Notes on the Orthography

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Notes on the Orthography
Perhaps because there were a number of people involved in bringing this dictionary to completion at the printing house of Imprenta Literaria, there are various changes and variants in the orthography used in this work. The names of people associated with publishing this work are Juan Pío Pérez, Crescencio Carrillo y Ancona, Carl Hermann Berendt, and Fabián Carrillo Suaste. Tozzer notes the following: "The Perez Dictionary (1866 1877), written as far as the word ulchahal by Perez, down to ven by Carrillo y Ancona, and completed by Berendt,..."
Note that Tozzer has Carrillo y Ancona working on the dictionary from ULEL to Ven. However, this must be a typesetter's error since there are no entries which begin with the letter V. It is not clear what word is actually meant, nor is it clear from that text itself where the change-over from Carrillo y Ancona to Berendt took place.
That said, it is apparent that the original intention was to follow the Beltrán orthographic system. This includes the crossed p ( p ) and the crossed h ( ) when combined with c and t to give c and t.
Pp: However, as the work progresses there are times when the crossed p is replaced with what is often an alternative convention of using pp, as for example on page 124 where the words beginning with the syllable "hepp" are written as such and not as "hep". Another example is that on page 194 the crossed p is used in words beginning with "lap" but on pages 197 and 198 the pp is used in words beginning with "leelepp" and "lepp". In fact, this work is quite inconsistent about the use of crossed p versus pp. This is particularly true in the section of PP, where there is no inclusion of the crossed p. However, beginning with the word UOLTEPP the crossed p is reintroduced and used with some consistancy from that point on. This may be because, as noted above, starting at some point after ULCHAHAL the text was worked on by Berendt, who was more careful about these details. In this transcription, for the proposes of the search function among other considerations, the crossed p is always written as pp.
Th / T: Likewise, the use of the crossed is not consistantly observed when combined with t so that the word "than" is written both "than" and "tan". In fact, by the time the dictionary gets to the th words the crossed is dispensed with altogether, perhaps due to the dearth of this special character in the font case. The crossed is later reintroduced beginning with the word XET, probably for the same reason as noted about the crossed p above. In this transcription the th / t is transcribed as shown in the publication as far as can be determined,1 so that when searching for words with this consonant in it the search will have to be done on both variants.
Dz: Because of the lack of a searchable character the special Mayan letter which is represented in this work by an upside down "c" () is replaced with the common typesetter's substitute dz.

Notes on Other Features and Peculiarities

As will be shown in the various examples given below, in this publication the Mayan entries are given in upper case. However, this proves, in my mind at least, to be a distrating feature. In this transcription the Mayan entries are given in lower case along with the Spanish glosses.
A very perplexing characteristic of the Mayan entries in this publication is that many of those entries which are generally considered to be composite words, such as "hach mehen" and "hach na" are written as "HACHMEHEN" and "HACHNÁ" in this work. But then a couple of entries later another entry is given as "HACH YUM" in which the proper segmentation is given. Alternatively, there are instances when a   is used to link a composite word, as for example COILBIL MEHEN. But then in some instances the   is used within what would be considered to be a single word, as in COL LAAHAL. However, in the majority of the entries the composite words are not segmented, and in this transcription the word segmentation as published in the dictionary is followed. It should be noted that when the entries from this work are placed in the search word list which is a composite of all vocabularies, the standard word segmentation is followed.
From time to time it is apparent that an entry comes from a early vocabulary in which ç is used. At times the tail of the ç is lost or overlooked. An example of this is the entry "EMCAHTZA" which originally in vocabularies such as the Calepino Maya de Motul is given as "emçah tza" and should have been transcribed, using the orthographic system of this dictionary, as "EMZAH TZA".
Up until the section worked on by Berendt most verbs are followed by the notations of v. a., v. n., v. p. or some variants such as v. ref., v. com., etc. The abbreviations v. a. = verbo activo, v. n. = verbo neutro, and v. p. = verbo passivo. As is common in the colonial vocabularies, the verbos activos are given in what I call the second form, whereas the verbos neutros and verbos passivos are given in the general or first form. Often times, but by no means always, the verbos neutros and verbos passivos also show the second form as well. Thus, for example: BAAXAL, BAAXNAHI. At times though the second form is abreviated: CACHCHAHAL, CHAHI, and at times even further abreviated: BADZCHAHAL, HI. But even this notation is inconsistant, and is also given as HADZUTZTAL HI. Then, in the K section beginning with KAKNAHI for some reason the first form of some of these verbs is not given. Further on, in the L section, even this was shortened to -NAH, with the first form often not given. In the section worked on by Berendt the custom of giving the first form and the second form without any abbreviation is reestablished. Thus, ZUT, ZUTNAHI.
In the transcription given here the truncated second forms are written out as -NAH[I] in order to distinguish these verbal endings from the second form of the verbo activo.
On the whole, in the section worked on by Berendt the verbal notations, with the exception of p. p., was dispensed with.
An unusual feature of this dictionary, not shared to the same extent by the older dictionaries and vocabularies, is that the various variations on a verb root are given. Thus, for example, for the verb root ac there is the following:
AC, ACNAHI: v. n. despachurrar, deformar, aplastar, arrugar, apretar lo que se ata.

