RULES: No shoes allowed on the map. Please have students remove shoes before walking on the map. Socks Required! Purpose: In order to better understand a GIS, students will study historic, modern, and future population and urbanization trends in the state of Indiana, then, will apply their skills and knowledge to global nations/nation states/countries.
Grade Level: high school
National Geography Standards:
1. How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and
3. How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface.
4. The physical and human characteristics of places.
12. The process, patterns, and functions of human settlement.
17. How to apply geography to interpret the past.
18. To apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
Indiana Social Studies Academic Standards -- Geography and History of the World: (A variety of standards across all disciplines could be addressed depending upon the direction that you want to take this activity.)
3.1 Map the distribution of the world’s human population for different time periods. Analyze changes in population characteristics and population density in specific regions. (Spatial Variation, Change Over Time, Spatial Distribution, Human Environment Interactions)
3.2 Identify the push-pull factors* that resulted in the migration of human population over time and detect changes in these factors. (Origins, Change Over Time, Spatial Interaction)
3.5 Analyze population trends in the local community and suggest the impact of these trends on the future of the community in relation to issues such as development, employment, health, cultural diversity, schools, political representation, and sanitation. Propose strategies for dealing with the issues identified. (Change Over Time, Spatial Organization, Human Livelihoods, Cultural Landscape, Sense of Place)
5.1 Ask and answer geographic and historical questions about the origin and growth of towns and cities in different regions of the world and in different time periods. Compare and contrast the factors involved in the location and growth of towns and cities for different time periods. (Origins, Changes Over Time, Human Environment Interactions, Spatial Variation)
5.2 Describe, using maps, timelines, and/or other graphic presentations, the worldwide trend toward urbanization. Assess the impact of factors such as locational advantages and disadvantages, changing transportation technologies, population growth, changing agricultural production, and the demands of industry on this trend. (Diffusion, Change Over Time, Human Environment Interactions, Human Livelihoods, Spatial Interaction)
5.5 Analyze and assess the impact of urbanization on the physical and human environments in various parts of the world. (Spatial Variation, Change Over Time, Cultural Landscape, Human Environment Interactions, Sense of Place, Physical Systems)
9.3 Identify ways in which humans have used technology to modify the physical environment in order to settle areas in different world regions. Evaluate the impact of these technologies on the physical and human environments affected. (Human Environment Interactions, Spatial Interaction, Change Over Time, Physical Systems)
Advanced Placement Human Geography:
Use and Think About Maps and Spatial Data: Geography is fundamentally concerned with the ways in which patterns on Earth's surface reflect and influence physical and human processes. As such, maps and spatial data are fundamental to the discipline, and learning to use and think about them is critical to geographical literacy. The goal is achieved when students learn to use maps and spatial data to pose and solve problems, and when they learn to think critically about what is revealed and what is hidden in different maps and spatial arrays.
Define Regions and Evaluate the Regionalization Process: Geography is concerned not simply with describing patterns, but with analyzing how they came about and what they mean. Students should see regions as objects of analysis and exploration and move beyond simply locating and describing regions to considering how and why they come into being -- and what they reveal about the changing character of the world in which we live.
Characterize and Analyze Changing Interconnections Among Places: At the heart of a geographical perspective is a concern with the ways in which events and processes operating in one place can influence those operating at other places. Thus, students should view places and patterns not in isolation, but in terms of their spatial and functional relationship with other places and patterns. Moreover, they should strive to be aware that those relationships are constantly changing, and they should understand how and why change occurs.
Objectives: Upon completion of this lesson/activity, students will be able to...
locate data about various spatial features for the state of Indiana,
analyze historic data to interpret trends,
apply historic and modern data analysis to project future trends, and
explain what a GIS is and how it helps humans.
Giant Traveling Map of Indiana (from GENI, e-mail request to email@example.com)
Internet access to http://www.indianamap.org to obtain the Indiana Map data
Outline map of Indiana
Ask the students to define or explain GIS. Write the answers down on a flip chart, chalkboard, white board, Smart Board…
From the answers/explanations provided, gather the correct information and define for the students. GIS = Geographic Information Systems (or Science) or Geospatial Information Studies, “is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of geographically referenced data. In the simplest terms, GIS is the merging of cartography, statistical analysis, and database technology.” (Wikipedia)
Students will study the Giant Traveling Map of Indiana observing the 15 largest urban areas based on the 2000 Census Data. Students write down observations on a piece of paper.
All observations will be turned in and will be summarized. The summary data will be presented on an overhead/white board/Smart Board… Discuss the observations making note of the most common observations.
