Model Exam a a-language functions



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-How manyfish did you catch? -How manyfishes can you name?(kinds) –I have eaten much fish. (meat)

- بعض الصفات إذا سبقها the تتحول إلى اسم جمع و يليها فعل جمع.the public/ the poor/ the rich/ the dead/ the deaf / the sick

spend+ time + ing / take + time + to inf

similar (to)/ the same (as)/ alike

-كلمة alike لا يليها اسم و كلمتا like/ unlike بمعنى مثل- عكس يمكن ان تبدأ بهما الجملة و لا يمكن أن تبدأ بكلمة dislike

***

-لاحظ العلاقة بين فعلى كل جملة من الاتى: جميع الجمل فى زمن الماضى:

-While they were having lunch, they were listening to music.تزامن

-While they were reading, the light went out. تقاطع

-After they had had (had) lunch, they had tea.تتابع او ترتيب

-No soonerhadhe left the car, than it exploded. (Hardly…….…when….…..) (Scarcely……….when…….)

-استخدم الماضى التام بعد هذه الافعال: realized/ found/ discovered/ knew/ thought/ understood …had+p.p

Ex: When I saw her, I realized that she had lost the game.

-Having seen her, he left the hall. –She didn't go to bed until/ till she had read the report.

-While they were playing, it started to rain. ( while = as= just as)

-While having lunch, I received two calls. (while = on) -During + اسم

since

2006/ he was ten/ his birth/ they left here/April/ Monday/ 6 o’clock/ yesterday/ last…./ breakfast/ lunchtime/ Christmas/ childhood/ this morning/ this time/ then/ the age of…/ the 19th century

for

ages/ an hour/ the last…/ two days, a week, nearly a year/ a long time/ a short time/ over a month/ a while/ just over a month/ about a year

-I have already finished reading the book.= I have finished reading the book already. (إثباتalready)

-We haven't yet painted the wall.=We haven't painted the wall yet. (نفىyet)

- Welcomr back, Ali. Where have you ……? ( been- gone- seen – done)

- since+ time+ ago/ I haven't visited Aswan since 15 years ago.



9 It's two years since I last visited Luxor. = I last visited Luxor two years ago.

- عكس expensive هو inexpensive لكن invaluable تساوى valuable

Units 4,5,6

The passive

عند اختيار فعل مبنى للمجهول

1-حدد من حيث المعنى العلاقة بين بداية الجملة و فعل الاختيارات 2-اذا كانت علاقة فعل و مفعول استبعد الاتى:

-اى اختيار من كلمة واحدة- اى اختيار ينتهى ب ing ثم اى اختيار لا يحتوى على am,is,are,was,were,be,been,being كما فى المثال:

-The fields……right now. (irrigate-are irrigating- are being irrigated- have been irrigated)

-The fields……since this morning. (irrigate-are irrigating- are being irrigated- have been irrigated)

say, think, believe, know

في وجود that أبدا ب it وبين it و that يكون is, was, has been, had been +p.p وإذا بدأت الجملة بغير it استخدمto كالاتى

ماضي

مضارع- مستقبل

to have + p.p

to + inf

to have been + p.p

to be + p.p

It is thought that../ It was thought that…./ It has been thought that…./ It had been thought that…..

-The criminal is thought……last night. (to arrest- to be arrested- to have arrested- to have been arrested)

-The police are said……the gang last night.(to arrest-to be arrested-to have arrested-to have been arrested)

-The minister is thought……the factory tomorrow.(to visit-to have visited-to be visited-to have been visited)

-She is said…….by the doctor soon. (to examine-to be examined-to have examined-to have been examined)

*****

-هذه الكلمات تساوى if ---provided(that) , providing(that) , as long as, in case

-لاحظ ان if تساوى whether في الكلام الغير مباشر. ولاحظ أيضا whether or not

- كلمة in case of تساوى if ولكن ياتى بعدها جملة اسمية.

هذه الكلمات معناها if not

جملة فعلية مثبتة

unless

جملة اسمية

Without

But for

Type Zero

-لوصف الحقائق العلمية و الكونية بشرط التعميم- كما تصف عادات المتكلم I كما في الأمثلة: if = when

- If plants don't get water, they die. تعميم / If my plants don't get water, they will die.تحديد

-If the moonis between the earth and the sun, there is a solar eclipse.تعميم دائما

-If she works hard, she'll come first. = Should she work hard, she'll come first.(Type 1)

-If she put her glasses on the table, she'd see them. (Type 2)= Should she put her................ –If he did his best, he wouldcome first. = Were he to do his best,….(Type 2)

-If I were you, I'd sleep early.= Were I you, I'd sleep early. (Type 2)

-If I had a car, I'dpick you up. =HadI a car, I'd ...(Type 2) لاحظ عدم وجود التصريف الثالث

-If we hadhad enough money, we'dhavebought a car. (Type 3) =Had we had enough money,……

-…..you followed my advice, you wouldn'thaveregretted. (If- Had)لأنها الحالة الثالثة

-If I......, I would have advised her not to go. (had asked- hadbeenasked)المعنى

-If I......, I would advise her not to go. (asked- wasasked)المعنى

انتبه

in height= high/ in length= long/ in width= wide/ in depth= deep

What height= How high/ What length= How long/ What depth= How deep/ What width= How wide