ACAAN: p. p. de acal, deformado, aplastado despachurrado.

ACACBAL: cosa deformada, aplastada, despachurrada.

ACAH: v. a. véase yacah.

ACAHAAN: p. p. de ac ó acah: activo, despachurrado.

ACAL: p. p. de acal: se pronuncia breve. despachurrado

ACALAC: cosa como de cera, arrugada ó deformada por partes ó trechos.

ACBIL: que ha sido ó debe ser deformado por compresión.

ACCHAHAL, ACCHAHI: v. p. ser deformado ó arrugado.

ACENAC: cosas que están deformadas ó arrugadas por compresión.

ACIL: acción y efecto de arrugar.

ACLAAHAL, ACILAAHI: v. p. irse ó ser despachurradas las cosas, una por una.

ACLAANTAH: v. a. despachurrar ó arrugar las cosas una á una.

ACLAC, ACLIC: que están aplastadas ó arrugadas.

ACLIL: véase acil
Other Problems
There is a misanalysis of the particle -lum, part of the -lVm complex. The text reads CHUC-LUUM-ALCAB, NUCH LUUM CAN, etc., from which one might surmise that the word luum = "earth" is involved. There are examples of other words using -lVm, such as HADZLAMICH, CACLAMPIX, HOKLAMPAY (which shows the modern tendency to use -lam rather than -lom), PACLAM, etc., which are given correctly, so it is not clear what Pérez made of the particle lum by transcribing it as luum.
From time to time Pérez did not correctly distinguish between fortises of those letters which have such distinction: ch / c, c / k, p / pp, t / th, etc. Thus, for example, he has NAACAB: dedo pulgar ó pólice... instead of NAAKAB and NUPLUMCHI: juntar boca con boca. / NUPLUMICH: cara ó cara... instead of NUPPLUMCHI / NUPPLUMICH.

Typestting Errors

Of course, in a work like this there are always a number of typesetting errors. However, as the work progresses, especially by the time it gets to the N words, the number of typesetting errors increases markedly. Take for example the entry "NACHICHNAH PECTZIL: alabar, ensalsar, glorificar, difundir la fama. Nachennah zinan: acentuar algo." which gives the word nachcunah first as nachichnah and then as nachennah. It is not clear how this could have happened. One can think of several senarios, given what was happening at the time, which might account for the lack of or inattentive proofreading of the galley sheet. As the work progresses from there this problem of errors gets even more troubling during the TH words, as the numerous footnotes in this portion of the alphabet attests.
While all perceived spelling errors in the Mayan words are noted and footnoted, spelling errors in Spanish are generally not noted. Thus, for example, in the original the entry "OLOMKIK: sangre cuajuada." is corrected in this following transcript to "Olomkik: sangre cuajada." without any footnote.

Problems with the Berendt Section

In the Z's which is well into the work of the final editor, Berendt, there are a number of problems. One would have thought that Berendt would have been a very careful worker, but among other things one thing which is surprising is that he seems to confuse his C's and K's. Example:
YUCBA: temblar cosa espesa cuando se mueve; bambolear, temblar el peso por tener lodo abajo; temblar la tierra.
and further down:
YUKBA: V. Yucba.
It is very clear from the earlier vocabularies that the root word is supposed to be Uk,2 and the word is always given as Yukba. Thus, how it is that Pérez and/or Berendt decided that the word should be Yucba is hard to determine. However, in Beltrán there is the entry:
Yuctah, yucté: Menear á menudo el vaso en que ay licor caliente, para que se enfrie.
In the Pérez this has been altered to read:
YUCTAH: menear á menudo el vaso para enfriar; remover algun líquido.
The Coordinación gives something similar:
YUCTAH: menear á menudo el vaso para enfriar el líquido.
It is perhaps from this entry by Beltrán that Pérez and/or Berendt decided on Yucba. There are various other problems which has brings one to question Berendt's abilities. Of course, what is not known is what Berendt was working from. Was he merely following manuscript material for the dictionary which was left behind by Pérez, or has he perhaps reduced to composing his section of the dictionary from a loose collection of material, some of which was passed on to the Berendt-Brinton Linguist Collection?

