Research findings and discussion



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Completing Sentences

Transportation has changed greatly through the years. In ancient times people were able to travel only by foot. However, about 8000 years ago, they trained the ox, donkey, and horses for transportation. The invention of the wheel occured about 5000 years ago. From the time on, changes took place rapidly. The development of ships made seas and rivers important. The invention of trains and automobiles improved land transportation. Air travel developed rapidly in the first half of the twentieth century ____________




  1. Which of the following statement is the best conclusion of the paragraph

  1. finally, in the second half of this century space travel became reality

  2. however the space travel was not developed satisfactorily

  3. if travelling by air is cheaper and more convenient, more people will travel the globe by it

  4. thus, only land transportation developed greatly throughout this century

  5. it is no doubt that air travel will dominate our transportation system in the future


Discussion:

Question number 3, completing the ending of the paragraph

At this reading item, students had to find sentence that followed the paragraph above. First, researcher instructed students to read the last sentence of the last paragraph “Air travel developed rapidly in the first half of the twentieth century”. From this sentence, researcher instructed students to find the key words and try to relate it with the following topic. The key words of the sentence above was “air travel” and “the first half of twentieth century”. If these told the information of air travel in the first half of twentieth century, the ending paragraph must be discussed air travel in the second half of century. Therefore, the right answer was option A “Finally, in the second half of this century space travel became reality”.

______________. However, most of us only ride our bikes for fun or sport. If you dan’t ride for more practical purposes you are missing some of the best benefits of biking. For example, biking to work helps you save money on gas. A tank of gas for your can can cost $50.00 aweek, and more if you drive a long way to work. Biking also helps you keep the environment clean. Your car chokes the air with terrible chemicals but your bike will not. Use your bike more often and help other as well as yourself. Do simple errands such as going to anearby post office or convenience store on your bicycle. You can but different kinds of stuff at a convenience store. Leve your car at home when you can. You’ll save money on gas and help environment, too

SPMB 2007 KODE 441


  1. With which of the following sentences should the paragraph begin?

  1. most people realize that biking is excellent exercise, offering several benefits

  2. most people know that riding a bike is getting more popular

  3. people can save money if they do not drive their cars to their office very often

  4. if people want to keep their environment clean, they should stop driving their cars

  5. most people ride bikes to their officer to save gas and to keep our air clean

Question number 4, completing the beginning of the paragraph

At this question, students had to find sentence that preceded the text above. Therefore, researcher instructed students to read the first sentence of the passage and underline it “However, most of us only ride our bikes for fun or sport”. From this first sentence, researcher instructed students to find the key words and try to relate it with the previous sentence. The key words of the sentence above was “however”, “only” and “ride our bikes for fun or sport” on land. If these words tell that ride bike only for fun and sport, the previous sentence must discussed ride bike from the general side not only viewed from fun and sport purposes but also from other benefits. Therefore, the right answer was option A “Most people realize that biking is excellent exercise, offering several benefits”. The last reading materials discussed was determining the irrelevant sentence, the questions and reading strategies given can be seen in the following instructions.



Irrelevant Sentence

(1) In many organization, perhaps the best way to approach certain new project as to assemble a group of people into a team. (2) having a team of people attack a project offers several advantages. (3) first of all, a group of people has a wider range of knowledge, expertise, and skills than any single individual is likely to posess (4) a senior manager usually possessed high management skills due to his experience. (5) also because of the number of people involved and the greater resources they possess, a group can work more quickly in response to the task assigned to it and can come up with highly creative solutions to problems and issues. (6) sometimes these creative solutions come about because a group is more likely to make a risky decision that an individual might not undertake. (7) this is because the grooup spreads responsibility for a decision to all the members and thus no single individual can be held accountable if the decision turn out to be wrong.



SPMB 2007 KODE 741

5. The sentence which is irrelevant in the above paragraph is sentence number?



  1. 2

  2. 3

  3. 4

  4. 5

  5. 6

Strategies based instruction which can be applied to answer questions above were (1) researcher instructed students to choose a key word or idea in every sentences, the bold printed above was the key words of each sentence. (2) researcher asked students to relate a logical idea in every sentence, it was done by relating each key word in every sentence with the key words in the following sentences. Then (3) eliminating the wrong options. The irrelevant sentence was sentence 4 because the whole sentences told the advantages of team work, meanwhile sentence 4 merely told the senior manager skill. Therefore the correct answer was option C “4”.

