Model Exam a a-language functions

- عند ذكر المدة الزمنية بشرط ألا تبدأ الجملة ب

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- عند ذكر المدة الزمنية بشرط ألا تبدأ الجملة ب after/ as soon as -لتوضيح سبب لنتيجة ما مع ملاحظة الافعال التى لا يلتحق بها ing مثل:

get/ win/ run out

-They had been talking for two hours when the light went out.

-After they had talked for two hours, the light went out.

-Ali was tired because he had been running./ -The car stopped because it had run out of fuel.

to + inf or ing

-enjoy- avoid- finish- practice- recommend- mind-fancy + ing

-arrange- deserve-demand-wish-attempt-threaten-dare + to + inf

-ثلاث حالات ل suggest1

- يليها ing 2-يليها that + S + inf حتى لو كان الفاعل مفرد 3- يليها to + inf اذا كانت مبنبة للمجهول ا وفى السؤال المبدوء ب what

-I suggested having lunch outdoors. I suggest that she go to the doctor.

-What do you suggest to solve this problem?-They are suggested to log onto the internet.

go on + ing/ يستكمل ما كان يفعله

go on to + infينتقل لممارسة فعل اخر

-She drank some water and went on talking. / She talked to me and went on to talk to another client.

- هذه الافعال يليها ing اذا كان الحدث بعدها قد تم ///////////////////////////// ويليها to + infا ذا كان الحدث بعدها لم يتم.

regret/ forget/ remember/ try/ stop

-I forgot ……the homework so the teacher punished me. (doing - to do)لم افعل الواجب

-I forgot……her before, so she reminded me. (meeting – to meet)قابلتها و نسيت فذكرتنى

-I regret ……to the beach yesterday. ( no to go- not going)الحدث هو عدم الذهاب و قد تم

-اداة الاستفهام فى وسط الجملة يليها فاعل ثم فعل او to + inf

هذه الافعال يليها مفعول ثم to + inf

ask- advise- force- teach- warn- persuade- support- convince- instruct

Units 13,14,15

-للإشارة للأشخاص استخدم who ولا تستخدم that فى الجملة الاعتراضية:

-للإشارة للأشياء استخدم which ولا تستخدم that فى الجملة الاعتراضية:

-Mr. Adel, who/ that lives next door, is travelling abroad.

-The new house, which/ that we bought, needs a lot of repairs.

-يمكن استخدام whom للاشارة للاشخاص بشرط الا ياتى بعدها فعل:

-I congratulated my colleague who/ whom the manager rewarded.

-يجوز حذف who/ which اذا جاء بعدهما اسم او ضمير:

-This is the man we met yesterday. = who/ whom we met.

-استخدم whom ولا تستخدم who اذا سبقها حر ف جر و جاء بعدها اسم ا ضمير:

-We must be respectful to our teachers to whom we owe much. (object)

-We had an argument about who scored the goal.(subject)

-يمكن ان تحل that محل where/ when:بشرط ان يسبقها المكان؟ الزمان

-1970 was the year when/ that my mother was born.

-This is the town where/ that my father was born.
-استخدم whose للاشارة للملكية و لا بد ان يليها اسم و تحل محل his, her, their, its…..:

-Mr. Amr, whose son was injured, was very sad.

-انتبه: هذه الكلمات اسم وفعل: stay, cut, pay, wish,

-The soldier who/ whose cuts were serious was taken to hospital.

-what لتساوى which فى الاشارة للأشياء بشرط ألا يسبقها اسم:

-Would you tell us what you had seen?

in + ملبس , with + جزء من الجسم – المرض

-What is the name of the girl with dark hair? = who has got dark hair.

-Did you see the tall man in a black coat? = who was wearing black coat.

- all / everything/ something/ anything/ nothing are followed by (that) NOT (which/ who)

This is all that you asked me to buy.

-الزمان و المكان يشار اليهما باستخدام which:

-المكان و حرف الجر يحل محلهما where:

-الزمان و حرف الجر يحل محلهما :when , in Cairo = where , Cairo = which

This is the town where I was born./This is the town which I was born in.(…I was born in this town.)

This is the town inwhich I was born./ This is the town where I was born in 1972.

This is the town which I visited last year. (……I visited this town last year)

I love spring when the weather is fine. (……………..the weather is fine in spring)

I love spring which the weather is fine in./ I love spring in which the weather is fine.


I hope to visit Paris which is the capital of France.( sent 2: Paris is the capital of France.)

I hope to visit Paris where my father worked for years. (Sent 2: My father worked in Paris...

-جملة الموصول تختصر الى تصريف ثالث اذا وصفت مفعول(مبنى للمجهول)

Books which were written by Naguib Mahfouz are still read.

