part of Subproject 60, which covered the whole Human Ecology Soci-
ety. See especially 83-7, December 11, 1959, Subject: [deleted] Grapho-
logical Review and 60-28, undated, Subject [deleted] Activities Report,
May, 1959-April, 1960.
Information on the psychological profile of Ferdinand Marcos came
from a U.S. Government source who had read it. Information on the
profile of the Shah of Iran came from a column by Jack Anderson and
Les Whitten "CIA Study Finds Shah Insecure," Washington Post, July
The quotes from James Keehner came from an article in New Times
by Maureen Orth, "Memoirs of a CIA Psychologist," June 25, 1975.
For related reports on the CIA's role in training foreign police and
its activities in Uruguay, see an article by Taylor Branch and John
Marks, "Tracking the CIA," Harper's Weekly, January 25, 1975 and
Philip Agee's book, Inside the Company: CIA Diary (London: Penguin;
The quote from Martin Orne was taken from Patricia Greenfield's
APA Monitor article cited in the last chapter's notes.
Gittinger's testimony before the Senate Select Committee on Intelli-
gence and the Kennedy subcommittee on August 3, 1977 appeared on
pages 50-63. David Rhodes' testimony on Gittinger's role in the abort-
ive San Francisco LSD spraying appeared in hearings before the
Kennedy subcommittee, September 20, 1977, pp. 100-110.
Morse Allen's training in hypnosis was described in Document # A/B,
V, 28/1, 9 July 1951, Subject [Deleted]. His hypnosis experiments in the
office are described in a long series of memos. See especially # A/B, III,
2/18, 10 February 1954, Hypnotic Experimentation and Research and
#A/B, II, 10/71, 19 August 1954, Subject: Operational/Security [de-
leted] and unnumbered document, 5 May 1955, Subject: Hypnotism
and Covert Operations.
The quote on U.S. prisoners passing through Manchuria came from
document # 19, 18 June 1953, ARTICHOKE Conference.
Alden Sears' hypnosis work was the subject of MKULTRA sub-
projects 5, 25, 29, and 49. See especially 49-28, undated, Proposal for
Research in Hypnosis at the [deleted], June 1, 1956 to May 31, 1957,
49-34, undated, Proposals for Research in Hypnosis at the [deleted],
June 1, 1956 to May 31, 1957; 5-11, 28 May 1953, Project MKULTRA,
Subproject 5 and 5-13, 20 April 1954, Subject: [deleted]. See also Patrick
Osier's article in the Chicago Sun-Times, September 4, 1977, "How
CIA 'Hid' Hypnosis Research."
General background on hypnosis came from interviews with Alden
Sears, Martin Orne, Milton Kline, Ernest Hilgard, Herbert Spiegel,
William Kroger, Jack Tracktir, John Watkins, and Harold Crasilneck.
See Orne's chapter on hypnosis in The Manipulation of Human Be-
havior, edited by Albert Biderman and Herbert Zimmer (New York:
John Wiley & Sons; 1961), pp. 169-215.
The contemplated use of hypnosis in an operation involving a for-
eign intelligence service is referred to in the Affidavit by Eloise R.
Page, in the case John D. Marks v. Central Intelligence Agency et al.
Civil Action no. 76-2073.
The 1959 proposed use of hypnosis that was approved by TSS is
described in documents #433, 21 August 1959, Possible Use of Drugs
and Hypnosis in [deleted] Operational Case; #434, 27 August 1959,
Comments on [deleted]; and #435, 15 September 1959, Possible Use of
Drugs and Hypnosis in [deleted] Operational Case.
MKULTRA Subproject 128 dealt with the rapid induction technique.
See especially 128-1, undated, Subject: To test a method of rapid hyp-
notic induction in simulated and real operational settings (MKULTRA
A long interview with John Gittinger added considerably to this
chapter. Mr. Gittinger had refused earlier to be interviewed directly
by me for this book. Our conversation was limited solely to hypnosis.
The reorganization of TSS was described in document #59, 26 July
1963, Report of the Inspection of MKULTRA and in interviews with
Ray Cline, Herbert Scoville, and several other former CIA officials.
Richard Helms' recommendations for a new MKULTRA charter
were described in document #450, 9 June, 1964, Sensitive Research
Admiral Stansfield Turner's statement on the MKULTRA program
MKSEARCH programs and their origins in MKULTRA are de-
scribed in documents #449, 8 April 1964, Revision of Project MKUL-
TRA and #S-l-7, untitled, undated.
Dr. Edward Bennett's work is the subject of MKULTRA subprojects
104 and 143. See especially 143-23,11 December 1962, Subject: MKUL-
TRA Subproject 143. Other information* on the CIA's economic sabo-
tage program against Cuba came from interviews with Major General
Edward Lansdale, Ray Cline, William Colby, Lincoln Gordon, Covey
Oliver, Charles Meyer, Richard Goodwin, Roger Morris, several for-
mer CIA and State Department officials, and Cuban government offi-
The continued safehouse operation is MKSEARCH subproject 4. See
especially S-12-1, bank statements and receipts of safehouse. The
CIA's dealings with the Treasury Department over the Long commit-
tee's investigations of wiretaps are detailed in documents #451, 30
January 1967, A Report on a Series of Meetings with Department of the
Treasury officials and #452, undated, Meeting with Department of
The biological laboratory is the subject of MKULTRA subprojects 78
and 110 and MKSEARCH 2. See especially Documents 78-28, Septem-
ber 28, 1962, Subject: PM Support and Biological [deleted] and S-5-6, 8
September 1965, Subject: Hiring by Chief TSD/BB of [deleted], Former
Staff Employee in a Consultant Capacity on an Agency Contract. The
costs of the Fort Detrick operations came from p. 18 and p. 204 of the
Church committee hearings on Unauthorized Storage of Toxic Agents,
September 16,17, and 18,1975. The description of TSS's procedures for
dealing with biological weapons came from Document 78-28 (cited
above) and document #509, undated (but clearly June 1975), Subject:
Discussions of MKNAOMI with [deleted]
The chemical company subproject is MKULTRA subproject 116 and
MKSEARCH 5. See especially 116-57,30 January 1961, Subject: MKUL-
TRA, Subproject 116; 116-62, October 28, 1960, shipping invoice; and
116-61, 4 November 1960, Subject: MKULTRA Subproject 116. Also see
James Moore's subproject, MKULTRA 52; especially 52-53, invoice #3,
1125-009-1902, April 27, 1960.
