Research findings and discussion



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SNMPTN 2008 CODE 201
The main purpose of the writer is to inform the readers about _________

  1. The popularity of communication technology

  2. The effects of cellphones on the behaviour of users

  3. The various kinds of hand-phones available in the market

  4. The advantages of using cellphones in many Asian countries

  5. The percentage of cellphones users in Asia

Strategies based instruction which can be applied to solve questions above were (1) researcher instructed students to identify kinds of reading, whether it was the short or long reading. (2) researcher instructed students to read every of first sentences in each paragraph, then underlined the key words. Having known that the text was long reading, students’ face directly became unmotivated and pessimistic as saying by student with the data source L-6, “Waduh panjang banget bu bacaannya.” Then researcher replied,

Don’t worry students, listen to my next instructions.” (3) find the key words of each paragraph, remember that key words commonly appeared before verb and auxiliary. Now look up if the second paragraph, third paragraph and so on had the same discussion and key words with the first paragraph or not? If it indicated that these were the supporting information of paragraph one. So the purpose of the text can be identified merely by reading the first sentence of the first paragraph. The key words of the first paragraph were mobile phones, meanwhile at the second paragraph appeared the word “it” which was referred to mobile phones, the same thing happened in the third and last paragraph which mentioned about mobile phones. So it can be concluded that the key words of the text above was mobile phones as the paragraph one had been mentioned. Therefore the correct answer to the question above was answer B.
Some students at Alumni Class laughed and one of students with data source L-10 said, “ngece banget ik.” And another student with data source L-3 asked, “cuman gitu aja to buk?” researcher smiled and nodded. Meanwhile, in finding the organization of the text, researcher gave students example from State University Entrance Test 2010, because this kind of question have just appeared in that year.

Scientist are as obessed with the question of why the superold survive and thrive as Ponce de Leon was to find the Fountain of Youth . they want to understand why the Japanese islands of Okinawa are home to the world’s largest population of centenarians, with almost 600 of its 1.3 million inhabitants living into their second century-many of them active and looking decades younger than their actual years. Like weekend visitors on the summer ferry to Martha’s Vineyard, scientists ans sociologists block the boats to Sardinia and Nova Scotia, Canada, to see why those craggy locales hide vast clusters of the superold.

As well as studying these populations intensively to unlock their secrets, scientists have also taken a hard look at the very old in the U.S., most notably in the New England centenarian Study, led by Dr. Thomas Perls, a geriatrician at Boston University. While the very old are happy to offer homespun explanations for their longevity-“I never took a drink”; “I drank a shot of whiskey every day”- experts are trying to unravel and understand the biological factors that allow some people to reach 100 while others drop off in their 70s or 80s. Researchers are particularly interested in determining which factors allow up to 30% of those who reach 100 to do so in sufficient mental and physical health: a whopping 90% of centenarians, according to Perls, remain functionally independent up to age 92.

It is pretty obvious even to nonscientists that how you get there depends partly on the genes you are born with and partly on lifestyle-what and how much you eat, where you live and what types of stress and trauma you experience. How much depends on each factor, though, was unknown until Swedish scientists tackled the problem in 1998. They didi it by looking at the only set of people who share genes but not lifestyle: identical twins who were separated at birth and reared apart. If genes were most important, you would expect the twins to die at about the same age. In fact, they do not,a nd the average difference convinced the scientist that only about 20% to 30% of how long we live is genetically determined. The dominant factor is lifestyle.



SNMPTN 2010 KODE 744
How is the information of the last paragraph in the text organized?

  1. Each question is provided with an illustration

  2. Scientific questions are followed by studies

  3. Each study is followed by research findings

  4. Scientific questions are presented from general to specific

  5. Threee related questions are followed by one finding

Strategies based instruction which can be applied to answer questions above were researcher instructed students to read the question first and focus on what was being questioned. At the item above, it asked the organization of the last paragraph. So, researcher asked students to focuse on the information at the paragraph which was mentioned. Then, the next instruction, researcher asked students to find key words and certain information related to the idea of each sentences.

It is pretty obvious even to nonscientists that how you get there depends partly on the genes you are born with and partly on lifestyle-what and how much you eat, where you live and what types of stress and trauma you experience.


