Specific factors hinder participation: it is lower in more rural areas, for females (esp with more children and fewer adult women around), if without secondary education, and if more male adults in the household.
Discouraged workers are those that are statistically closer (in their characteristics) to non-participants than to the searching unemployed.
Thus the searchers are those that have (in their characteristics) a higher probability of getting a job than the non-searchers.
Hints at the importance of structural unemployment in understanding the (non-)participation decision of the discouraged worker (i.e. a mismatch of skills / characteristics).
Asymmetry on finding jobs: urban work-seekers could take rural jobs, but most rural work-seekers do not have the characteristics to compete in the urban job market (even if migration is possible and good labour market information is available)
Such spatial rigidities and segmentation imply barriers for rural persons to enter urban labour markets.