History exemplar of school based

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Name of School:

Term 1 - 2014

Standardised Test 1

Grade 12: History


Time: 2 Hours

Marks: 100 Marks


Internal Moderator:


  • This Standardised Test is divided into two sections. Each sections contains one question:

Section A: Source-Based Question (50 Marks)

Section B: Essay Question (50 Marks)

  • Candidates must answer both questions


3.1.1 [Extraction of evidence – L1] (any 1 x 2) (2)

  • A 15 year old student / learner

  • One of nine black learners selected to attend the previously whites only Central High, Little Rock

3.1.2 [Explanation of historical concepts – L2] (1 x 2) (2)

  • ‘Integration’ in this context meant allowing black learners

to attend the previously white only school of Central High,

Little Rock

3.1.3 [Extraction of evidence – L1] (1 x 2) (2)

  • Eckford believed that the National guards had been sent out to

protect all the students against possible violence
3.1.4 [Straightforward Interpretation – L2] (2 +2) (4)

  • To prevent the black students from entering the school (1 x 2) (2)

  • The Guards broke ranks to allow some students through but ‘closed ranks’ to prevent Eckford passing / the guards ‘barred’ Eckford’s

entry into the school (any 1 x2) (2)
3.1.5 [Extraction of evidence – L1] (any 1 x 2) (2)

  • Eckford headed in the opposite direction to the school

  • Eckford got to the safety to the safety of the bus stop

  • Eckford reacted calmly and rationally


3.2.1 [Comparison of information in sources – L2] (any 2 x 2) (4)

  • In Source 3A Eckford says she arrived at school alone; in Source 3B we see her walking alone.

  • In source 3A Eckford describes the people screaming behind her; In 3B we can see clearly a woman screaming at Eckford.

  • In Source 3A Eckford describes a crowd which sounded to her like a mob; In Source 3B we can see how she is surrounded by a crowd of people who look hostile and threatening

  • Any other relevant and substantiated comparison

3.2.2 [Comparison of information in sources – L2] (any 2 x 2) (4)

  • In Source 3A Eckford describes how the guardsmen broke ranks to allow some students through; In Source 3C we see a white student being allowed to pass

  • In Source 3A Eckford describes how the guardsmen did not break ranks, they barred her way; in Source 3C we see the guardsmen preventing Eckford passing and pointing her away from the school entrance

  • In Source 3A Eckford says she arrived at school alone; in Source 3B we see her walking alone

  • Any other relevant and substantiated comparison.

3.2.3 [Engage with questions of usefulness – L3] (1 x 3) (3)

The learner must explain WHY these photographs are useful

  • The photographs can be used to corroborate (support) the written accounts of the event

  • By observing the body language and facial expressions, these photographs give an historian insight into the atmosphere and emotions of the crowd, the soldiers and the learners.

  • Any other relevant and clearly substantiated response.


3.3.1 [Extraction of evidence – L1] (2 x 2) (4)

  • Some people in the crowd were threatening to use violence or even kill Eckford: ‘Get her! Lynch her’, ‘Get a rope and drag her over to this tree!’

  • A ‘white-haired woman’ dared to face up to the crowd and screamed at them for tormenting Eckford.

  • Any other relevant and clearly substantiated answer

3.3.2 [Extraction of evidence – Level 1]

  • The guardsmen made no effort to protect Eckford from the mob.

  • The guardsmen threatened to attest the journalist who has sat beside Eckford and tried to comfort her.

  • Any other relevant answer. (2 x 2) (4)

3.3.3 [Engage with question of reliability – L3] (4)

  • To a large extent information in source 3D is corroborated (supported) by the information in the other sources (for example: the shouting mob, the guardsmen refusing to allow Eckford to enter the school, the fact that Eckford was alone). This suggests that the source is a reliable account.

  • The sources is written by a journalist who may want to make the story more exciting by exaggerating or dramatizing the event (eg the threats from the mob), or he might have exaggerated his own role (eg: In Source 2A Eckford mentions sitting at the bus stop but doesn’t mention a journalist sitting with her) This might call into question the reliability of this source.

Use the following rubric to allocate a mark:

Level 1

  • Demonstrates little or no understanding of the concept of reliability

  • Is unable identify evidence from the source to evaluate the reliability of the source.

1 marks

Level 2

  • Demonstrates some understanding of the concept of reliability

  • Uses evidence in a basic manner to evaluate the reliability of the source.

2-3 marks

Level 3

  • Demonstrates a thorough understanding of the concept of reliability

  • Is unable to identify and use evidence in a skilful manner to evaluate the reliability of the source.

4 marks


3.4.1 [Simple interpretation – L2] (any 1 x 3) (3)

  • Rains did not want to be told what to do by the federal government

  • Rains felt that it was up the individual states to decide whether or not to integrate schools.

