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Published in separate English, French, Russian and Spanish editions by the

INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION

999 University Street, Montréal, Quebec, Canada H3C 5H7

For ordering information and for a complete listing of sales agents

and booksellers, please go to the ICAO website at www.icao.int


10044, AN/514.edition 2016



Manual on the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS)


ICAO Doc 10044, Manual XXXXX

Order Number: 8896

ISBN 978-92-9231-828-4

© ICAO 20XXX


All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a

retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, without prior



permission in writing from the International Civil Aviation Organization.

FOREWORD

1.    XXXXXXXXXXXXXX

2.    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

___________________


TABLE OF CONTENTS



1 . . 1.1    INTRODUCTION 8

2 . . 1.2 BACKGROUND INFORMATION 9

3 . . 1.3 AeroMACS Overview 9

4 . . 1.4 CONSTRAINTS, RESTRICTIONS AND LIMITATIONS ON AEROMACS USE 11

GUIDANCE MATERIAL 13

5 . . 2.1    Concept of Operations 13

2.1.1 Introduction 13

2.1.2 Services 15

2.1.3   Operational Scenario 15

2.1.3.5 Aircraft Landing 16

2.1.3.6 Aircraft parked 16

2.1.3.7 Aircraft Departure 17

2.1.3.8 The Scenarios in Practice 17

2.1.4 Routing and Discovery 19

6 . . 2.2    System Architecture 21

2.2.2 AeroMACS Network Overview and Architecture 22

2.2.1.3.5 Network Deployment ScenariosModels 35

2.2.1.1 Business Relationships in AeroMACS 35

2.2.1.3.4 NSP & NAP deployment models [subsection under Network Deployment Models] 37

2.2.1.3.6.5 Network entry and NAP/NSP selection 40

2.2.1.3.7 Roaming scenarios 42

2.2.1.3.7.7 Route Optimization Scenarios 43

2.2.1.3.8 Application Service Provider (ASP) Deployment Models 44

2.2.1.3.8.6 Deployment scenarios 46

2.2.32 Avionics Architecture 52

2.2.2.2 ARU “on/off” control 52

2.2.2.3 ACD and AISD 53

8 . . 2.10.1.1 Characteristics Pertinent to Site Selection 116

2.10.1.1.1 Area Coverage 116

2.10.1.1.1.2 Antenna Coverage 116

9 . . 2.10.2 Siting Procedures 130

10 . . 2.11.12 Analysis results (for capacity constraints) 141

2.11.13 Results/Conclusions 142



Page
Glossary…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… #-#

Terms and Abbreviations ………………………………………………………………………………………………

References……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Chapter 1.    General 1-1
1.1 Introduction

1.2 Background Information 1-1

1.3 AeroMACS Overview………………………………………………………………………………………….

1.4 Constraints, Restrictions, and limitations on AeroMACS Use…………………………………………….


Chapter 2.    Guidance Material 2-1
2.1 Concept of Operations 2-1

2.2 System Architecture 2-1

2.3 Security 2-4

2.4 Support for Broadcast and Multicast Applications in AeroMACS 2-22

2.5 Prioritisation and Quality of Service 2-24

2.6 Sub-Network Entry and Scanning Times

2.7 Hand-Off

2.8 Upper Layer Interfaces

2.9 System Management

2.10 Frequency Allocation and Channelisation

2.11 Implementation


Chapter 3.    Technical Specifications 3-1
3.1 System Archictecture 3-1

3.2 Performance 3-1

3.3 Hand-Off 3-1

3.4 Routing and Discovery 3-3

3.5 Security Framework 3-7

3.6 Prioritisation 3-11

3.7 Upper Layer Interfaces 3-12

3.8 System Management …………………………………………………………………………………………. 3-##

3.9 Frequency Allocation and Channelisation. …………………………………………………………………. 3-##

___________________



GLOSSARY

.
TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS


Access Service Network (ASN). A system comprised of an access gateway providing an IP interface and at least one Base Station (BS)
Adaptive modulation. A system’s ability to change modulation and data rate to adapt to changing signal to noise or other environmental conditions to maintain connectivity with the peer entity.
Aerodrome. A defined area on land or water (including any buildings, installations and equipment) intended to be used either wholly or in part for the arrival, departure and surface movement of aircraft.

AeroMACS. Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System

AeroMACS downlink (DL). The transmission direction from the base station (BS) to the subscriber station (SS).
AeroMACS uplink (UL). The transmission direction from the subscriber station (SS) to the base station (BS).
AeroMACS handover. The process in which a subscriber station (SS) migrates from the air-interface provided by one base station (BS) to the air-interface provided by another BS.

