In the high court of justice



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Case Nos: CO/5608/2008; CO/8695/2009; CO/6345/2008;

CO/9925/2008; CO/11858/2009; CO/11442/2008;

CO/953/2009; CO/9719/2009; CO/12803/2009;

CO/1684/2010; CO/2631/2010, C8620/2010



Neutral Citation Number: [2015] EWHC 715 (Admin)
IN THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE

QUEEN'S BENCH DIVISION

ADMINISTRATIVE COURT

Royal Courts of Justice

Strand, London, WC2A 2LL
Date: 17/03/2015
Before :
MR JUSTICE LEGGATT

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Between :





Al-Saadoon & Others

Claimant




- and -







Secretary of State for Defence

Defendant

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Michael Fordham QC, Danny Friedman QC, Dan Squires and Jason Pobjoy (instructed by Public Interest Lawyers) for the Claimants

James Eadie QC, Karen Steyn QC and Kate Grange (instructed by Treasury Solicitors) for the Defendants

Phillippa Kaufmann QC and Alison Pickup (instructed by Leigh Day) for the Leigh Day Claimants
Hearing dates: 20-23 October 2014

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Judgment

Section

Para No.

I. INTRODUCTION

1

The issues in brief

6

II. THE BACKGROUND

11

Phases of British military involvement in Iraq

11

The invasion period

12

The occupation period

13

The post-occupation period

14

The duty of the state to investigate deaths and ill-treatment

16

Article 2

16

Article 3

19

Judicial review claims

21

IHAT investigations

25

The Ali Zaki Mousa proceedings

27

III. ARTICLE 1 – JURISDICTION

32

Article 1

34

Banković v Belgium

36

Cases after Banković

38

The Al-Skeini case

41

Smith v Ministry of Defence

52

The status of Banković after Al-Skeini

56

Subsequent decisions of the European Court

62

The application of the Al-Skeini principles

65

Effective control over an area

66

Exercise of public powers

72

The occupation period

76

The invasion period

77

PIL 6: Atheer Kareem Khalaf

80

The post-occupation period

84

Exercise of physical power and control

89

Non-detention cases

90

Position of the Secretary of State

93

The position in principle

95

The actual decision in Al-Skeini

99

Reliance on Banković

101

Jurisdiction and breach

108

Going no further than the European Court has gone

112

Application to the test cases

117

Other cases

119

PIL 3 and PIL 7: deaths in a British hospital

120

PIL 176: killing during a US-led operation

123

PIL 45

128

Rahmatullah and Ali

131

IV. ARTICLE 3 – HANDOVER

137

The parties’ positions

140

The ECHR case law

141

A threshold issue: the Nasseri case

149

The position in principle

159

Application to the non-refoulement obligation

163

The position on authority

169

The El-Masri case

174

Dzhurayev v Russia

180

Conclusion on issue (2)

186

Issue (4): when does a duty to investigate arise in handover cases?

187

Perpetrating mistreatment

188

Complicity in mistreatment

189

Content of any investigative obligation

199

Test cases

200

V. ARTICLE 5 – DETENTION

203

Issue (5): the claimants’ primary case

204

Enforced disappearance

208

International law

209

Convention case law

216

Other cases

226

The claimants’ alternative case

231

The El-Masri case

233

Issue (7): discussion

240

Application to the test cases

243

Issue (7A): the effect of IHL

251

VI. UNCAT

256

Relevant provisions of UNCAT

259

Territorial scope of UNCAT

263

Status of treaties in domestic law

267

Customary International Law

270

Scope of article 12 of UNCAT

274

Reference to UNCAT in interpreting article 3

276

VII. ARGUABLE BREACH

281

Military road traffic cases: PIL 45

287

VIII. CONCLUSIONS

294

Article 1 – jurisdiction

294

Article 3 – handover

294

Article 5 – detention

294

UNCAT and CIL

294

Arguable breach of articles 2/3

294


Mr Justice Leggatt:


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