3.4.2 [Simple interpretation of sources – L2] (any 2 x 2) (4)

  • Rains was ‘dumbfounded’ [horrified, upset] by the way in which Eckford was being treated.

  • Rains felt compassion toward the black students because they were being treated so badly

  • He started to feel a strong dislike for the way people were behaving and the people who were causing the trouble (the crowd, the mob)

  • Any other relevant answer

3.5 [Interpret, analyse and evaluate information from Sources 3A-E - L3] (8)

Learners need to include the following points in their answer:

  • The state governor’s reaction was to send in the state guardsmen (soldiers) claiming that they were being sent to prevent violence and to keep the peace (own knowledge)

  • The guardsmen reacted by allowing white learners into the school and preventing the black learners from entering the school. (3A, 3B, 3C, 3D)

  • Most of the crowd (white parents and learners pictured in 3B) shouted abuse and threatened the black learners (3A, 3B, 3D, 3E)

  • A few people tried to help protect the black learners eg Daisy bates, NAACP, some ministers (3A), Dr Fine and a ‘white haired lady’ (3D)

  • At least one of the white students felt compassion for the black learners (3E)

  • Eckford reacts very calmly facial expression (3B and 3C), tried to get herself to safety (3A and 3D). Candidates may also infer fear, anger or frustration from Eckford’s tears (3D)

  • Any other relevant answer.

Use the following rubric to allocate a mark:


  • Uses evidence in an elementary manner e.g. shows no or little understanding of the different reactions to the racial integration of Central High School, Little Rock, Arkansas in 1957.

  • Uses evidence partially to report on topic or cannot report on topic

Marks: 0 – 2


  • Evidence is mostly relevant and relates to a great extent to the topic e.g. shows an understanding of the different reactions to the racial integration of Central High School, Little Rock, Arkansas in 1957.

  • Uses evidence in a basic manner

Marks: 3 – 6


  • Uses relevant evidence e.g. demonstrates a thorough understanding of the different reactions to the racial integration of Central High School, Little Rock, Arkansas in 1957.

  • Evidence relates well to the topic

  • Uses evidence very effectively in an organised paragraph that shows an understanding of the topic

Marks: 7 – 8


DESIGN GRID: Cognitive levels for Grade 12 Source-Based Questions:

CAPS (p.33)

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Extract evidence from sources

Explain historical Concepts; simple interpretation, understand source and author’s opinion, simple comparison

Interpret and evaluate; engage with bias, reliability, usefulness; compare and contrast interpretations.

30% (15 marks)

40% (20 marks)

30% (15 marks)

Question 3


(1 x 2 ) (2)

(1 x 2) (2)



(1 x 2) (2)


(2 + 2) (4)


(1 x 2) (2)


(2 x 2) (4)


(2 x 2) (4)


(1 x 3) (3)


(2 x 2) (4)


(2 x 2) (4)




(1 x 3) (3)


(2 x 2) (4)




14 marks (28%)

21 marks (42%)

15 marks (20%)

Explain why the Black Power Movement emerged as a form of black protest in the United States from the mid-1960s. [50]

At the very point at which the Civil Rights Movement claimed victory with the passage of the Civil Rights Act (1964) and Voting Rights Act (1965), the Black Power Movement was emerging as a new form of black protest. Many of the supporters were young, African American people who had been involved in the Civil Rights Movement but had become dissatisfied with the slow pace of change. It was in the urban ghettos of northern cities in particular, where black people faced poverty, poor housing conditions, limited job opportunities and on-going police harassment that the Black Power Movement took root. Candidates should identify and explain the various political, socio-economic and cultural factors which stimulated the emergence of this new form of protest.

Candidates should include the following aspects in their response:

  • Introduction: Candidates should contextualise the question (when, where, who, what) and briefly outline their line of argument.


  • Black Power Movement challenged the socio-economic equality between black and white Americans

- The passage of the Civil Rights Act (1964) and the Voting Rights Act (1965) were victories for Civil Rights Movement but the majority of black people were poorer, less educated, in lower paid jobs, in poorer housing and with fewer opportunities than their white equivalents.

- After a wave of urban riots in northern cities in mid 1960s President Johnson ordered a commission to investigate the cause of this violence. Its key finding was that the country was divided, along racial and socio-economic lines, into two societies: in 1967 35% blacks lived below the poverty line compared with 10% whites; mortality rate of black babies twice as high as white babies. The commission stated that ‘Chronic poverty is the breeder of chronic chaos’

  • Black community’s frustration with on-going police harassment

- Youths in particular were frustrated with on-going violence, intimidation and arbitrary arrests

- Stokely Carmichael, who first used the slogan ‘Black Power’ in 1966, was a leading member of the Student Non-violent Co-ordinating Commiittee (SNCC). He was arrested 27 times on non-violent Civil Rights demonstrations. He called for a change in tactics.