****

Units 7, 8, 9

Reported speech

الجملة الخبرية

اداة الربط

فعل القول

that اختيارية

told لا بد ان ياتى بعدها محاطب

said/ claimed لا ياتى بعدهم مخاطب

السؤال

اداة الربط

فعل القول

If/ whether/ wh..

askedيليها او لا يليها مخاطب

wondered/ inquired/ wanted to know

لا ياتى بعدهم مخاطب

inquired about ياتى بعدها اسم

الامر و الطلب

اداة الربط

فعل القول

to / not to

warned/ begged/ advised/ asked

ملاحظات عامة

-اختار الفاعل ثم الفعل دائما:

-Mona asked Amr where…….the night before. (he had been – had he been)

-اختار الماضى ما عدا بعد افعال القول الاتية:

has just said/ said just now / said a moment ago

-Amr asked Sara where…….(she is- she was – is she – was she)

-The teacher has just said that he……..the following day.(he won't come- he wouldn't come)

-اختار whether ولا تختار if اذا كان بعدها or not

-I wondered……..or not Sara would attend the party. (if- weather- whether – where)

-اختار الماضى التام had+p.p فى جملة since او السؤال المنتهى ب before

-Amr wanted to know where…….since we last met. (I was- was I – I had been- had I been )

-اختار s + would فى الجملة المنتهية ب the following day/ week….

-Mother asked Amr where……..the following weekend. (he had spent- he would spend)

-اختار wondered و ليس wandered - اختار whether و ليس weather

-اداة الربط that اختيارية يجوز حذفها..... لاحظ:

-AlitoldMona he was ill. AlisaidMona was ill.

-لاحظ الجملة الاتية:

-The librarian……me where I could find the sci-fi books. (told- asked)

The adjective and the adverb

تصف حركة

تصف اسم

carefully

careful

badly

bad

sadly

sad

quickly

quick

quietly

quiet

regularly

regular

bravely

brave

well

good

fast

fast

hard

hard

-----

friendly

------

lovely

-------

deadly

--------

weekly

-------

daily

----------

monthly

-----------

cowardly

-هناك adverbs ending in (ly) و لكنها لا تصف حركة و لا حتى اسم و لكن تبدا بها الجملة:

Luckily- Unluckily – Fortunately- Unfortunately – Interestingly- Personally-Theoretically-Currently

"ed" adjectives

تصف من انتابه الشعور

"ing" adjectives

تصف مصدر الشعور

interested in

excited about/ at/ by

terrified from

bored with

tired of/ to

amazed at

disappointed about/ at/ by

pleased with

exhausted of/ to

fascinated by/ with/ to

impressed by/ with

confused at

frightened of


interesting

exciting


terrifying

boring


tiring

amazing


disappointing

pleasing=pleasant

exhausting

fascinating

impressing

confusing

frightening


am to/ is to/ are to / was to/ were to + inf

لإعطاء تعليمات- ما ينبغي القيام به / لوصف ترتيبات ر سمية

-You are to finish this report today./ I am to lend her the money. / He is to finish today

الاستنتاج (المعنى و الزمن)

past

present

meaning

must have + p.p

must + inf

اكيد

can't have + p.p

couldn't have + p.p

can't + inf

couldn't + inf

مستحيل

may have + p.p

may + inf

I'm not sure

might have + p.p

could have + p.p

might + inf

could + inf

I don't know

- You mustn't park here.= you aren't allowed to park here.ممنوع

- We mustn't forget that tourism is important fir Egypt.للتذكير و التحذير بقوة



- There is a no-smoking sign. You must stop smoking.قاعدة او قانون

- must = strong advice: You must wash your hands before you eat.للنصيحة بقوة

- must = warm invitation: You must come and see us at the weekend.للدعوة بحرارة

- must = strong reminder: We must buy souvenirsfor our friends here.للتذكير بقوة

-should/ ought to/ must النصيحة

Units 10, 11, 12

Wish/ If only

-I wish to have coffee.

ثلاثة صور للفعل في التمني بعد wish/ If only

موقف التمني في المستقبل

would + inf

could + inf

موقف التمني في الماضي

had+ p.p

hadn't + p.p

موقف التمني في الحاضر

was, were, didn't, knew, had, saw, made, left, helped, went




موقف التمني في الحاضر

-يمكن ان نستخدم جملة واحدة بعد if only و لكن نستخدم جملتين بعد if, unless, only if

-……I were on the beach with my friends. (If only- Only if- If- Unless)

-استخدم could مع I, We واستخدم would, could مع بفية الضمائر مع استخدام would فقط قبل هذه الافعال:

prefer/ love/ like, mind, be able to

-I wish I……be able to meet her. (would- could)

-لتمنى الرغبة او الارادة استخدم would و استخدم could لتمنى القدرة.-Ali has a lot of money. I wish he…lend me. (would- could)

-I regretnot meeting her. I wish I……her. ( met- had met- hadn't met- didn't meet)

-I wish I……with my friends on the beach now. (had been- were- would be- could be)

had been + ing

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