Pérez's Abilities with Early Colonial Manuscripts

Pérez's abilities with early colonial Mayan is also unfortunately questionable. A good example of this is his transcription of the texts which deal with Ah Toc. On page 176 of the Codex Pérez, which is a copy of Ixil, page 3a, Pérez changed the phrase yal kaba (is titled) to the word yalcaba (runs). No doubt, the term yal kaba had long been out of use and was not a term known to Pérez. Thus, he changed what he perceived to be an erroneous spelling to something which he was comfortable with. Another example of this sort of change is that the verbal suffix -om given in many of the older manuscripts is changed to -an / -aan in the Codex Pérez. Thus for example uchom is changed to uchan in the Codex Pérez. In present-day Yucatec Mayan the verbal suffix -om is unknown, and apparently at the time Pérez was making his copy it was also unknown, so, as in the case of yal kaba, he opted for a verbal form known to him.

This Dictionary as a Bridge

between classical Colonial Mayan and Modern Mayan
As noted in the PROSPECTO given on the following page, this dictionary has "treinta mil voces de la lengua maya antigua y moderna". Thus the language of this publication is a bridge between the classical colonial Mayan language and the one spoken today. One of the more telling signs of the introduntion of modern terms is the introduction of the demonstrative pronoun le, as for example in the following entry:
LE: pronombre. Aquel, y rige una é al fin de la oracion, como le peké, aquel perro. Cuando rige una á significa este: le ca bisicá: esto llevas; y cuando una ó al fin del período, significa eso, como le ca bisicó: eso llevas. Tambien puede usarse como demostrativo como que indica el objeto terminantemente.
This entry is fully consistent with modern speech patterns.
Other examples include LETI, LETUN, LETUNBÉ, etc., none of which are to be found in the older vocabularies. However, the usage of these particles does appear in the medicinal writings, probably dating from the mid to late 1700's, in which a mixture of the earlier forms and modern forms of these particles are to be found, as for example lay tun and le tun.
Other examples of this dictionary as a bridge are the colonial and modern examples of talezah / talzah / tazah (to bring; see p. 317) and binzah / bizah (to take; see p. 26). In fact, most of the examples of usage given in this dictionary are given with the modern forms. Examples: CA: cuando. Ca bizic le uaho ca a tales in tzimin: Cuando lleves el pan traerás mi caballo. / BIC: cuidado. Bic ma a tazic: cuidado que no lo traigas (recomendando.)
In modern speech the letter k is often not pronounced when it is the trailing letter in a sylable. Thus, kaknab becomes kanab, pokchektah becomes pochektah and pochetah, etc. This variety of syncopation occurs in this dictionary, reflecting the modern tendency of the words given in it.
The same is true with the letter l. Examples of this type of syncopation in this work are AH CHIBAOC, BUDZI HOLOCH, CANACUNAH, CANAKAX, HUCBIPAL, NACHICAH, OCNAKIN, TZENBIPAL, UTZUPUCZIKAL, XINBATAH, DZACABAC. These have been corrected to Ah chiba[l] oc, Budzi[l] holoch, Cana[l]cunah, Cana[l]kax, Hucbi[l]pal, Nachi[l]cah, Ocna[l]kin, Tzenbi[l]pal, Utzu[l]puczikal, Xinba[l]tah, Dzaca[l]bac. I feel that this is a justifiable correction given that speakers of the language who have a certain amount of cognitive observation about how their language works will retain the trailing l while speaking in certain circumstances, as for example in formal speech. Furthermore, in this work when the adjective is given by itself, it almost always retains the trailing l: BUDZIL, CANAL, etc.






