Relative clauses



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RELATIVE CLAUSES:

Bu cümleler, isimleri niteler ve niteledikleri isimlerden hemen sonra gelirler. Bir relative clause’u olusturmak için ‘relative pronouns’ dedigimiz zamirler kullanılır.


Relative Pronouns:

Who Whom Whose Which When Where Why That
WHO:

Sadece insanlarla ilgili adları nitelemek için kullanılır.


The man is friendly. He lives next door.

= The man who (that) lives next door is very friendly.



OR = The man who (that) is very friendly lives next door.
The boy is running away. He has stolen my purse.

= The boy who (that) is running away has stolen my purse.



OR = The boy who (that) has stolen my purse is running away.
*** Bu tür cümlelerde ‘who’ yerine ‘that’ kullanılabilinir.

The book was about a man who (that) killed his wife.

Sabah beni görmeye gelen adam ögrencilerimden birinin babasıydı.

= The man who came to see me in the morning was one of my students’ father.

Caddede aglayan zavallı çocuk annesi tarafından unutulmustu.

= The poor child who was crying on the street was forgotten by his mother.



OR = The poor child who was crying on the street had been forgotten by his mother.
WHICH:

İnsanların dısındaki her seyi nitelemek için kullanılır.

The book was interesting. Sally gave it to me.

= The book which (that) Sally gave to me was interesting.


*** Burada kullandıgımız relative pronoun, ardından bir isim (noun) geldigi için atılabilir:

The book Sally gave to me was interesting.

Sally gave me a book which (that) was intersting.
*** Buradaki relative pronoun, ardından bir fiil (verb) geldigi için atılamaz.

The towel which (that) you gave me isn’t clean.


*** Which (that), ardından isim (you) geldigi için atılabilir.
*** Yine bu tür cümlelerde ‘which’ yerine ‘that’ kullanılabilinir.

Bana dogum günüm için almıs oldugun hediyeye tesekkürler.

= Thanks for the present which (that) you bought for my birthday.

Amcama ait olan bu ev 50 yıl önce insa edildi.

= the house which (that) belongs to my uncle was built 50 years ago.

Bahçe kapısının yanındaki agacın çok güzel çiçekleri var.

= The tree which (that) is next to the garden has very beautiful flowers.

Sekreterin bu sabah yazdıgı mektuplar ögleden sonra postalanacak.

= The letters which (that) the secretary wrote in the morning will be posted in the afternoon.
WHOM:
Him, them, us, ….. gibi nesne durumundaki sahıs zamirlerinin yerine kullanılır.

The man was Mr. Jones. I met him yesterday.

= The man whom (who) (that) I met yesterday was Mr. Jones.

My sister whom (who) (that) you’ve met once, will come to visit me tomorrow.

The woman whom (who) (that) I told you about is over there.

*** Yukarıdaki 3 örnek cümlede de relative pronoun’lar, ardlarından isim geldigi için atılabilir.


WHOSE:

My, her, our, ….. gibi iyelik sıfatlarının yerine kullanılır.

Romeo and Juliet were two lovers. Their parents hated each other.

= Romeo and Juliet, whose parents hated each other, were two lovers.

OR = Romeo and Juliet were two lovers whose parents hated each other.
The chair must be thrown away. Its legs are broken.

= The chair whose legs are broken must be thrown away.



Annesi banakada çalısan kız tatil için para biriktiriyor.

= The girl whose mother Works in a bank is saving money for her holiday.

Lastigi patlak olan otobüs bu istasyonda 2 saat bekleyecek.

= The bus whose tyre is flat will wait at this station for 2 hours.
WHERE:

Place, room, street, ….. gibi yer bildiren adları nitelemek için bu adlardan sonra kullanılır. ‘There’ anlamındadır.

* Then = o zaman

They’re going to build a new hospital on the street where I live.

I want to go back to the village where I was born.
*** ‘Where’ yerine ‘That’ KULLANILMAZ.
WHEN:

Time, year, day, ….. gibi zaman bildiren adları nitelemek için bu adlardan sonra kullanılır.

Then’ anlamındadır.
Do you remember the day? We first met then.

= Do you remember the day when we first met?

Have you ever had one of those days when nothing seems to go right?
Unfortunately, I wasn’t at home the night when you came to see me. (when atılabilir)

I was born in 1963. It was full of bad events.

= I was born in 1963 which was full of bad events.

*** ‘When’ yerine ‘That’ KULLANILMAZ.
WHY:
Reason’ bildiren bir ismi nitelemek için kullanılır.

I can’t understand the reason why students get angry wtih me when they get low marks.



(why atılabilir)

The reason why I don’t like you is that you’re talking too much. (why atılabilir)



*** ‘Why’ yerine ‘That’ KULLANILMAZ.

DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES:

Bu cümlecikler hiçbir zaman isimlerden virgülle ayrılmazlar. Bu cümlecikler cümlenin anlamını bütünlemesi bakımından gereklidirler. Eger cümleden çıkartılırlarsa cümlenin anlamı bozulur ya da degisir.