James Hamilton's work is the subject of MKULTRA subprojects 124
and 140 and MKSEARCH Subproject 3. See especially 140-57, 6 May
1965, Subject: Behavioral Control and 140-83, 29 May 1963, Subject:
MKULTRA Subproject 140.
Carl Pfeiffer's subprojects are MKULTRA 9, 26, 28, and 47 and
Maitland Baldwin's Subprojects are MKULTRA 62 and MKSEARCH
1. See especially 62-2, undated [deleted] Special Budget and 62-3, un-
dated, 1956, Subject: Re: Trip to [deleted], October 10-14, 1956.
Charles Geschickter's subprojects are MKULTRA 23, 35, and 45 and
MKSEARCH 6. See especially 35-10, May 16,1955, Subject: To provide
for Agency-Sponsored Research Involving Covert Biological and
Chemical Warfare; 45-78, undated, Research Proposal: 1960; 45-104,
undated, Subject: Research Proposal: 1958-1959; 45-95, 26 January
1959, Coninuation of MKULTRA, Subproject No. 45; 45-104,21 January
1958, Continuation of MKULTRA, Subproject No. 45; 45-52, 8 February
1962, Continuation of MKULTRA, Subproject No. 45; S-13-7, 13 August
Subject, Approval of [deleted]; and S-13-9, 13 September 1967, Subject:
Approval of [deleted]. See also Geschickter's testimony before the
Kennedy subcommittee, September 20, 1977, pp. 44-49.
The lack of congressional or executive branch knowledge of CIA
behavioral activities was mentioned on p. 386, Church Committee
Report, Book I.
Amazon Natural Drug's CIA connection was described by an ex-CIA
official and confirmed by the mother of another former Agency man.
Several former employees described its activities in interviews.
Gottlieb's termination of MKSEARCH came from Document S-14-3,
10 July 1972, Termination of MKSEARCH.
The destruction of MKULTRA documents was described in Docu-
ment #419, 3 October, 1975, Subject: Destruction of Drug and Toxin
Related Files and 460, 31 January, 1973, Subject: Project Files: (1951-
The MKULTRA subprojects on electric stimulation of the brain are
106 and 142. See especially 106-1, undated, Subject: Proposal; 142-14,
22 May 1962, Subject: Project MKULTRA, Subproject No. 142; and
document #76 (MKDELTA release), 21 April 1961, Subject: "Guided
The list of parapsychology goals was taken from an excellent article
by John Wilhelm in the August 2, 1977 Washington Post: "Psychic
Project OFTEN information was taken from document #455,6 May
1974, Subject: Project OFTEN and Memorandum for the Secretary of
Defense from Deanne P. Siemer, September 20, 1977, Subject: Ex-
perimentation Programs Conducted by the Department of Defense
That Had CIA Sponsorship or Participation and That Involved the
Administration to Human Subjects of Drugs Intended for Mind-con-
trol or Behavior-modification Purposes.
The quote from B. F. Skinner was taken from Peter Schrag's book,
Cummins, Ken, viii
Cunningham, Hugh, 28
Curandera (shaman), 112, 115n,
Curare, 109, 139
Day of the Dolphin, The, 144
"Dead drops," 187
Death in the Mind, 20
Deep Creek Lodge, Md., 73-74, 79
deFlorez, Adm. Luis, 84
Del Gracio, August, 6-7, 88, 93
Delaney, Hannah, viii
Democrat and Chronicle
Department of the Army, 205
"Depatterning," viii, 133-136, 214
DeShon, H. Jackson, 54, 60
Destruction of memory, 212
Dewey, Gov. Thomas, 7n, 90, 93
Dexedrine, 38, 39, 40, 42
Diarrhea inducers, 99
"Differential amnesia," 133
Dille, James, 67n
D-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)
CIA experiments with, 61-73,
CIA funding of research, 58-59
CIA interest peak, 55-58
CIA testing, 73-86, 87-97, 99-104,
105, 154-155, 164
Corynanthine as possible
discovery of, 3-4, 8-9
effects on Siamese fighting fish
and snails documented, 61
fear of Russian possession, 65
importation to U.S., 54
Kauders' lecture on in Boston, 53
Lilly manufacture of, 66-67
Military services' interest, 59
National Institute of Mental
Health interest, 59
paranoia from, 54
Pfeiffer's test with, 201
practical joke with, 77, 86
dose to Dr. Frank Olson called
radioactive marker for, 118
reaction of schizophrenics to, 60
scientists' reports published, 61
studies at Lexington Federal drug