After researcher had trained students with several questions, researcher asked students to do several exercises to lock their understanding and train themselves well in this kind of reading material and strategies. During this activity, students were focus and did every steps what researcher had been instructed. Meanwhile, researcher walked around the classroom, checked students’ answer, gave help if they faced difficulties. One by one researcher asked students to tell their obstacles in reading. Students with the data source L-9 raised her hand, “Yang dilihat hanya kalimat pertama aja kan bu kalo cari paragraph preceding?” Having heard students question, researcher nodded and said, “Iya dek.” Then, researcher came to students with the data source L-11, she seemed uncertain and pessimistic so researcher asked if she can do the reading items or not “Ada masalah dek? Coba ibu lihat jawaban kamu.” She allowed researcher to check her answers and surprisingly that she answered 4 items correctly from 6 items she had done. Spontaneously researcher said, “Wow bagus-bagus, banyak yang bener tapi untuk yang nomor 3, 5, dan 6 coba diperbaiki lagi dek. Ina lihat tu strateginya sama kayak yang nomor 2 ya.

In the last 20 minutes, researcher invited students to discuss their exercises. There were 15 items which students must be done, these were related to transition paragraph, completing sentence, and irrelevant sentence. Researcher instructed students to understand the question first and showed the way how to applied the strategies. Students seemed enthusiastic at this evaluating activities, when researcher asked them, “Nomor satu jawab apa dek?” altogether they answered, “Ceeeeeeeeeee.” Researcher smiled and nooded while saying, “Iya benar, jadi yang pertama pahami dulu soalnya, baru diterapkan strateginya.” One of students with the data source L-2 said “Ternyata belajar reading mudah ya bu... gak perlu tahu arti perkata kalo kita pake strategi membaca, jadinya bisa cepat ngerjainnya.” At this evaluation students seemed happy and satisfaction because students’ answers were commonly correct although mistakes were still found.

After evaluating students’ exercises, researcher interviewed students with several questions related to their feeling after the meeting, “ Do you still get difficulty in understanding transition paragraph, completing sentence, and irrelevant sentence?”. Student with the data source L-9 answered, “Udah lumayan bu sekarang, tahu kalo preceding sama following tu nanyain apa tapi kadang juga masih agak bingung.” Seeing the students with data source L-1 did not give any comments, researcher asked him, “Kalo Ivan gimana dek?” he answered, “Aku susah yang irrelevant bu, tadi aku cuma betul 2. Sulit nemuin yang salah, rasanya bener dan nyambung semua kalimat-kalimatnya.” Researcher smiled and gave him suggestion “Jangan sedih gitu donk, adik-adik semua harus jeli dan bisa menempatkan diri sebagai penulis teks agar bisa tahu mana kalimat yang gak nyambung.” Researcher then promised to students to explain the materials in the following meetings. Because there was a ringing bell, researcher closed the classroom by reminding students to keep practice those strategies at home and any reading they faced to make them accustomed and trained.

When researcher left the classroom, Students with the data source L-1 approached the researcher and said, “Bu NM tambahan dong bu, kapan kira-kira ada waktu? Pengen belajar reading nih..” researcher answered students question by saying, “Anytime you want, but please see me in my office and send me message first before you come.”



  1. The Fourth Meeting

The fourth meeting was conducted on Monday, November 8th 2010. The materials for the second meeting were (1) determining the reference, (2) determining the inference. At this meeting, the researcher and collaborator came to Alumni Class when the first bell was ringing, there were many students who had attended the class because it was the second meeting at the day. Students welcomed researcher and collaborator, they said “Hello”, others said “Good Morning mam...” researcher and collaborator answered almost altogether “Good Morning, students”. After that, researcher asked students condition and check their attendance list before going to the lesson. “Whose absent today?” spontaneously they shouted “Irfan and Tia mam”. The researcher replied “Are they ill or ...?” then the students cut researcher’s question by saying “UTS buuu...”. Then, one of students with data source L-12 asked researcher, “Hari ini belajar apa bu?” researcher answered students’ question by saying, “Reading dek.” Students replied, “Asyik, aku sekarang jadi seneng reading karena gak sesulit yang dibayangin, materinya hari ini apa bu?.” Researcher felt happy then said, “Wow, bagus jadi senang ibu dengarnya dek. Hari ini kita belajar tentang reference dan inference.” Researcher then came to the whiteboard, drew the chapter which would be discussed. Then, researcher explained the basic concept of determining the reference which was continued by drawing the inference. These were presented as follows:

The Basic Concept of Determining Reference

(1) Understanding the questions



  1. The pronoun “_____” in line ____ refers to?

  2. The word “______” in line _____ refers to?

(2) Reading strategies

Kinds of reading strategies related to find the reference are:


  1. read the question and understand the pronoun

  2. determine the plural and singular of the pronoun

  3. apply “look back form” to find the answer

  4. draw conclusion

After that, researcher continued her explanation in discussing reading materials related to drawing inference. Those were explained in the form of basic concept which consisted of understanding the questions and kinds of strategies used. As the previous materials, researcher explained the basic concept first before going to discuss the items.