The key words of every sentences above were in bold printed. It contained scientific questions related to long life span. Then, these were followed by:

How much depends on each factor, though, was unknown until Swedish scientists tackled the problem in 1998. They did it by looking at the only set of people who share genes but not lifestyle: identical twins who were separated at birth and reared apart. If genes were most important, you would expect the twins to die at about the same age. In fact, they do not, and the average difference convinced the scientist that only about 20% to 30% of how long we live is genetically determined. The dominant factor is lifestyle.
The key words above were the answer of the scientific question of the previous sentences. Therefore the organization of the last paragraph was option B “scientific questions were followed by studies”.

After researcher had given the students model and showed the implementation of the strategies, researcher asked students to do independent reading with several items. While students were doing the items, researcher was walking around the class asked students one by one whether they got difficulty in doing the items or not. Several students seemed confused when they faced long reading with complicated vocabulary, researcher reminded them to ignore the vocabulary and focused on the strategies in doing long reading items.

After that researcher invited students to discuss the items. Researcher asked students to check their answer by using the clues which have been provided by the text. In the last 15 minutes, researcher discusseed the questions with the students. Asking the students’ answer, giving clues in each paragraph to make finding answers easier. Some students asked and discussed about their answers. The class was very active, all students seemed unbelivable when the researcher was able to answer the whole question in seconds. Students with the data source L-2 shouted, “ ini yang aku cari dan inginkan,” by pointing their hands to researcher and smiled satisfactorily. Others looked amazed and surprised.

That day, students became more enthusiatic and motivated in studying reading, that was researcher saw after the meeting. Some students were seeking researcher to get additional meetings outside the class. They wanted to discuss reading items from several state university, as students with the data source L-6 said “Bu NM, aku mau tambahan..,” researcher replied, “tambahan apa dek?” students answered by saying, “Reading bu, gak nyangka ternyata semudah dan secepat itu ya bu ngerjain reading. Ini saya bawa soal UM UGM tahun kemarin, aku pengen dibahas kayak tadi..” (October 8th, 2010: 10.32 A.M)

When the researcher discussed reading items with L-6 out side the class, there were several students L-9 and L-12 who came closer and joined in reading discussion. Then, 30 minutes later, researcher asked students’ permission to go to researcher’s office. Researcher felt happy and satisfaction after the meeting, in the end of the classroom activity. Researcher reminded students to apply those strategies in any reading they faced and discussed it later in the next meeting if they found difficulties or asked researcher in clinical time.


  1. The Second Meeting

The second meeting was conducted on Monday, October 18th 2010. The materials for the second meeting were (1) finding detailed information, (2) identifying tone and course, and (3) vocabulary elaboration. At this meeting, researcher started the class by asking students’ condition “Good morning students?”. Some students answered, “Morning mom...”. When the researcher asked “How did you feel this morning?” The students replied by saying “ngantuuuuukkk mom..” (one of the students said) “lapeeerrrrr....” (the other students answered). Researcher smiled, then continued in saying several statements:

My beloved students, at this beautiful day we will discuss an interesting material related to State University Entrance Test (SNMPTN). I promised that you will not be sleepy anymore because it is the most frequent material which appears in SNMPTN called “detailed questions”, it asks something specific related to the text. This material is very important to be understood, because it always appears in SNMPTN 2009-2010. In SNMPTN 2009 code 183, there were 8 items, code 285 were 8 items, and code 383 were 10 items. Meanwhile, in SNMPTN 2010, this number is sharply increased. The number of questions is in code 326 was 12 items, code 336 was 13 items, and code 744 was 5 items. It will challenge you to solve and answer the questions quickly and correctly”. Next, we will discuss tone and course. In SNMPTN 2007 code 541 and SNMPTN 2008 code 301, there was 1 item in course material. Meanwhile, tone was appeared 1 item in State University Entrance Test 2010 code 744”. The last reading material which will be discussed is related to vocabulary elaboration. This reading material is very important to be understood, because they appear several times in State University Entrance Test 2007-2009. In SNMPTN 2007 code 141, there was 1 vocabulary item. In SNMPTN 2008 code 201 and 301, there was 1 vocabulary item. Meanwhile in SNMPTN 2009 code 183, there was 1 item, code 285 and code 383 were 2 items for each.


