的假字表現(左圖)比輕度損傷再下降,而例外字(右圖)也開始受到影響------------------------------------------------
27
圖7 :「重度語音損傷」模擬的假字表現(左圖)表現的正確率非常低,例外字也表現的很差(右圖),形成嚴重的混合型閱讀障礙---------------------
28
圖8 :對字詞meat, treat, 及eat在隱藏層單元激發的平均差異------------- 29
圖9 :對假字geat, 以及字詞meat, treat, 及eat在隱藏層單元激發的平均差異---- 29
圖10 :連結論正常與語音損傷模式語音辨識曲線的比較(左圖),右圖是Werker
與 Tees(1987)的資料--------------------------------------------
31
圖11 :正常的模式以及語音損傷的模式,其預測的以及觀察的區辨值---------- 31
圖12 :正常的模式(Sn)、語音損傷模式(phon)以及遲緩表層型模式(Delay)
1.5百萬次字詞的呈現的表現,還有正常的模式在0.5百萬次字詞呈現
表現(Yn)------------------------------------------------------
34
圖13 :學習速率較低的模擬,例外字的表現(右圖)比假字(左圖)影響更大--- 34
圖14 :降低隱藏層單元數目在假字(左圖)及例外字(右圖)的效果---------- 35
圖15 :字母快速唸名的例子---------------------------------------------- 40
圖16 :字母刺激視覺唸名的模式------------------------------------------ 42
圖17 :唸名速度與閱讀失敗連結與拼字缺陷的部分重疊---------------------- 59
圖18 :語音損傷模式圖 及 正常的模式------------------------------------ 70
圖19 :五度制調值標記法------------------------------------------------ 78
圖20-1:三組受試者在相似音gating區辨實驗的敘述統計圖-------------------- 80
圖20-2:智力作共變後三組學生相似音gating區辨實驗反應速率的敘述統計圖---- 84
圖20-3:相似音gating區辨實驗「相似音」情境下三種呈現時間的答對題數圖----- 87
圖20-4:相似音gating區辨實驗三組學生在「呈現時間為700豪秒」的答對題數
圖-------------------------------------------------------------
88
圖21 :相似音觸發實驗的敘述統計圖-------------------------------------- 91
圖22-1:數字唸名示例---------------------------------------------------- 94
圖22-2:三組學生在四種唸名速度測驗的表現圖------------------------------ 95
圖23-1:同音異字測驗「意義有無重疊」下的組別多重比較圖------------------ 104
圖23-2:同音異字測驗「有無相同部件」下的組別多重比較圖----------------- 105
圖23-3:部件變項下的意義比較圖----------------------------------------- 106
圖24-1:假字正確率的敘述統計圖----------------------------------------- 111
圖24-2:假字反應速率的敘述統計圖--------------------------------------- 113
圖24-3:圖形正確率的敘述統計圖----------------------------------------- 115
圖24-4:圖形反應速率的敘述統計圖--------------------------------------- 117

[參考文獻]

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