The Basic Concept of Drawing Inference
(1) Understanding the questions

    1. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?

    2. How is the information of the last paragraph in the text organized?

(2) Reading strategies



      1. read the question first and focus on what is questioned

      2. find the idea of the paragraph by finding the key words in every sentences

      3. relate kinds of key words of the paragraph

Having explained those strategies step by step, researcher allowed students to write it in their handbook. While taking notes, students were listening to classical music which was played during teaching learning process. That morning classical music which was played was Mozart Andante Symphony no. 15 in G Major and Mozart Andante ma adagio Bassoon Concerto. After students had finished writing the materials, researcher invited them to discuss reading items. These procedures were explained in the following steps:



Determining reference

Carnivorous plants, such as the sundew and the venus flytrap, are generally found in humid area where there is inadequate supply of nitrogen and the soil. In order to survive, these plants have developed mechanisms to trap insects within their foliage. They have digestive fluids to obtain the necessary nitrogen from the insects. These plants trap the insects in avariety of ways. The sundew has sticky hairs on its leaves; when an insect lands on these leaves, it gets caught up in the sticky hairs, and the leaf wraps itself aaround the insect. The leaves of the venus flytrap function more like a trap, snapping suddenly and forcefully shut around an insect.




  1. The pronoun “they” in line 5 refers to _________

        1. humid areas

        2. these plants

        3. insects

        4. digestive fluids

  2. The pronoun “it” in line refers to ____________

  1. a variety

  2. the sundew

  3. an insect

  4. the leaf

Strategies based instruction in solving questions number 1 were researcher instructed students to read the question and understand the pronoun first, both its plural and singular. Students were asked to look before the pronoun could refer to, then apply “look back form” to find the answer. Humid areas, insects, and these plants came before the pronoun, so they were possible answer. Meanwhile digestive fluids came after the pronoun, so it was probably not the correct answer. The previous sentence was “In order to survive, these plants have developed mechanisms to trap insects within their foliage. They have digestive fluids to obtain the necessary nitrogen from the insects.” The words “they have...” refer to something which was animate, therefore the correct answer was option B “these plants”.

Then for question number 2, researcher instructed students to read the question and identify the pronoun first, both its plural and singular. Students were asked to look before the pronoun could refer to, then apply “look back form” to find the answer. A variety, the sundew, and an insect come before the pronoun, so they are possible answer. Meanwhile the leaf comes after the pronoun, so it is probably not the correct answer. The previous sentence is “The sundew has sticky hairs on its leaves; when an insect lands on these leaves, it gets caught up in the sticky hairs, and the leaf wraps itself aaround the insect.” Next teacher instruct students to try the three possible answer in the sentence in place of the pronoun. An insect gets caught up in the sticky hairs, rather than a variety or the sundew, so the best answer to this question is answer C “an insect.” In the middle of discussion, the third bell was ringing. So the discussion was stoped for a while. The break time was signed by a ringing bell and Mr. Jack’s messages, then continued by playing modern music. At this time, students were listening to modern music “Hal Terindah” which was sung by Seventeen while writing the materials. Students seemed enjoy it and some students sing along. Having finished the break time, researcher invited students to continue in discussing reading items.



Drawing inference

Many modern educational experts claim that teaching facts and academic skills is less important than achieving other social objectives. For some liberals, the schools must first change attitudes or provide nurturing in place of failed families or help establish equality and social justice. For some conservatives, the schools must first prepare kids for the workplace by molding them into supple corporate citizens, while others want the focus to be on family values, a competitive spirit, or other social or behavioral objectives. But the idea of simply educating kids seems to have taken a backseat to most educational experts and administrators, are more likely to overcome social barriers, more likely to have genuine self esteem, and most likely to be genuinely prepared for the challenges of life and the workplace. By emphasizing so many things besides a genuine, classical education, the educational establishment tends to sell our kids short and bring about many of the problems they claim to be solving.

Consider the case of Wesley Elementary School in Houston. According to Richard Nadler in the article, “Failing Grade”, Wesley has all the demographic markers of a schools bound for failure. Over 80 % of the students qualify for subsidized lunches, and nearly all are minorities (92% black, 7% Hispanic). Yet it ranks among the best schools of Houston, with first-graders placing at the 82nd percentile level in reading tests which is 50 points higher than the expected level for similiar at-risk schools.

What has made Wesley so successful? The answer is classical education in the form of Direct Instruction curriculum designed by Siegfried Engelmann, an example of the much ridiculed “sage-on-the-stage” approach. This Direct Instructionsystem boosts reading, writing, and math scores by 30 to 40 percentile points in at risk schools. Sadly, Engelmann, like others who successfully challenge popular fads in educational reform, has been rejected by much of the educational establishment. His success is an embarrassment to them.