Students will visit the IndianaMap website at http://www.indianamap.org. Click onto the “Start Using Your IndianaMap”; you may have to wait a few seconds between data acquisition and upload. Look to the right-hand column; click on Demographics. Then, preview the items that are already uploaded onto the map – indicated by a checkmark (). For example, in the predetermined information for the IndianaMap, you will already see Place Names and Urban Areas already uploaded.
Explore the IndianaMap data to answer the questions on the hand-out. The symbol means to open a map key (index) in order to gain a better understanding of the visual map information. The symbol means to close a map key when you no longer need to view the information. The means to view the metadata, which is information about the data (where it came from, dates, resources…). The means to download the data to your computer; you may not want to do this unless you absolutely know how to transfer the data from source software to your software. indicates a database in a raster format. indicates the scale of the data, which may not always be visible on the map until you zoom in or out.
Study Cincinnati (OH), Chicago (IL), Louisville (KY), Pittsburgh (PA), New York (NY), Houston (TX), and Los Angeles (CA). Seek similar population change information as the information you explored for Indianapolis. Compare and contrast.
Assessment:Successful completion of the Worksheet demonstrating comprehension of the material from a spatial perspective.
Adaptations/Extensions: Research another topic seeking data from a spatial perspective: accessible fresh water, agriculture, fast food, poverty, medical facilities, soup kitchens…
Giant Traveling Map of Indiana
Urbanization and IndianaStudent Worksheet Name: Date:
From the data available via the IndianaMap (http://www.indianamap.org), what information is visible when the IndianaMap first appears? How many map layers is this?
Looking under the Demographics Data, select Census Data (Historical). What do you observe? Where did people settle Indiana? Why?
Does a settlement relationship exist with water supply (hydrography)? You need to zoom into a particular area in order to visualize the water (indicated in blue) resources (rivers, lakes, springs, aquifers…). Why or why not?
What about relationships to other local resources? Canals, mines, coal, gravel, petroleum, sand, caves? Create an answer that addresses each item mentioned. View many of these under the Geology link.
Visit the U.S. Census website to observe Indiana’s 2010 census data. http://2010.census.gov/2010census/data. What types of population changes do you observe – from the IndianaMap 2000 demographic data and from the IndianaMap historic demographic data?
Visit http://factfinder2.census.gov in order to find more detailed information about the 2010 Census. Project changes that might occur in your local community, based on historic population trends for Indiana, in Indiana’s urban areas for the 2020 census. Use the terms population trends, increase/decrease, ethnic group changes, age, births, income, vehicles, poverty. Note other key geographic factors that you find interesting that may address urbanization.
Demographics: place names, urban areas (2 map layers)
Infrastructure: interstates, roads, roadways (3 may layers)
Hydrology: rivers, lakes (2 map layers)
10 map layers total are combined to create the one visible map image.
Looking under the Demographics data, select Census Data (Historical). What do you observe? Where did people settle Indiana? Why? Generally, people settled in seemingly random places throughout Indiana. Surprisingly, not all settlements were along waterways. In order to gain a better idea about where humans settled in Indiana, zoom into find local waterways and historic canals. Population data dates from 1890, which had already seen Indianapolis as the capitol and many of the major areas of settlement were already established by the French, English, Native Indians, and pioneers.
Does a settlement relationship exist with water supply (hydrography)? You need to zoom into a particular area in order to visualize the water (indicated in blue) resources (rivers, lakes, springs, aquifers…). Why or why not? Generally, humans settled along waterways as the water was a primary route of transportation as explorers traveled. Water also provided an easier mechanism for transporting goods (for trade). Water was a necessary resource for survival: drinking/cooking, watering crops and livestock, fishing, travel/transportation.
What about relationships to other local resources? Canals, mines, coal, gravel, petroleum, industry minerals, sand, caves? Create an answer that addresses each item mentioned. Historically, population settlement tended to follow waterways, but settlements along canals in Indiana were not typical. Settlement around areas of mining (coal, gravel, sand, industry minerals) was not on a permanent basis as people would mine out a particular item until it was no longer available; then, they would move onto the next job. Temporary settlements were typical around mines. Caves may be a factor in settlement as access to fresh water might be available, but, generally, permanent settlements around a cave – unless the cave provided a resource that could be used economically – were not typical.
Visit the U.S. Census website to observe Indiana’s 2010 census data. http://2010.census.gov/2010census/data. What types of population changes do you observe – from the IndianaMap 2000 demographic data and from the IndianaMap historic demographic data? Indiana’s population has grown steadily since the IndianaMap historic demographic data from 1890-2000. The urban areas have grown much larger, while the rural areas have not grown much. People still settle in the urban areas instead of rural areas – access to diverse resources.