Precedido de una memoria biográfica del autor por D. FABIAN CARRILLO y de una introduccion del editor D. ELIGIO ANCONA sobre la importancia que tiene el estudio de este idioma, ya se le considere como una lengua viva que nosotros los yucatecos tenemos necesidad de hablar frecuentemente, ya como un poderoso auxiliar para la inteligencia de nuestras preciosas antigüedades, las más notables de América.
Se ha concluido ya la impresion de esta obra, que contiene cerca de treinta mil voces de la lengua maya antigua y moderna. Es una edicion hecha en magnífico papel vitela y con el mayor esmero y elegancia posibles.
La obra se vende íntegra, en pliegos sueltos, en la casa del editor, al precio de OCHO PESOS el ejemplar.
Para mayor comodidad del público tambien se hará del Diccionario una publicacion semanal, que contendrá veinte entregas, cada una con el valor de CUATRO REALES, que se pagaran en el acto de recibirla.
En esta Capital se reciben las suscriciones en casa del editor, en la agencia del que suscribo y por conducto de los repartidores. Fuera de la Capital en la casa de los Señores que distribuyan este prospecto.
La primera entrega se repartirá el lúnes 25 del corriente mes.
Las personas que ya han pedido para comprar la obra íntegra y las que deseen poseerla de esta manera, pueden ocurrir por ella desde el mismo dia 25.
Solo hay vendibles 250 ejemplares y serán preferidos los que la soliciten íntegra.
Mérida, Junio 21 de 1877.

A, primera letra del alfabeto común, acomodado á esta lengua con las variaciones que su peculiar pronunciación é índole requiere: porque es un error creer, como vulgarmente se cree, que tiene un alfabeto particular y propio, siendo así que los indios antes de la conquista no conocían otra escritura que la de sus geroglíficos. Esta vocal se pronuncia de dos maneras, una suave que puede ser larga ó breve y otra fuerte en la que como que se contiene el aliento ó sonido repentinamente al mismo tiempo de emitirlo: como en na, casa y na, madre; el primero tiene el sonido suave y el segundo fuerte.