Books written by Naguib Mahfouz are still read.

-جملة الموصول تختصر الى ing اذا وصفت فاعل:

The man who wore a hat spoke English.

The man wearing a hat spoke English.

in which – by which – for which- at which – on which – with which

  • لمعرفة حرف الجر المناسب قبل which انظر الى الفعل او الصفة فى الجملة الثانية

-This is the knife by which he was killed. This is the knife with which he killed the guard.

-reply to/ object to/ mean by/ apologize for/ keen on/ interested in/ belong to

-الجملة الفعلية تحتوى على فعل بينما الجملة الاسمية لا تحتوى على فعل: لاحظ التالى:

-……………running your own business is hard, it's enjoyable. فعلية

-……………taking physical exercises regularly, she is unfit. اسمية

A- although/ even though/ though/ even ifرغم

جملة فعلية



even though

even if

B- despite/ in spite of/ regardless of/ with allبالرغم من

جملة اسمية

the fact that + S + V


in spite of

regardless of

with all

D- however

however= but

1 The film was exciting, however I fell asleep.

However= Although

However + adj + S + V, ……………………..

However + adv + S + V,……………………..

1 However bad the weather was, we went fishing. = Though the weather was bad,..

2 However slowly he works, he is clever. = Although he works slowly, he…

E- as= although

Adj + as + S + V,……………………….

Adv + as + S + V,………………………

1 Bad as the weather was, we went fishing.

2 Slowly as he works, he is clever.

A- because/ since/ asلان

جملة فعلية




B- because of/ owing to/ due to/ on account ofبسبب

جملة اسمية

the fact that + S + V

because of

owing to

due to

on account of

A- so/ therefore/ consequently/subsequently/ as a result / that'swhy/ accordingly/ hence/ thus.لذلك

Note: The exam will be difficult, so study hard. (that's why)

The exam will be difficult, that's why you should study hard.

B- so…thatجدا .......لدرجة ان

…….so + adj/ adv + that + S + V…

1 The film was so boring that I fell asleep. OR So boring was the film that…..

2 He was working so slowly that the supervisor rebuked him.







C- such….thatجدا......لدرجة ان

It is/ was such + adj + noun + that + S + V.

- It was such a boring film that I fell asleep. OR Such a boring film was it that...

B- …not only….

Not only + inversion,………

Not only + inversion + but also, ………

1 She not only gets up early but also, she takes exercises.

2 Not only does she get up early but also, she takes exercises.

3 Not only does she get up early, she takes exercises.

C- …neither …nor…- He neither swims nor dives. OR Neither does he swim nor dives. لا هذا ولا ذاك-

/ either …..or -She is either a doctor or a nurseاما هذا او ذاك

-استخدم too فى نهاية الجملة المثبتة بمعنى ايضا: -استخدم either فى نهاية الجملة المنفية بمعنى ايضا:

A- to/ in order to/ so as to + inf.لكى

1 The big man used a pickaxe to destroy the wall.

2 He didn't attend the party in order not to meet his ex-wife.

3 The robbers were in disguise in order not to be seen by the police.

B- so that/ in order thatلكى

Present tense + so that + S + can/ will + inf…….

Past tense + so that + S + could/ would + inf…….

1 The big man used a pickaxe so that he could destroy the wall.

2 She has worked day and night in order that she can save enough money.

3 I was saving up money so that I wouldn't run into debt.

16, 17, 18



don’t have to

don’t need to doesn’t have to

doesn’t need to



didn’t have to

needn’t have + p.p


won’t have to


have to / has to

have got to/ has got to

need to/ needs to


had to


will have to

needn't = need notلا تتغير صورتها

مضارعneedn't + inf-----needn't have + p.pماضى

didn't have to/ didn't need toالحدث لم يتمneedn't have + p.pالحدث تم




could + inf

can + inf

was/were able to + inf

am/is/are able to + inf

was/were capable of + ing

am/is/are capable of + ing

- He can dive. = He is able to dive. = He is capable of diving.

- He could dive. = He was able to dive. He was capable of diving.

- Note: could = (had the ability but didn't do) / was/ were bale to = (managed/ did)

- Thanks to my mother's help, I......pass the exam. ( could- was able to)

- Other uses for ( can / could )

- Request :Can ? Could I use your camera ?

- Offer :Can ? Could I get you something else ?

- Permission : Can / Could I leave early today, sir ?

- Remember : could = might (deduction)

۩ fitيناسب (من حيث المقاس) ۩ suit يناسب (من حيث الشكل) ۩ match يتماشي مع (للأشياء)

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