After listening to researcher explanation, students became more enthusiastic and gave much attention. Students with data source L-9 said, “Betul bu, ujian kemarin aku bingung soalnya nanyain informasi rinci semua. Pusing bacaannya panjang-panjang dan vocabnya susah. Terus ada yang tanya tone tone gitu aku gak faham maksudnya itu (tone) apaan.” The researcher smiled and said “Don’t worry my beloved students, at this meeting we will discuss the way how to solve detailed questions, tone and course, and vocabulary by applying certain strategies. I believe that this material will be easy for you.” In main activities, researcher gave the basic concept of detailed questions, tone and course, and vocabulary materials. Then it was continued by explaining kinds of strategies used. These were presented as follows:

The Basic Concept of Finding Detailed Information
a) Understanding the questions

Kinds of questions related to detailed information

(1) Stated detailed questions

(a) According to the passage, ...

(b) According to the author, which of the following _____ ?

(c) It is stated in the passage that ...

(d) The passage indicates that ...

(2) Unstated detailed questions

(a) Which of the following statement is NOT true according to the passage?

(b) Which of the following is not mentioned ...?

(c) All the following statements are true, except?

(d) Which of the following is not discussed ...?


b) Reading strategies

Kinds of reading strategies related to find detailed questions both stated and unstated are by applying strategy “copas”. It is derived from the words “copy” and “paste”. The procedure of this strategy is:

(1) Read the question first before finding the answer in the passage by understanding what is asked and determining the key words.

(2) Copy the key words and paste in the passage.

(3) Do scanning technique to get the correct answer

(4) Look at the right and left side around the key words and make conclusion.


Those reading questions were explained first because several students still had difficulty in understanding the questions. Then, to emphasize and memorize it in students mind, researcher made a quick solution concept called “The King.”

F
Li Da S
lihat simpulkan

datangi
igure 4. 2



straight connector 296straight connector 295straight connector 294 SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT rectangle 243
The King above consisted three steps “lihat”, it means that students must look and read the question first before finding the answer in the passage by understanding what is asked and determining the key words. Next “datangi”, it means that students should copy the key words, paste in the passage, and do scanning technique to get the correct answer. The last was “simpulkan” look at the right and left side around the key words in the text to find the answer and make conclusion. These were purposed to be a key brain for students in understanding the material and ease them in answering reading items. After the researcher had discussed the basic concept of detailed questions, the researcher continued her explanation in discussing the basic concept of tone and course.

The Basic Concept of Tone and Course

a) Understanding the questions

(1) Course

It identifies the study of the text or particular field of the reading passage. Such as literature, linguistics, geography, geology, architecture, Naval Engineering, Marine science, etc

Before answering the questions, students must be able to identify kinds of questions related to reading competencies.

(a) in what course is the passage most probably given?

(b) the passage would most likely be found?

(c) for what course would the passage probably be assigned
(2) Tone

It identifies the author’s feelings when she or he wrote the passage. Such as: positive, negarive, neutral, humorous, supportive, scientific, objective, etc

Before answering the questions, students must be able to identify kinds of questions related to reading competencies.

(a) the author’s attitude toward...could best be described as...

(b) what is the author’s attitude toward...?

(c) the tone of the passage could be best described as ...?



b) Reading strategies

The procedures of these strategy are:

(1) Course

(a) understand the topic of the passage

(b) read every first sentence by skimming technique

(c) find the key words, key words are something or idea which are discussed. They commonly appeared before the verb or auxiliary

(d) make conclusion
(2) Tone

Finding the emotional key words from the whole passage


The explanation above was continued by discussing the basic concept of vocabulary elaboration. This material was the main difficult items for students to be answered because not all students had enough vocabulary understanding. At this Classroom Action Research, researcher offered solution as explained in the following concept.

The Basic Concept of Vocabulary Elaboration

a) Understanding the questions

Before answering the questions, students must be able to identify kinds of questions related to reading competencies.

(1) What is the meaning ....?

(2) Which of the following is closest in meaning to ...?

(3) ... could best be replaced by which of the following?
b) Reading strategies

The following were kinds of reading strategies related to find the vocabulary. The procedure of these strategis were:

(1) find the word or phrase which are questioned in the passage

(2) read and understand the word or phrase in the passage contextually to make prediction.

(3) choose the word which has similiar meaning
The whole strategies were explained step by step and accompanied by several examples to make it clear. After that, researcher allowed students to write it in their handbook. While teaching learning process was going on, classical music was being played. That morning were Mozart adagio diverti mento in B flat major and grand partita serenade no.10. Then there was a break time which was signed by a ringing bell and Mr. Jack’s messages.

Selamat Pagi,

Assalamualaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh

Buat adik-adik siswa-siswi Ganesha Operation yang tercinta, pesan Mr. Jack hari ini:

Semakin bergairah anda menjalani hidup, semakin banyak kegembiraan yang akan anda temui.

