Research findings and discussion



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UMPTN 2001
The topic of the paragraph is ____________

  1. A new cure for ear infections

  2. The new device

  3. The use of magnet

  4. A new hearing device

  5. An ear device

The implementation of strategies was researcher asked students first to identify what kinds of reading it was, long reading or short reading. As researcher said, “What kind of text is it, short reading or long reading?” Students replied, “shortttt....” Next researcher continued to give the instruction to students, to read the first sentence of the paragraph and identify the key words of the sentence by underliying the key words using colorful pen. It was aimed to make students focus in what they faced.

At this process, students did what the researcher asked, they seemed eager and paid full attention in every researcher’s instruction. They read the first sentence and underlined the key words, key words of the paragraph above were “a new hearing device”. This kind of key words can be determined by identifying the verb or auxiliary which appeared after the key word. At this step, researcher asked students to make a circle around the verb or auxiliary to emphasize it. Auxiliary of the text above was the word “is”. Then, option A to E which did not consist the key word “a new hearing device” should be eliminated. Next, researcher instructed students to find exclamation in the following sentences. The exclamation sentence was in the second sentence “This device uses..”. It helped students to decide the correct answer related to find the topic of the passage. So it can be concluded that the right answer was option D “a new hearing device. The short reading text above used the reading strategies in finding the topic, these were 1) read the first sentence, 2) find the key words, and 3) key words were commonly found before verb/auxiliary.”

Long Reading

Solar photovoltaics (PVs) are arrays of cells containing a material that converts solar radiation into direct current electricity. Due to the growing demand for renewable energy sources, the manufacture of solar cells and photovoltaic arrays has advanced dramatically in recent years. Photovoltaics, which uses materials like amorphous silicon, polycrystalline silicon, mycrocrystalline silicon, cadmium telluride, and copper indium selenide/sulfide, are best known as a method for generating electric power by using solar cells to convert energy from the sun into electricity. Solar cells produce direct current electricity from light, which can be used to power equipment or to recharge a battery. The photovoltaic effect refers to photons of light knocking electrons into a higher state of energy to create electricity. The term photovoltaic denotes the unbiased operating mode of a photodiode in which current through the device is entirely due to the transduced light energy. Virtually all photovoltaic devices are some type of photodiode. The first practical application of photovoltaics was to power orbiting satellites and other spacecraft, but today the majority of photovoltaic modules are used for grid connected power generation. In this case an inverter is required to convert the DC to AC. There is smaller market for off-grid power to remote dwellings, boats, recreational vehicles, electric cars, roadside emergency telephones, remote sensing, and cathodic protection of pipelines.

Photovoltaic production has been doubling every 2 years, increasing by an average of 48 percent each year since 2002, making it the world’s fastest-growing energy technology. At the end of 2008, the cumulative global PV installations reached 15, 200 megawatts. Roughly 90% of this generating capacity consists of grid-tied electrical systems. Such installations may be ground-mounted (and sometimes integrated with farming and grazing) or built into the roof or walls of a building, known as Building Integrated Photovoltaics or BIPV for short. Solar PV power stations today have capacities ranging from 10-60 MW although proposed solar PV power stations will have a capacity of 150 MW or more. Driven by advances in technology and increases in manufacturing scale and sophistication, the cost of photovoltaics has declined steadily since the first solar cells were manufactured. Net metering and financial incentives, such as preferntial feed-in tariffs for solar-generated electricity, have supported solar PV installations in many countries.

UM I UNDIP, 2010
What is the main point of the passage?


    1. the production of photovoltaic is increasing

    2. photovoltaic is the best energy

    3. alternative materials can be used for photovoltaic

    4. solar photovoltaic is raised from the sun

    5. photovoltaic is used for telephone

The reading strategies applied in the second example was researcher asked students first to identify what kinds of reading it was, long reading or short reading. Next researcher continued to give the instruction to students to read the first sentence of each paragraph if it was long reading and underline the key word, key word of the paragraph above was “photovoltaics”. This key word can be determined by identifying the verb or auxiliary which appeared after the key word. At this step, researcher asked students to make a circle around the verb or auxiliary to emphasize it. Auxiliary of the text above was the word “are and has been doubling”. Then, option A to E which did not consist the key word “photovoltaicsshould be eliminated, because option A to E consist the key word, so the next strategies were researcher instructed the students to find exclamation in the following paragraph. Because this passage was long reading, the exclamation can be found in each pargraph. The exclamation sentences were solar photovoltaics (PVs) are arrays of cells containing a material that converts solar radiation into direct current electricity (paragraph 1). Photovoltaic production has been doubling every 2 years, increasing by an average of 48 percent each year since 2002 making it the world’s fastest-growing energy technology (paragraph 2). These exclamations helped students to decide the correct answer related to find the topic of the passage. Then, it can be concluded that the key word and topic of the first sentence which discussed solar photovoltaics was supported by the second paragraph. So it can be concluded that the topic of the passage was “the production of photovoltaic is increasing”. Therefore, the right answer was option A.

