Public clouds (or external clouds)



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tarix31.10.2017
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"A Cloud is a type of parallel and distributed system consisting of a collection of interconnected and virtualized computers that are dynamically provisioned and presented as one or more unified computing resources based on service-level agreements established through negotiation between the service provider and consumers” (Buyya et al.)

  • "A Cloud is a type of parallel and distributed system consisting of a collection of interconnected and virtualized computers that are dynamically provisioned and presented as one or more unified computing resources based on service-level agreements established through negotiation between the service provider and consumers” (Buyya et al.)

  • “A large-scale distributed computing paradigm that is driven by economies of scale, in which a pool of abstracted, virtualized, dynamically-scalable, managed computing power, storage, platforms, and services are delivered on demand to external customers over the Internet” (Foster et al.)

  • Start point: October/November 2007 - IBM Blue Cloud



Public clouds (or external clouds)

  • Public clouds (or external clouds)

    • resources are dynamically provisioned on a fine-grained, self-service basis over the Internet, via Web applications or Web services.
    • the cloud is hosted, operated, and managed by a third-party vendor from one or more data/computing centers
    • organizations/customers lease shared resources from public clouds, effectively becoming infrastructure tenants rather than owners
    • computing becomes a public utility
  • Private clouds (or internal clouds) emulate cloud computing on private networks

  • Hybrid clouds merge multiple internal and/or external clouds



Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)

  • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)

    • provides computing environments/infrastructure i.e., hardware, software
    • the provisioned infrastructure can dynamically scale up and down depending on the actual needs
    • Amazon EC2 and S3
  • Platform as a Service (PaaS)

    • high-level integrated environment to build and deploy applications
    • restrictions on the type of applications
    • but scalable platform
    • Google’s App Engine for deploying Web applications
  • Software as a Service (SaaS)

    • delivers software to consumers through the Internet
    • Salesforce: online CRM (Customer Relationship Management) Services ; Live Mesh from Microsoft: files and folders synchronization


Storage as a Service 

  • Storage as a Service 

  • Data(base) as a Service (DaaS)

  • Process as a Service - Business Process as a Service

  • Network as a Service (NaaS)

  • Integration as a Service 

  • Security as a Service - Identity as a Service

  • Testing as a Service



http://www.ibm.com/ibm/cloud/

  • http://www.ibm.com/ibm/cloud/

  • « Values to customers include:

    • Reducing IT management complexity and skill requirements
    • Sharing resources among multiple applications
    • Accelerating application launches
    • Supporting both existing and emerging, data-intensive workloads
  • »



From the customer point of view:

  • From the customer point of view:

    • Scalability
    • Reliability
    • Flexibility
    • Cost
    • Security and Privacy
    • Performance
    • Ubiquitous and fast access
    • Quality of Service
    • Service Level Agreement
    • Pricing system
    • Simple to use
  • From the internal point of view





Compute Cloud EC2 (Elastic Cloud Computing)

  • Compute Cloud EC2 (Elastic Cloud Computing)

    • pricing: http://aws.amazon.com/fr/ec2/pricing//185-8840065-1558013/
    • « private » virtualized servers (« instances ») of different types
    • example: High-CPU Extra Large Instance
      • 7 GB of memory
      • 20 EC2 Compute Units
      • 1690 GB Storage
      • Pricing on a per hour basis for each instance type: from $0.085/hour for the small standard "On-Demand" virtual machine running Linux to 29x more for the largest one running Windows (Jan. 2011). The data transfer charge ranges from $0.08 to $0.15 per gigabyte, depending on the volume
  • Data Cloud S3 (Simple Storage Service)

    • pricing: http://aws.amazon.com/fr/s3/pricing/
    • from $0.055 to $0.14 per GB-month (standard storage), + bandwidth usage (from $0.05 to 0.12 per GB – EU price) + requests (from $0.001 to $0.01 per 1000 requests)
    • 556 stored billion objects (Oct. 2011) (Marc 2010: 102 billion objects)
    • data transfer is charged by TB / month data transfer, depending on the source and target of such transfer.




Compute :

  • Compute :

    • connection to the « Compute » service > 99,95%
    • Web and Worker roles > 99,9%
    • note : service interruption  interruption > 5 mn
  • Storage

    • « failed » transactions (error rate) < 0,1%
    • credit = 10%
      • if 0,1% <= error rate < 1%
    • Credit = 25%
      • if error rate >= 1%










Gartner:

  • Gartner:

    • identifies the Cloud as one of the four trends that will change IT and the economy in the next 10 years
    • (http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1470115)
    • predicts that the value of Cloud Computing will surge to 150.1 billion dollars by 2013
    • expects SaaS demand to continue to growth to a total of more than 14 billion dollars by 2013
  • IDC [BBE10]:

    • the market for private enterprise Cloud servers will grow from an $8.4 billion opportunity in 2010, to a $12.6 billion market in 2014
    • SaaS revenue will grow five times more than traditional software
    • by 2014, about 34% of all new business software purchases will be consumed via SaaS.
  • Steve Ballmer (Microsoft's CEO) (March 2010):

    • about 75% (90% in a year) of Microsoft customers are doing entirely cloud based or entirely cloud inspired
  • Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA):

    • 33% among all European organizations are using cloud computing systems









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