Students who cheat must be punished.

Let me see all the letters which you’ve sent me.



*** Bu tür sıfat cümleciklerinde ‘Who, Which’ gibi relative pronoun’ların yerine ‘That’ kullanılır.
NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES:

Bu yan cümlecikler her zaman niteledikleri isimlerden virgülle ayrılır. Bunlar cümlenin anlamını tamamlaması bakımından gerekli degildirler. Cümleden çıkarıldıkları zaman bir anlam bozulması ya da degisikligi olmaz. Kullanılmalarının nedeni, niteledikleri isimler hakkında fazladan bilgi vermeleridir.

Ankara, which is the capital of Turkey, is a neat city. * neat = düzenli

I was in the same class as Nick, whom I liked a lot.

*** Bu tür cümlelerde relative pronoun ‘That’ KULLANILMAZ.
*** Sıfat cümlecikleri, sadece adları degil, bazı zamirleri de niteleyebilirler:

1 – Sahıs zamirlerini (I, he, it, …..)

I who have nothing.

2 - Belgisiz Zamirleri (nothing, somebody, …..)

There’s someone who wants to see you.



3 – The one / The ones

Paula was the only one whom / who / that I knew at the party.



4 – Those

Those who talk too much have to leave the classroom at once.
PREPOSITION + RELATIVE CLAUSES:

Bu yapılarda kullanılan relative pronoun’lar: Whom, Which, Whose

The man is a friend of yours. I spoke to him yesterday.

= The man to whom I spoke yesterday is a friend of yours.



ANCAK;

The man whom I spoke to yesterday is a friend of yours.

Dersek, Whom yerine Who ya da That de kullanabiliriz.

The shop keper from whom I bought this rifle told me to oil it.



*** When zamiri yerine, ‘on which’, ‘in which’ gibi yapılar da kullanılabilinir:

I was born in the year when / in which J.F. Kennedy was killed.



*** Where baglacının yerine ‘at which’, ‘in which’ gibi sözcükler de kullanılabilinir:

The hotel where / on which we’re staying is a nice place.



(where, öznenin yerini tutmaz, o yüzden de which kullanılır.)

We’re studying at a large school which has many students.



*** Why zamirinin yerine ‘for which’ de kullanılabilinir:

The reason why / for which I don’t like you …..



*** Where sözcügü genellikle insanları nitelemek için kullanılır. Ancak nesneleri de niteleyebilir. Bazen nesneleri nitelerken ‘Whose’ yerine ‘of which’ kullanılabilinir:

The chair the legs of which was broken …..

They bought a house whose Windows were broken.

= they bought a house the Windows of which were broken.


The car whose doors are blue is in the park.

= The car the doors of which are blue is in the park.



QUANTIFIERS with RELATIVE CLAUSES:

Some

Most

None

All WHOM

Several

NOUN + Neither OF + WHICH

Both

Half WHOSE

Two

Each
In my class, there are 24 students. All of them are very clever.

= In my class, there are 24 students, all of whom are very clever.

They have three cars. They never drive two of them.

= They have three cars, two of which they never drive.

Teachers discussed Tim, one of whose problem is poor study habits.

Mary has a lot of books, none of which she has read.

Two men came to my office yesterday, neither of whom I had never seen.

I met the waiters, several / some of them are students at the university.

He tried five jackets, none of which fit him.
WHICH ZAMİRİNİN BÜTÜN CÜMLEYİ NİTELEMESİ:

Which’, isimler ve zamirlerden baska, bir cümleyi de niteleyebilir.

Tom hasn’t arrived yet. It worries me.

= Tom hasn’t arrived yet, which worries me.



*** Which yerine ‘that’ KULLANILMAZ. + which diger cümleden virgül ile ayrılır.

The lift is out of order again, which is too bad.

They say they don’t have any money, which is a lie.
KISALTMALAR:

1 – Relative pronoun’dan sonra ‘be’ fiili geliyorsa, bu fiil ve relative pronoun cümleden atılabilir:

People (who are) protesting against nuclear guns have started to march to London.

Some weapons (which are) found in a flat in Bristol belong to IRA.
2 - Relative pronoun’dan sonra ‘be’ fiili yoksa, sadec relative pronoun cümleden atılır, fiile ise –ing takısı eklenir:

A company which employes 4.000 people has gone bankrupt.

= A company employing 4.000 people has gone bankrupt.

Fans who hope to find tickets have been waiting at Wimbledon for a week.

= fans hoping to find tickets have been waiting at Wimbledon for a week.
*** It + be + relative clause

It is Martin who has finished first.



to finish

It was the door bell that rang.



to ring
*** Bu yapıda, relative clause yerine ‘to infinitive’ de kullanlılabilinir:

He was one of the first people to chart Gulf Stream.



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