SNMPTN 2010 KODE 744
3. From the second paragraph, it can be inferred that ..

  1. Wesley is a successful prestigious school

  2. The students at Wesley are from the haves

  3. The students at Wesley are mostly colored

  4. The colored students usually perform better

  5. Wesley curriculum is adopted by other schools

Strategies based instruction which can be applied to solve questions above are (1) researcher instructed students to read the question first and focus on what was being questioned. (2) find the idea of the paragraph by finding the key words in every sentence.

Consider the case of Wesley Elementary School in Houston. According to Richard Nadler in the article, “Failing Grade”, Wesley has all the demographic markers of a schools bound for failure. Over 80 % of the students qualify for subsidized lunches, and nearly all are minorities (92% black, 7% Hispanic). Yet it ranks among the best schools of Houston, with first-graders placing at the 82nd percentile level in reading tests which is 50 points higher than the expected level for similiar at-risk schools.
The key words of every sentence were in bold printed. (3) Relate kinds of key words of the paragraph. The key words of the first sentence were Wesley Elementary School, it was discussed more in the second sentence and by explaining certain information related to Wesley whic had all the demographic markers. Then, it was discussed more in the third paragraph which deeply elaborate the demographic markers of Wesley Elementary School which consists of 92% black and 7% hispanic. Therefore the inference of second paragraph was option C “the students at Wesley are mostly colored”.

After researcher had trained students with several questions, researcher asked students to do several exercises to lock their understanding and train themselves well in this kind of reading material and strategies independently. During this activity, students were encouraged to keep focus and did every steps as what researcher had been instructed. While waiting students did the exercies, researcher walked around the classroom, checked students’ answer, gave help if they faced difficulties. One by one researcher came to students’ seat. Students with the data source L-4 raised her hand, “Bu NM coba dilihat, ini bener gak?” researcher approached at her and said, “Iya dek, iya udah benar kok. Lanjutin lagi.” Then, researcher came to students with the data source L-8, “Gimana? Bisa?.” Asked researcher. Then she replied, “Inference-nya yang agak sulit bu, infer sama conclude tuh sama kan bu?”. Then researcher answered students’ question “Iya dek sama.

In the last 15 minutes, researcher invited students to discuss their exercises. There were 10 items which students must be done, these were related to determining reference and drawing inference. Researcher instructed students to understand the question first and showed the way how to applied the strategies. Students seemed enthusiastic at this evaluating activities, most of them can answer correctly in determining reference, but some students still get difficulty in drawing inference.

After evaluating students’ exercises, researcher interviewed students with several questions related to their feeling after the meeting, “Are determining reference and drawing inference still difficult for you?”. Student with the data source L-5 answered, “Lumayan gampang sih bu.” Then, researcher asked another students with the data source L-14, “How about you Andhika?” “Inference-nya sulit bu.” Seeing student with the data source L-15 did not give comment, researcher asked him, “Kalo Aaron bagaimana dek?” he answered, “Sama bu.” Researcher smiled and gave him the next question, “Apanya yang sama dek?” he laughed and said, “Sama gak bisa di irrelevant-nya bu.” Because there was a ringing bell, researcher closed the classroom by reminding students to keep practice those strategies at home and any reading they faced to make them accustomed and trained.



  1. The Fifth Meeting

The fifth meeting was conducted on Wednesday, 21 November 2010. Researcher did post test to measure and evaluate students’ ability in reading. This kind of post test consisted 20 items which were break down into several materials which had been explained in the sequence of acting. The class was conducted in 90 minutes and started from 09.45 A.M. and ended at 11.15 A.M. Researcher came to Alumni Class 10 minutes before classroom activity started, there were many students who had attended the class. Several students seemed reading their books and others prepared their stationery. None of them had a small talk, chatting or making noise, but it seemed that they were nervous. Researcher prepared the reading post test, then at 09.45 A.M the bell was ringing. Researcher explained schedule that day and started opening the class. After that, researcher ordered reading test and answer sheet to students by explaining several information related to the test.

Reading post test was started at 10.00 AM and ended at 11.00 A.M. The post test given was based on reading materials which had been explained before. At this reading post test, the researcher wanted to see and measure students’ sharp analysis, speed, accuracy, and effectiveness of reading strategies given. The description of Alumni Class during post test was quiet and every student did the exercises seriously. Several students looked confused and others seemed easy to do the test. An hour later, one by one students submitted their answer sheet. Then, researcher announced that time was up. Every student must submit their reading post test, while researcher asked students comment related to the test “What do you think about the test?”, then L-3 answered, “ Heum vocabnya suliitt..” L-1 said “Lumayan hehehehe”. Then, from the result of the test, researcher counted students’ achievement by counting the average score. At this post test, students seemed to have better mastery in comprehending English reading.




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