Having discussed and being drilled with the various reading items in finding the topic and main idea both in short and long reading, students showed their feeling and opinion. As student with the data source L-2 said “Buk nanya,, ” researcher replied, “Ya silahkan dek.” Student replied, “Topik sama main idea itu berarti gak selalu di depan ya bu?” researcher answered, “Iya betul, selalu cari penegasan di tiap-tiap kalimatnya.” Then, students with the data source L-10 said, “Aku jadi tahu sekarang bu, makanya kemarin jawabanku waktu TO salah. Hehehe, diterangin lagi bu.

The process of classroom teaching and learning was accompanied by classical music which was continuously played so students would be easier in accepting materials and feel comfort during teaching and learning processes. That morning, classical music played was Mozart “Cotillon (Allergo) Divertimento in B flat and concertante serenade no. 9 in D mayor.” After researcher had finished explaining the first materials. Then, it was continued by discussing the purpose of the text (see page 92). Then, it was continued by the implementation of those strategies in reading text. It can be seen in the following example:

A new hearing device is now available for some hearing impaired people. This device uses a magnet to hold the detachable sound-processing portion in place. Like other aids, it converts sound into vibrations. But it is unique in that can transmit the vibrations directly to the magnet, and then to the iner ear. This produces a clearer sound. The new device will not help all hearing-impaired people, only those with a hearing loss caused by infection or other problems in the middle ear. It will probably help no more than 20 percent of all people with hearing problems. Those people, however, who often have ersistent ear infections should find relief and restored hearing with the new device.

UMPTN 2001
What is the author’s main purpose in writing the text?


                  1. To describe a new cure for ear infections

                  2. To urge doctors to use the new device

                  3. To explain the use of the magnet

                  4. To inform people of a new hearing device

                  5. To study anew device for ear infection

Strategies based instruction which can be applied to solve questions above were (1) researcher instructed students to identify kinds of reading, whether it was the short or long reading. The passage above was kind of short reading, so the next strategies were (2) researcher instructed students to read the first sentences of the paragraph. (3) then researcher asked students to find the key words of the text. It indicated that these were the supporting information of paragraph. The key words of the text were a new hearing device. Therefore the correct answer to the question above was answer D “to inform people of a new hearing device.”

After those materials and strategies had been delivered, researcher asked students to write it in their handbook. Then, researcher continued her explanantion in finding the organization of the text (see page 93), researcher gave students example from State University Entrance Test 2010, because kind of question have just appeared in that year.

Many modern educational experts claim that teaching facts and academic skills is less important than achieving other social objectives. For some liberals, the schools must first change attitudes or provide nurturing in place of failed families or help establish equality and social justice. For some conservatives, the schools must first prepare kids for the workplace by molding them into supple corporate citizens, while others want the focus to be on family values, a competitive spirit, or other social or behavioral objectives. But the idea of simply educating kids seems to have taken a backseat to most educational experts and administrators, are more likely to overcome social barriers, more likely to have genuine self esteem, and most likely to be genuinely prepared for the challenges of life and the workplace. By emphasizing so many things besides a genuine, classical education, the educational establishment tends to sell our kids short and bring about many of the problems they claim to be solving.



Consider the case of Wesley Elementary School in Houston. According to Richard Nadler in the article, “Failing Grade”, Wesley has all the demographic markers of a schools bound for failure. Over 80 % of the students qualify for subsidized lunches, and nearly all are minorities (92% black, 7% Hispanic). Yet it ranks among the best schools of Houston, with first-graders placing at the 82nd percentile level in reading tests which is 50 points higher than the expected level for similiar at-risk schools.

What has made Wesley so successful? The answer is classical education in the form of Direct Instruction curriculum designed by Siegfried Engelmann, an example of the much ridiculed “sage-on-the-stage” approach. This Direct Instructionsystem boosts reading, writing, and math scores by 30 to 40 percentile points in at risk schools. Sadly, Engelmann, like others who successfully challenge popular fads in educational reform, has been rejected by much of the educational establishment. His success is an embarrassment to them.



SNMPTN 2010 KODE 744

The second paragraph is related to the first paragraph in which the second paragraph presents...