Sukses buat semua tetap semangat jaga stamina

Wassalamualikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh

Salam Ganesha Operation!
The message above was continued by playing modern music “Pocker Face” which was sung by Lady Gaga. Students seemed enjoy it and some of them imitated the lyrics while writing the material. Others discussed something with students beside them. At the end of break time, students were silent and back to the classroom discussion. Before continuing the discussion, researcher invited students to discuss Mr. Jack messages above by giving suggestions related to their feeling in the beginning of the class started where some students felt sleepy and hungry. The researcher explained that if we face something positively and full of spirit, everything will be easy and enjoy to be passed. Researcher told students several true stories about successful person who started his life with failure, but he finally became success because of his spirit and optimism. After a small talk, researcher instructed students to open their handbook in order to discuss several items based on reading strategies which had been delivered by modeling it first before asking them to do independently.

Stated and Unstated Detailed Information
The first black literature in America was not written but was preserved in an oral tradition, in a rich body of folklore, songs, and stories, many from African origins. There are humorous tales, biblical stories, and stories of natural phenomena, of good and bad people, and bad of the wise and foolish. Many reflect how african Americans viewed themselves and their lives. The lyrics of blues, spirituals, and work songs speak of suffering and hope, joy, and pain, loved ones, and religious faith, and are an integral part of the early literature of black people in America.

The earliest existing written black literature as Lucy Terry’s poem “Bars fight,” written in 1746. Other eighteenth-century balck poets include Jupiter Hammon and George Moses Horton. The first african american to publish a book in America was Philips Wheatley. Balck poetry also flourished in the nineteenth century, during which the writings of almost forty poets were printed, the most notable of whom was Paul Laurence dunbar published eight volumes of poetry and eight novels and collections of stories.

More than three dozen novels were written by blacks between 1853 and 1899, but autobiography dominated African-american literature in the nineteeth century, as it had in the eighteenth. In the twentieth century however, fiction has presided, with Charles W. Chestnutt, America’s first balck man of letters, successfully bridging the two centuries. He began publishing three books published between 1900 and 1905. He was a pioneer of the “new literature” of the early 1900s, which aimed to persuade readers of the worth and equality of African Americans.


  1. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as part of the oral tradition of African American?

  1. humorous tales

  2. tales of adventure

  3. biblical stories

  4. animal stories

  5. stories of natural phenomena




  1. According to the passage, the lyrics of blues and spirituals are often concerned with

  1. the pain and joy in life

  2. loved ones and animals

  3. religion and nature

  4. wise and foolish people

  5. religion and foolish people


Discussion:

Question number 1, asking unstated detailed information

Strategies based instruction which can be applied to solve question above was: researcher instructed students to read the question first and find the key words (something which is questioned). The key words of the above question was “oral tradition of African American”, then copy the key words, paste to the passage, and do scanning technique to find the answer quickly. The key words “oral tradition of African American” can be found in the first paragraph of the pasage at line 2. Then, researcher instructed students to look around the items by eliminating wrong answers. Researcher guided students by asking “Did you find any phrases mentioned “humorous tales?”. All students answered “yesssss..”. What about biblical stories?” Students with the data source L-7 replied “yessss..., animal stories juga” L-5 continued “stories of natural phenomena juga ada bu.” So the correct answer is..? researcher asked, then students answered “Beeeeeeeeee,,, tales of adventure”. Researcher appraised students and said “Goooooddddd... At this evaluation, collaborator noted that several students said “Oalah cuma gitu aja, ternyata gampang banget ya cari informasi rinci.” Others replied, “He eh ik cepet banget. Tahu gini aku pasti lulus ujian kemarin.”



Question number 2, asking stated detailed information

Strategies based instruction which researcher’s applied was researcher instructed students to read the question first and find the key words (something which is questioned). The key words of the above question is “the lyrics of blues and spirituals”, then copy the key words, paste to the passage, and do scanning technique to find the answer quickly. The key words “the lyrics of blues and spirituals” can be found in the first paragraph of the pasage line 7. After that, the researcher instructs students to look around in finding the answers by eliminating wrong answers. The same strategies were applied in the questions number 3, 4, and 5.

Having finished discussing detailed questions, researcher invited students to continue in discussing the tone and course by taking State University Entrance Test items as example about the way how to implement reading strategies in finding the correct answer correctly and accurately. These were explained in the following explanation:


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