Over a very large sample



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tarix29.07.2018
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“Recommendation B. II. 2 Without impacting the launch schedule of the astrometric mission cited above*, launch a Discovery-class space-based microlensing mission to determine the statistics of planetary mass and the separation of planets from their host stars as a function of stellar type and location in the galaxy, and to derive  over a very large sample.

  • “Recommendation B. II. 2 Without impacting the launch schedule of the astrometric mission cited above*, launch a Discovery-class space-based microlensing mission to determine the statistics of planetary mass and the separation of planets from their host stars as a function of stellar type and location in the galaxy, and to derive  over a very large sample.



Technology

  • Ground-based 1-2m, Wide FOV Telescope

  • Space-based microlensing mission

    • Requires almost no technology development.
    • Can extensively leverage other missions (Spitzer, NextView, Ikonos, JWST)
    • Can use many components that are demonstrated on orbit or flight qualified.


MPF Mission Design

  • 1.1-m aperture consisting of a three-mirror anastigmat telescope feeding a 147 Mpixel HgCdTe focal plane (35 20482 arrays)

  • The spacecraft bus is a near-identical copy of that used for Spitzer.

  • The telescope system very similar to NextView commercial Earth-observing telescope designs.

  • Detectors developed for JWST meet MPFs requirements.

  • All elements are at TRL 6 or better.

  • Total Cost $300M (without launch vehicle)



Dark Energy Synergy

  • Space-based microlensing mission telescope requirements are very similar to the requirements for many proposed dark energy missions.

  • Combined dark energy/planet finding mission probably could be accomplished at a substantial savings.

  • ADEPT, Destiny, SNAP, DUNE/SPACE/Euclid

    • Wide FOV, >1.1m aperture, technical specifications appear to satisfy space-based microlensing survey specifications
    • DUNE/SPACE/Euclid can meet all the science goals without modification to hardware.
  • Trade study:

    • Observing time
    • Pass bands
    • FOV and Detectors
    • Orbit
    • Telemetry
    • Aperture
    • Optics
    • Pointing




Summary

  • Ground-based Next-Generation Survey: +$10M—$20M

    • Complete network with a single wide FOV 1-2m telescope in SA.
    • Frequency of planets >M beyond the snow line.
    • Test planet formation theories.
  • Either: Space-based Microlensing Mission: +$300M + launch

    • Complete census of planets with mass greater than Mars and a > 0.5 AU.
    • Sensitivity to all Solar System planet analogs except Mercury.
    • Demographics of planetary systems - tests planet formation theories.
    • Detect “outer” habitable zone (Mars-like orbits) where detection by imaging is easiest.
    • Can find moons and free floating planets.
  • Or: Joint lensing/Dark Energy Mission +$100M—$200M?

  • Total cost to “Exoplanet Community”: $120M—$420M



The near-term: automated follow-up 1-5 yr

  • Milestones:

  • An optimised planetary microlens follow-up network, including feedback from fully-automated real-time modelling.

  • The first census of the cold planet population, involving planets of Neptune to super-Earth (few M⊕ to 20 M⊕) with host star separations around 2 AU.

  • Under highly favourable conditions, sensitivity to planets close to Earth mass with host separations around 2 AU.



The medium-term: wide-field telescope networks 5-10 yr

  • Milestones:

  • Complete census of the cold planet population down to ~10 M⊕ with host separations above 1.5 AU.

  • The first census of the free-floating planet population.

  • Sensitivity to planets close to Earth mass with host separations around 2 AU.



The longer-term: a space-based microlensing survey 10+ yr

  • Milestones:

  • A complete census of planets down to Earth mass with separations exceeding 1 AU

  • Complementary coverage to Kepler of the planet discovery space.

  • Potential sensitivity to planets down to 0.1 M⊕, including all Solar System analogues except for Mercury.

  • Complete lens solutions for most planet events, allowing direct measurements of the planet and host masses, projected separation and distance from the observer.







A planetary companion



If planetary Einstein Ring < source star disk: planetary microlensing effect is washed out (Bennett & Rhie 1996)

  • If planetary Einstein Ring < source star disk: planetary microlensing effect is washed out (Bennett & Rhie 1996)

  • For a typical bulge giant source star, the limiting mass is ~10 M

  • For a bulge, solar type main sequence star, the limiting mass is ~ 0.1 M





PLANET/RoboNet SITES



















Monitor 2 108 stars down to J,Y,H ~22

  • Monitor 2 108 stars down to J,Y,H ~22

  • Color information ~ once a week

  • ~4 deg2 observed every ~20 min

  • Sensitivity to planets with a 3 months dedicated observing program :

    • 16 frocky rocky planets (Earth, Venus, Mars)
    • 580 fjupiter Jupiter planets
    • 120 fsat Saturne
    • 16 fnep Neptune planets






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