- Huey Newton and Bobbly Searle won support for their newly formed Black Panther Party because they organised armed patrols of the streets of Oakland California to protect black citizens from police harassment.

  • The Black Power Movement inspired self-respect and pride in being black

- Rejection of racial integration and assimilation which was a feature of the Civil Rights Movement

- Black Power emphasised that black people should do things for themselves: they should control the politicians and politics in their own communities

- Self-defence and fighting back if necessary was an important aspect of Black Power – supporters felt that CRM activists had been exploited because of their non-violence.

- Consciousness raising through 1960s (from ‘negro’ to ‘black’ to ‘African American) feeds into demands for more than political rights and assimilation.

- Increasingly African Americans expressed an independent and unique cultural identify based on shared ancestry and slave experience.

- Celebration of African American history, music and literature thrived in late 1960s and 1970s.

  • Any other relevant answer / substantiation.

  • Conclusion: Candidates should sum up their argument with a relevant conclusion.

Total for Standardised Test /100/
4. TERM 2


(50 Marks / 5%)

  • Mid-year Examination (2 papers of 2½ hours)

(2 topics from each paper to be covered in June; four questions set in each paper: 2 essays and 2 source-based questions; learners answer 2 questions, I essay and 1 source-based question on each paper)

(200 Marks / 20%)



* If learners wrote a source-based task in Term 1 they must write an essay question in Term 2 (and vice versa).
In Term 2, educators may teach content from Topics 4-6 in preparation for Paper 2 of the June examination. In this case the SBA task in Term 2 should, therefore be selected from the following list.

Source-based Questions

Essay Questions

Topic 4:

The challenge of Black Consciousness to the apartheid state.

Topic 4:

The crisis of apartheid in the 1980s

Topic 5:

The Truth and Reconciliation Commission.

Topic 5:

The negotiated settlement and the Government of National Unity.

Topic 6:

The New World Order

Topic 6:

The end of the cold war: the events of 1989.


This section contains:

One example of a source-based question and marking guideline for a topic which may be covered in Term 2:

  • Topic 4: Civil Resistance in South Africa in 1970s to 1980s

The challenge of Black Consciousness to the apartheid state.
One example of an essay question for a topic which may be covered in Term 2:

  • Topic 4: Civil Resistance in South Africa in 1970s to 1980s

The crisis of apartheid in the 1980s


Use Sources 4A, 4B, 4C and 4D to answer the following questions.
4.1 Refer to Source 4A.
4.1.1 According to Biko in Source 4A, why were black people oppressed? (1 x 2) (2)
4.1.2 What did Biko believe that black people needed to do to rid

themselves of the oppression of apartheid? (1 x 2) (2)

4.1.3 Identify any FOUR aims of the Black Consciousness which Biko

mentions in Source 4A. (4 x 1) (4)

4.1.4 With reference to source 4A, who did Biko define as ‘black’? (1 x 2) (2)
4.1.5 In your own words, explain why Biko believed that black solidarity

was very important in 1970s South Africa? (2 x 2) (4)

4.2 Consult to Source 4B.
4.2.1 Read Jansen’s personal account in Source 4B and comment on

the impact of Apartheid on young black people’s self-confidence

and identity? (2 x 2) (4)
4.2.2 With reference to Source 4B, explain why Jansen chose to reject the

label ‘coloured’ and, instead, chose to identify himself as ‘black’. (2 x 2) (4)

4.3 Refer to Source 4C.
4.3.1 Give FOUR examples, mentioned in Source 4C, of how the ideas

of Black Consciousness influenced the attitudes and actions of

black people. (4 x 1) (4)
4.3.2 With reference to the conversation between Sibongile Mkhabela and his

father (Source 4C), comment on the tensions which existed between young

people and the older generation in the 1970s. (2 x 2) (4)
4.3.3 Discuss the usefulness of Source 4B to someone researching the

influence of the Black Consciousness movement on the struggle against apartheid. (4)

4.4 Study Sources 4B and 4C.

4.4.1 Both Sources 4B and 4C refer to people wearing their hair in ‘Afros’.

Explain why dress and hairstyles became a symbol of liberation in 1970s

South Africa . (2 x 2) (4)

4.5 Refer to Source 4D.

Comment on the relevance of Steve Biko’s words in Source 4D to the

situation in South Africa in the 1970s. (6)

4.6 Refer to Sources 4A-4D and your own knowledge.

Write a paragraph of approximately 6 lines (60 words) in which you

discuss how the ideas of Steve Biko and the Black Consciousness

Movement influenced the struggle against apartheid. (6)


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