AeroMACS Subnetwork. A system comprising the Subscriber Stations (SSs), at least one Base Station (BS) and the Access Service Network – Gateway (ASN-GW) and all other elements in between.

Base station (BS). A generalized equipment set providing connectivity, management, and control of the subscriber stations (SSs).
Bit error rate (BER). The number of bit errors in a sample divided by the total number of bits in the sample, generally averaged over many such samples.
Burst profile. Set of parameters that describe the uplink or downlink transmission properties. Each profile contains parameters such as modulation type, forward error correction (FEC) type, preamble length, guard times, etc.
Convolutional turbo codes (CTC). Type of forward error correction (FEC) code.
Data transit delay. In accordance with ISO 8348, the average value of the statistical distribution of data delays from the time that the data enters the AeroMACS subnetwork until the data exits the AeroMACS subnetwork. This delay does not include the network entry time.
Forward error correction. The process of adding redundant information to the transmitted signal in a manner which allows correction, at the receiver, of errors incurred in the transmission.
Frequency assignment. An allocation of centre frequencies to base stations (BSs).
H-NSP: Home-Network Service Provider. A network service provider which is responsible for the authentication of the subscriber station for access to the subnetwork.. See also NSP
Mobile station (MS). A station intended to be used while in motion or during halts at unspecified points. An MS is always a subscriber station (SS).
Multicast and Broadcast Service (MBS), a method by which a BS transmit to all or a select group of SSs within its range.
Multicast and Broadcast Service Group Security Association (MBSGSA), a method for providing encryption when using multicast and broadcast services.
Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO): A system employing at least two transmit (Tx) antennas and at least two receive (Rx) antennas to improve the system capacity, coverage, or throughput.
Network Access Provider (NAP): NAP is a business entity that provides radio access infrastructure.
Network Service Provider (NSP): NSP is a business entity that provides IP connectivity andservices to users compliant with the Service Level Agreement.. Additionally, an NSP can also establish roaming agreements with other NSPs and contractual agreements with third-party application providers (e.g., ASP or ISPs) for providing services to users. From an user’s standpoint, an NSP is classified as either a Home NSP (H-NSP) or a Visited NSP (V-NSP).
Note.- an NSP can also establish roaming agreements with other NSPs and contractual agreements as appropriate with third-party application providers (e.g., ASP or ISPs) for providing services to users.
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is a method of digital modulation in which a signal is split into several narrowband channels at different frequencies. 
OFDM Symbol. A waveform with a given amplitude and phase that persists for a fixed period of time representing an integer number of bits.
Partial usage sub-channelization (PUSC). A technique in which the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) symbol subcarriers are divided and permuted among a subset of sub-channels for transmission, providing partial frequency diversity.
Residual error rate. The ratio of incorrect, lost and duplicate subnetwork service data units (SNSDUs) to the total number of SNSDUs that were sent.
Service data unit (SDU). A unit of data transferred between adjacent layer entities, which is encapsulated within a protocol data unit (PDU) for transfer to a peer layer.
Service flow. A unidirectional flow of media access control layer (MAC) service data units (SDUs) on a connection that is providing a particular quality of service (QoS).

Subscriber station (SS). An equipment set providing connectivity between user equipment and a base station (BS).
Subnetwork entry time. The time from when the subscriber station starts the scanning for BS transmission, until the link is established, and the first network user “protocol data unit “ can be sent.
Subnetwork service data unit (SNSDU). An amount of subnetwork user data, the identity of which is preserved from one end of a subnetwork connection to the other.

Time division duplex (TDD). A duplex scheme where uplink and downlink transmissions occur at different times but may share the same frequency.
V-NSP: Visited-Network Service Provider. A network service provider which provides an subscriber station with service, by authenticating the subscriber station through the Home-NSP. See also NSP.
WMF: WiMAX Forum

REFERENCES
[1] WiMAX Profile T23-001-R010v90

[2] WiMAX CRSL 17.0.0

[3] AeroMACS CRSL v1.0

[4] AeroMACS PICS v1.1

[5] AeroMACS Profile - Eurocae Document ED-222 and RTCA Document DO-345

[6] AeroMACS MOPS– Eurocae Document ED-223 and RTCA Document DO-346[7] IEEE Std 802.16-2009

[8] AeroMACS SARPS, Annex 10 Volume III, Chapter 7.

[9] ICAO annex Volume 4, sections 3.1.1.7.14.1 and 3.1.1.7.14.2.

[10] Doc9863 ACAS Guidance Material section 3.5.2.1., “Multipath from terrain reflections.”

[11] previous SARPs draft.

[12] WiMAX Forum® Air Interface Specifications:

[13] WiMAX Forum® Mobile Radio Specification WMF-T23-005-R015v07

___________________
Chapter 1
GENERAL



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