History exemplar of school based


TEMPLATE FOR STRUCTURING A “CAUSE AND EFFECT” PARAGRAPH



Yüklə 0,61 Mb.
səhifə11/11
tarix17.08.2018
ölçüsü0,61 Mb.
#71636
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11


TEMPLATE FOR STRUCTURING A “CAUSE AND EFFECT” PARAGRAPH


CAUSE 1


CAUSE 2

CAUSE 3



EFFECT



Construct a paragraph from the notes above.
The following causes …………………………………….. , …………………………….

and ……………………………….. have an effect on ……………………………………

..………………………………………………………………………………………………



As a result ……………………………………………………………………….………and

……………………………………………..happened. This explains why ……………..



..…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………



Transition Words:


As a result of

Because

Begins with

Consequently

Effects of

If …then

In order to

Is caused by

Leads/led to

May be due to

So that

thereby

therefore

thus

When …then

A STRATEGY FOR ANALYSING POLITICAL CARTOONS

This is one possible strategy you can use with your students for analysing political cartoons. Pass out this handout as a reminder for students of what they need to do for each step. Having completed and discussed the BASIC steps, have your students write a short paragraph explain what is the meaning of the cartoon and substantiating their answer with evidence from the visual image.



B.A.S.I.C. – This is a helpful method for analysing political cartoons.
Background What time period is the cartoon from? What was going on at the time? Think specifically about what historical background we would need to know about in order to understand what is going on in the political cartoon.

Argument What claim or argument is the author trying to make? What is the overall message or thesis of the cartoon?

Symbolism What are the symbols? What does each symbol represent? Remember it is also important to identify key figures or people and what they represent in the cartoon.

Irony What is ironic (or humorous) about this cartoon? How does the cartoonist use irony to make his argument?

CaricatureWhat parts of the cartoon or people are exaggerated? Why are these parts emphasized or exaggerated? How does the artist use exaggeration to make his overall argument?
SOAPS: A STRATEGY FOR ANALYSING PRIMARY SOURCES


SOAPS

Document 1

Document 2

S (Subject) = Briefly summarise the topic of the document.








O (Occasion) = When was this document written?








A (Author) = Who is the author?







P (Perspective) = What is the authors perspective/point of view?







S (Significance) = Why is this document significant/important?









APPARTTS: A STRATEGY FOR ANALYSING PRIMARY SOURCES


APPARTTS

Document 1

Document 2

Author

Who created the source? What do you know about the author? What is the author’s point of view/perspective?









Place and Time

When and where was the source produced? How might this effect the meaning of the source?









Prior Knowledge

Beyond information about the author and the context of its creation, what do you know that would help you further understand the primary source?









Audience

For whom was the source created and how might this affect the reliability of the source?









Reason

Why was the source produced at the time it was produced?










The Main Idea

What point is the source trying to convey?










Tone

What is underlying emotion being communicated?











Significance

Why is this source important? What inferences can you draw from this document? Ask yourself, “so what?” in relation to the question asked.









HISTORY ESSAY WRITING FRAME


Question: (Write the Essay Question in the space below)


  • Underline the Key ‘instruction’ words?

  • Any terms/names/dates need explaining?




Introduction: (Write your introduction below)

Your introduction should contextualise the question (Who? what? where? when?) and directly address or answer the essay question.




PARAGRAPH 1:


(A) First sentence of first paragraph (PEEL)

(Check: Have you made your key point?)




(B) Development/explanation of point? (PEEL)



(C) Evidence to support your argument? (PEEL)

1.

2.

3.


(D) Check: Have you referred back to the question/linked the point explicitly to the question? YES? NO


(E) Link to next paragraph/point? (PEEL)


PARAGRAPH 2:


(A) First sentence of second paragraph

Check: Have you made your key point? YES/ NO

(B) Development/explanation of the point?



(C) Evidence to support your argument?

1.

2.

3.


(D) Check: Have you referred back to the question/linked the point explicitly to the question? YES / NO

(E) Link to next paragraph point?



Repeat steps (A) – (E) for each paragraph in your essay.


CONCLUSION:


This essay writing frame can be used for structuring any History essay.

Use it with the paragraph structuring frame (Point > Explain >Example >Link) and guidelines for writing introductions and conclusions.

Learners can adapt this frame to include as many paragraphs as they need.



ESSAY PLANNING TOOL
Essay Question:


General Ideas (these will be the ‘Point’ at the start of each paragraph):















Specific Examples (Substantiation or Evidence):















































THIRTEEN CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP HISTORICAL THINKING

1. Write a Letter.

You were at an ‘historic’ event. Write a 1-2 page letter home that describes what happened. In the final paragraph, make a judgement and explain why you support that view of the events.


2. Give a Speech.

Give a speech to your classmates that uses the historical event as its starting point, but goes on to defend a more general proposition. For example, you might explain Rosa Park’s refusal to give up her seat on a Montgomery bus, and then go on to explain why civil disobedience is or is not justifiable.