A, antepuesta al verbo, es pronombre relativo de la segunda persona de singular. Para usarla en la conjugación de los verbos reflexivos, además de la primera a que antecede al verbo, se pospone otra segunda, seguida de la partícula ba que clasifica estos verbos: como en cimzahba, matarse: ma a cimzic a ba, no te mates.
A, antepuesta al nombre es pronombre posesivo de la segunda persona, tu, tuyo: como a tzimin, tu caballo; atial, tuyo.
A, cuando as halla terminando nombres ó verbos, precedidos de un pronombre demostrativo ó adverbio de lugar, denota que lo demostrado ó el lugar es el mas cercano ó próximo; como le uinicá, este hombre: le t[i c']alahá, esto dijimos: te paká, en esta pared.3
Aac, aacil: tortuga, javalí, enano: aac uinic, tzapa uinic.
Aacan, acanahi: v. n. rugir, pujar, quejarse de dolor; tronar la tempestad de lejos. yacan.
Aacan, aacanil: gemido, quejido.
Aac: muy arrugado, deformado, aplastado.
Aacal, aaci: v. n. V. yacal.
Aak, aakil: reciente, húmedo, verde, la madera que no está seca y también los granos; frescas, las carnes que aun no están corruptas sin estar saladas, embalsamadas ó preparadas. aak buul.
Aakal, aklil: laguneta, laguna, ciénaga, aguada yakal.
Aakcumbil: que ha sido ó debe ser humedecido ó reverdecido.
Aakcunzah: v. a. humedecer poniéndose correoso: hacer que alguna madera, grano ó carne seca vuelva á su primer verdor ó frescura.
Aak[c]unzahaan: p. p. de aak[c]unzah, reverdecido ó vuelto su verdor.4
Aakezah: v. a. humedecer, relentecer, remojar.
Aakezahaan: p. p. de aakezah.
Aakil: lo verde, reciento, fresco, y la propiedad de serlo ó estarlo.
Aaknac, aaknacil: cosa reciento, fresca, húmeda, verde: dícese de carnes, granos, madera &.
Aaktal, aakhi: v. n. reverdecerse, humedecerse la madera seca.
Aalah: v. a. decir mandar, ordenar, prevenir. se conjuga con las letras eufónicas u, y: la u para las dos primeras personas de singular y la y para la tercera: tin, ta ualah, tu yalah.
Aalahaan: p. p. de aahah. dicho, mandado, ordenado.
Aalabil: que ha sido dicho ó debe decirse á alguno, aalbil su síncopa, alabaac ó aalbilac, fue dicho.
Aaynac: grasiento, lleno de grasa.
Aaynacil: lo grasiento y la propiedad de serlo. Crasitud.
Aba: terminación de la segunda persona de los verbos reflexivos, compuesta del pronombre a y de la partícula ba que los clasifica y equivale á mesmo.
Abal, abalil, ablil: sincopado. ciruela y el árbol que las produce: ciruelo.
Abiltzil: la calidad de nieto.
Abla: así que, ahora bien.
Ablil ó yablil: lo mismo que habil; está anticuado.
Ac: partícula que terminando un numero sirve para contar porciones de terrenos, milpas, canoas, barcos hun ac kax, col, &c.
Ac: zacate ó gramínea de tallo, alto, hoja ancha, que se cria en las sabanas y suele usarse para cubrir casas.
Acaan: p. p. de actal: asentado como vasija, barco, cántaro &c. encharcado, rebalsado, líquido.
Acacbal: que está asentado, como vasija de boca ancha, cántaro, jícara, buque, &c. encharcado, formando lago, rebalsado.
Acan, acanahi: v. n. gemir, rugir, bramar, arrullar; quejarse de dolor, tronar de lejos la tempestad.
Acan, acanil: gemido, rugido, bramido, arrullo, trueno lejano.
Acan: tío, hermano de madre.
Acan: yerba de tallo anguloso y hojas cordiformes, de cuya leche usan los indios para curar el dolor de muelas y la mordida de víbora. También la llaman yaax acan.
Acan chac: v. comp.: tronar la tempestad á distancia.
Acantah: v. a. emparentar con otro por casamiento de la tía, hermana de madre.
Acal ac: cosa que se va encharcando ó forma charcos.
Acat, acatil: tintero. / un guisado.
Accabtah: v. a. asentar de prisa.
Accabtahaan: p. p. asentado de prisa.
Acchahal, acchahi: v. actal.
Accumbil: que ha sido ó debe ser asentado: accumbilac, fué asentado, cimentado.
Accunah: asentamiento ó el modo con que ha sido hecho.
Accunzah ó accuntah: v. a. asentar vasos ó vasijas, fundar ó cimentar pared: accunah pak.
Accunzahaan: p. p. de accunzah.
Acen ac: que están asentados con separación.
Ach, achil: aguijón de insecto, miembro viril, pico de zorro, vara delgada de árbol: recibe y. yach.
Achak: sobrino, sobrina, hijos de hermana llámalos así el tío.
Achakil: sobrinazgo.
Ache: interjección antic. de dolor. también hola.
Ac, acnahi: v. n. despachurrar, deformar, aplastar, arrugar, apretar lo que se ata.
Acaan: p. p. de acal, deformado, aplastado despachurrado.
Acacbal: cosa deformada, aplastada, despachurrada.
Acah: v. a. véase yacah.
Acahaan: p. p. de ac ó acah: activo, despachurrado.
Acal: p. p. de acal: se pronuncia breve. despachurrado.
Acal ac: cosa como de cera, arrugada ó deformada por partes ó trechos.
Acbil: que ha sido ó debe ser deformado por compresión.
Acchahal, acchahi: v. p. ser deformado ó arrugado.
Acen ac: cosas que están deformadas ó arrugadas por compresión.
Acil: acción y efecto de arrugar.
Aclaahal, acilaahi: v. p. irse ó ser despachurradas las cosas, una por una.
Aclaantah: v. a. despachurrar ó arrugar las cosas una á una.
Aclac, aclic: que están aplastadas ó arrugadas.
Aclil: véase acil.
Aclaantah: v. a. asentar vasijas de boca ancha una á una.
Aclax: zopo, caballo que tiene las cuartillas largas y flexibles.
Aclaxil: lo propiedad y efecto de ser zopo.
Aclil: lo encharcado y la encharcadura.
Actal, aclahi: v. a. asentarse las vasijas, emposarse ó encharcarse los líquidos derramados.
Actan: enfrente, lugar que está opuesto otro.
Actanil: la parte que enfrenta.
Actantabil ó actambil: sincopado: que ha sido ó debe ser llevado por delante, como bestia de arriero.
Actantah: v. a. arrear ó pastorear animales, llevándolos por delante. actantaal, su pasiva.
Actantahaan: p. p. de actantah, llevado por delante ó puesto de frente.
Actun, actunil: cueva, madriguera de animales; actun huh.
Actun cen: piscina, pozo, cuyo manantial está bajo de cueva.
Ah: partícula que antepuesta á los nombres indica que son del género ó sexo masculino; regularmente se pronuncia, elidiendo la vocal y solo se le da el sonido de la consonante que se oye ó percibe como una jota final, como en lej. se usa también de esta partícula para formar los participios activos ó de presente de los verbos.
Ahaan: p. p. de ahal. despierto.

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