  1. An elaboration of purposes of an effective school

  2. A discussion on the requirements for the good school

  3. A real example rather than an opinion of good schooling

  4. An illustration to support the opinions on school subjects

  5. Evidence in favor of the value of social objectives

Strategies based instruction which can be applied to answer questions above were (1) researcher instructed students to read the question first and focus on what was questioned. At the item above, it asked the organization of the second paragraph. So focused to dig the information at the paragraph mentioned. (2) find key words and certain information related to the idea of each sentences.

The key words of sentences above were in the bold form. These were an example of what have been discussed in previous paragraph discussing a good school. Therefore the organization of second paragraph was option C “a real example rather than an opinion of good schooling”.

After the researcher had showed the implementation of the strategies, researcher asked students to do independent reading then discussed the answer. In the process of reading strategies based on instruction above, students felt happy and satisfied. It can be seen from students’ eagerness and enthusiasm during the class. Students smiled every time they did and answered the question correctly. They followed well every instruction and researcher’s guidance in discussing reading text. When the researcher asked students feeling in the end of the lesson in order to evaluate the teaching learning process by asking question, “What is your feeling after practicing reading strategies in aswering reading text?”. The students had different answers which mentioned how they were satisfied at this meeting, students with the data source L-4 said, “Ternyata gampang dan cepet banget ya bu.” Another student with the dat source L-5 said, “Kok gak dari dulu tahunya ya bu..” and student with the data source L-8 also said, “Ya ampun mudah banget ternyata..”

In the end of classroom activity, researcher reminded students to practice routinely in any reading they faced and discussed it later in the next meeting if they found difficulties or asked researcher in clinical time. Researcher closed the class by saying, “Thank you very much for your attention, see you next week, and Wassalamualikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh.”


      1. The Second Meeting

The second meeting was conducted on Friday, January 21th 2011. The materials for the second meeting were (1) finding detailed information, (2) identifying tone and course, and (3) vocabulary elaboration. At 08.50 A.M researcher came to Alumni Class with the collaborator, there were many students attending the class. Researcher and collaborator said hello to students, then collaborator asked permission to seat back. On the other hand, researcher opened the class, greeted students, and came to the whiteboard to draw the chapter which would be discussed. In the process of drawing a mind map, researcher asked students “Mau belajar apa dek hari ini? Reading ato grammar.? L-9 answered, “Reading aja.” Then researcher replied “Yakin, yang lain gimana?” L-2, L-3, L-4, and L-6 said altogether “Iya bu reading aja” continued by L-12 “iya bu ajarin cara cepetnya.” Students’ answer was really unpredictable because students previously r1equested to study grammar than reading. This condition became in turn 180 degree, students preferred starting class by studying reading to grammar and they did not mind to discuss reading in the whole of classroom meeting.

At 09.00 A.M the second bell was ringing, researcher started the class by explaining kinds of reading materials which will be discussed and its frequently appeared in State University Entrance Test. In main activities, teacher explained the basic concept of detailed questions first followed by identifying the tone and course, and vocabulary elaboration (see page 107-110).



Stated and Unstated Detailed Information

Technology plays an increasingly important part in our daily lives. While many technological developments may be beneficial – in the field of medicine, for instance – there are many others whose effects are less positive. We may find examples of these in the world of work, in the home, and in the whole area of freedom and privacy.

In the world of work, technological advances have had various negative effect. The development of robotics has meant that in industries, such as car manufacturing, robots are replacing people. They work faster and more accurately and they don’t need breaks. As a result, industrial workers see job opportunities decreasing further and unemployment levels rising. In addition, more and more people are working from home using personal computer, which means that they lose the stimulus that comes from working in direct contact with other people and may feel isolated.

Finally, there are the implication of information technology for freedom and privacy more facts about individuals are being stored in data banks, which may be accessed through network of computers. This creates an ever increasing risk of accidental or deliberate leaking of private details. Every day more information is collected by banks, credit card companies, consumer organizations and so on - and who is there to keep an eye on what happens to it? It’s certainly convenient to store information in this way, but I feel it could lead to long term problems. There may be other hidden dangers – theoretically, could a “thinking” computer start to use data againts us?

I sum up, I believe that we must be very careful with technology. While it has clear advantages there is also the danger that it could turn on us and we could find ourselves the victims of our success.