3. Draft a Political Flyer.

You were a witness to a significant event in history, for example the Sharpeville massacre, or the events of Soweto 76. Afterwards you and some friends decide to call a mass meeting or demonstration. Prepare a one-page handout that describes the event, takes a stand in support of a position concerning it, and call for some action to be taken. Be sure to include the reasons why you adopt the views you do.


4. Write a Newspaper Editorial.

You were at a TRC hearing, as a local newspaper editor who must report on and then propose a reaction to the events. Write a 1-2 page editorial in which you briefly outline the case, explain the conditions laid done in law as to when amnesty can be granted and predict whether or not the commissioners will grant amnesty. Clearly explain your reasons.


5. Perform a Dramatic Dialogue.

Write a dialogue between two of the people involved in an incident. For example, on the question of releasing political prisoners write and/ or perform a conversation between FW de Klerk and Andries Treunicht in which they try to convince one another of their own viewpoint.


6. Make a Map.

Draw a map that follows a traveller or diary writer, such as the freedom riders during the civil rights movement. Indicate on the map places where important events in the text occurred.


7. Make a Poster.

You and some friends decide to call a mass meeting or demonstration for example to demand independence from colonial rule. Design a large poster that would be pasted to walls that graphically argues for some specific action, and briefly explains in words why that action is the right one.


8. Draw a Comic Book.

You are the public relations person for an organization involved in one of these events, such as the Cultural Revolution, to reach people who do not read well, you decide to make a comic book that explains the issues and urges readers to take a stand.


9. Write a Song.

Write the lyrics and perform a song that expresses the viewpoint of one of the key people involved in the historical event. Any musical style -- blues, folk song, rap, rock ballad, etc. -- is appropriate.


10. Shoot a Video.

You were there and have to shoot a TV news story about an event, such as the fall of the Berlin Wall. Restate or re-enact what happened, and conclude with an on-air editorial that proposes and defends some specific action in response to the events.


11. Conduct a Debate.

For example: Is globalisation having a positive influence of South Africa in the 21st century? Teachers: have students work in pairs to map the argument in a text, and then join with another pair that mapped it the same way. Ask these foursomes to take a stand that either agrees or disagrees with the conclusion. Separate them into three groups: one that argues for the claim, one that argues against it, and the rest of the class, who will apply these evaluation criteria to each side.


12. Stage a Re-enactment.

Re-enact an event, with students taking different parts, for example: CODESA 1 or 2. Students should research and then re-enact the positions taken and demands made by the different political parties and the events which disrupted these negotiations.


13. Hold a Mock Trial.

Teachers assign students to play the roles of key participants in the text and hold a trial. For example put Chairman Mao on trial for crimes against humanity during the Cultural Revolution. The Prosecutors, defendants, and attorneys for the defence must restate the events from their point of view and recommend a course of action. The rest of class serves as jury.


(Adapted from the Thinking Like a Historian Website. Accessed on 20 June 2013:. http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/teachers/search.asp?id=13)
8. LIST OF USEFUL WEBSITES:
WCED Curriculum Website: FET History

http://www.curriculum-dev.wcape.school.za/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=502&Itemid=127
South African History Online

http://www.sahistory.org.za/

The largest, independent, history education and research institute in the country. Their website contains a wide range of historical information and classroom resources aligned to the South African curriculum


Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory

http://archive.nelsonmandela.org

This site contains a vast collection of exhibits and resources about Nelson Mandela but also more broadly about South African history.
Traces of Truth

http://truth.wwl.wits.ac.za/howto.php

Wits University website containing documents relating to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.
Wits University Digitalised Archive

http://www.historicalpapers.wits.ac.za/?digital/U/

Wits University has digitalized a wide range of archival documents relevant to the History curriculum including the Treason Trial, Federation of South African Women, The Goldstone Commission, Sol Plaatje’s diaryn Diary, 1899-1900
Stanford History Educator’s Group

http://sheg.stanford.edu/

Downloadable source-based lessons and assessments on USA and World History topics


Gilder Lehrman Institute

https://www.gilderlehrman.org/

Downloadable ‘Teaching Literacy through History’ lesson plans and graphic organisers

Podcasts of Historians’ lectures on a wide range of topics


The Historical Society (UK)

http://www.history.org.uk/



Resources, lesson ideas, methodology, podcasts


1Reading Like a Historian’ (RLH) is the name of the history teaching method and accompanying lesson plans created by the Stanford History Educators Group at Stanford University in the USA. For more details of their programme and to download examples of their lesson plans go to their website: http://sheg.stanford.edu/rlh. These notes have been adapted from their homepage.




Yüklə 0,61 Mb.

Dostları ilə paylaş:
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11




Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©muhaz.org 2022
rəhbərliyinə müraciət

    Ana səhifə