SPMB 2007 KODE 741


  1. Information technology for freedom and privacy may hurt computer users because ________

  1. Their personal data can be subject to crime

  2. More facts about individualis are stored in banks

  3. Freedom allows people to use other people’s data

  4. Individuals leak their private details to computer hackers

  5. Strict control is performed on the access of private data




  1. The technological advances in business also result in _______

  1. People’s preference to stay away from office work

  2. The decrease of socialization among working people

  3. Decreasing individualism among working people

  4. The use of more personal computers in offices

  5. Employees’ working more closely together to achieve greater benefits


Discussion:

Question number 1, asking stated detailed information

Strategies based instruction which can be applied to solve question above was: researcher instructed students to read the question first and find the key words (something which is questioned). The key words of the above question was “information technology for freedom and privacy”, then copy the key words, paste to the passage, and do scanning technique to find the answer quickly. The key words “information technology for freedom and privacy” can be found in the third paragraph of the pasage at line 1-2. Then, researcher instructed students to underline the key words and look at the right and the left side of the passage to find the correct answer.

Finally, there are the implication of information technology for freedom and privacy more facts about individuals are being stored in data banks, which may be accessed through network of computers. This creates an ever increasing risk of accidental or deliberate leaking of private details.

The left side of the key words did not give any clues, so researcher instructed students to see the right side of the sentence to find the correct answer. Therefore, students can find that information on technology for freedom and privacy created the risk of accidental or deliberate of private details. The best answer for the question number 1 is option C. Then, researcher invited students to continue discussing question number 2.



Question number 2, asking stated detailed information

Strategies based instruction which researcher’s applied was researcher instructed students to read the question first and find the key words (something which is questioned). The key words of the above question is “the technological advances in business”, then copy the key words, paste to the passage, and do scanning technique to find the answer quickly. The key words were “the technological advances in business” which can be found in the second paragraph of the pasage in line 1. After that, the researcher instructed students to underline the key words and look around in finding the answers by drawing conclusion among several sentences which followed it. At this way, students were encouraged to find the best answer which did not appear directly after the key words. Students had to review the paragraph, find the clues, and make generalization. The way how to find the clues were by understanding the reference and conjunction.

In the world of work, technological advances have had various negative effect. The development of robotics has meant that in industries, such as car manufacturing, robots are replacing people. They work faster and more accurately and they don’t need breaks. As a result, industrial workers see job opportunities decreasing further and unemployment levels rising. In addition, more and more people are working from home using personal computer, which means that they lose the stimulus that comes from working in direct contact with other people and may feel isolated.
After that, researcher instructed students to check the multiple choice option which had the similiar meaning with the clues found. The best answer for the question number 2 is option B “the decrease of socialization among working people”. The same strategies were applied in the questions number 3. After that, researcher instructed students to do the following reading items to measure students’ understanding related to the strategies. This activity took 5 minutes. Having finished discussing detailed questions, researcher invited students to continue in discussing the materials of tone and course.

Having finished writing materials, researcher continued her explanation in the implementation of the strategies. These were applied by researcher’s guidance and instruction. So, students followed certain instructions in answering reading text as the following description.

Traditionally, mental tests have been divided into two types. Achievement tests are designed to measure acquired skills and knowledge, particularly those that have been explicitly taught. The proficiency exams required by some states for high school graduation are achievement tests, aptitude tests are designed to measure a person’s ability to acquire new skills or knowledge. For example, vocational aptitude test can help you decide whether you would do better as a mechanic or musician. However, all mental tests are in some sense achievement tests because they assume some sort of past learning or experience with certain objects, words, or situations. The difference between achievement and aptitude test is one degree and intended use.



      1. This passage would most likely appear in

  1. An art journal

  2. A novel

  3. A psychology book

  4. A medical journal

  5. A fiction story




      1. The author’s attitude toward the subject of testing is

    1. Indifferent

    2. Critical

    3. Objective

    4. Emotional

    5. disbelieving

To answer the first question related to the course of the passage, researcher instructed students to read every first sentence and found the key words. The key words of every first sentence in the question above can be seen from several words which were in bold printed. Those words were regarded as the key words because they became the subject of each sentence. After knowing the key words, students were instructed to make generalization then came to the conclusion. The main discussion in each sentence was test related to psychological aspects, therefore the correct answer for the question above is option C “a psychology book”. Then, for question number 2, students were instructed to make generalization and conclusion related to the key words and kinds of verbs used. These gists were underlined to make it difference. Therefore the correct answer was “objective” as mentioned in option C.

The explanation above was continued by discussing the basic concept of vocabulary elaboration. It was the main difficulty items for students to be answered because not all students had enough vocabulary understanding. So the problems were how to make them know the meaning of every single word correctly and accurately. The whole strategies were explained step by step and accompanied by several examples to make it clear.

At this cycle, reading was taught differently. Researcher and collaborator focused on elaborating students’ understanding in vocabulary. So, researcher gave different strategies by drilling techniques. First, researcher gave students some basic and intermediate vocabularies, then instructed students to determine kinds of speech (noun, verb, adjective, or adverb) and identify the meaning based on several simple sentences. The followings were one of the examples:



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