Research findings and discussion



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Basic Vocabularies

AFFORD /    AmE   /

Here are two examples of potential use:



  1. Our car is breaking all the time and we should buy a new one. Unfortunately we can't afford it now.

  2. He won 1 million dollars last week! Now he can afford a trip wherever he wants!

Definition

AFFORD - [verb, adjective, auxiliary, noun] ________________________

Intermediate Vocabularies

COTTAGE /    AmE   /

Here are two examples of potential use:



  1. I always pack my suitcase at the end of June and spend holidays in my cottage in the mountains.

  2. I'm tired of living in a big city. I dream of leaving my flat and moving to a small cottage in a village.

Definition

COTTAGE - [verb, adjective, auxiliary, noun] __________________
Those basic and intermediate vocabularies were taught in three different strategies, first researcher modeled the way how to pronounce, second give the meanings by referring to the examples, and third identify parts of the speech. After that researcher instructed students to make conclusion of the meaning of each words. These strategies were applied routinely to improve students’ vocabulary.

In the end of the lesson, researcher evaluated the teaching learning process by asking question, “What is your feeling after practicing reading strategies in answering reading text?”. The students had different answers, several students said that, “Ternyata gampang dan cepet banget ya bu.” Another student said that, “Kok gak dari dulu tahunya ya bu..” and the other said that, “Ya ampun mudah banget ternyata..”



      1. The Third Meeting

The third meeting was conducted on Friday, January 21th 2011. The materials discussed were (1) determining transition paragraph both preceding and following paragraph, (2) completing text both beginning and ending, and (3) finding irrelevant sentence. The activity was focused on explaining several reading strategies related to the topic discussed (see page 126-128). At this meeting, the researcher explained reading materials by introducing the basic concept of transition paragraph and completing sentences which were much similiar. Continued by understanding the strategies used. The explanation of transition paragraph and completing sentence was combined because they had similiar concept and strategies. Researcher started her explanation by explaining what is preceding and following paragraph, beginning and ending sentence, and kinds of strategies used. After that, researcher continued her explanation in discussing reading materials related to irrelevant sentence. As the previous materials, researcher explained the basic concept first.

After those materials had been delivered, researcher gave students chance to take note for 15 minutes. After that researcher invited students to discuss reading items. At this activity, researcher gave students several instruction in applying reading strategies based instruction before asking them to do independently. It took 20 minutes from 09.40-10.00 A.M. So the rules were students followed certain instructions in answering reading text. These activities were recorded as follow:



Transition Paragraph

While draft laws are federal laws, marriage laws are state laws rather than federal; marriage regulations are therefore not uniform throughout the country. The legal marriage age serves as an example of this lack of conformity. In most states, both the man and the woman must be at least eighteen years old to marry without parental consent; however, the states of Nybraska and Wyoming require the couple to be at least nineteen, while the minimum age in Mississippi is twenty one. If parental permission given, then a couple can marry at sixteen in some states, and a few states even allow marriage before the age of sixteen, though a judge’s permissio, in addition to the permission of the parents, is sometimes required in this situation. Some states which allow couples to marry at such a young age are now considering doing away with such early marriages because of the numerous negative effects of these young marriages.




              1. The paragraph preceding the passage most probably discusses

                1. State marriage laws

                2. The lack of uniformity in marriage laws

                3. Federal draft laws

                4. The minimum legal marriage age

                5. The numerous negative effects of young marriage




              1. The topic of the paragraph following the passage is most likely to be

(A) disadvantages of youthful marriages

(B) reasons why young people decide to marry

(C) the age when parental consent for marriage is required

(D) a discussion of why some states allow marriages before the age of sixteen

(E) the minimum age of marriage
The above text was given by researcher to students as the example, then strategies based instruction which had been applied to answer questions above were: for question number 1 in which students have to find paragraph that preceded the text was researcher instructed students to read first sentence of the paragraph. Then find the key words, key words were words that can give clue and information about topic which came before the passage. In the question number 1, researcher instructed students to read the first line of the first paragraph and underlined it “while draft laws are federal laws, marriage laws are state laws rather than federal”. From this first sentence, researcher instructed students to find the key words and try to relate it with the previous topic. The key words of the sentence above was “draft laws”. If it told the marriage laws which were related to state laws, the previous topic discussed federal laws. Therefore, the right answer was option C “federal draft laws”.

For question number 2, students had to find paragraph that followed the paragraph above. Therefore, researcher instructed students to read the last sentence of the last paragraph. Then find the key words, key words were words that can give clue and information about topic which came after the passage. In the question number 2, researcher instructed students to read the last line of the last paragraph and underlined it “the numerous negative effects of these young marriages”. If it told the negative effects of young marriages, the following topic must elaborate deeply about the negative effects. Therefore, the right answer was option A “disadvantages of youthful marriages”. After researcher gave example to students, researcher gave them independent task to apply the strategies (see appendix 13).



Completing Sentences

___________ starvation is widespread in the Thirld World because of climate change, natural disaters, political turmoil, and wars – all of which disrup food productionand cause mass migrations of refugees are unable to produce food, and poor people cannot afford food. At the other hand of the scale, modern industrial societies account for most of the consumption of the world’s resources, although within these societies the resources are distributed unevenly among people of different classes. Both wealthy societies and wealthy individuals consumer most goods and service, but they also produce most of the world’s hazardous wwaste. We do not now whether there are enough food resources to go around.

SPMB 2007 KODE 741
With which of the following sentences should the paragraph begin

  1. It is not easy to overcome starvation since it is caused by political turmoil and wars

  2. Food cannot be grown in some regions because the soil is too poor

  3. People cannot survive solely on root crops, which are poor in nutrients

  4. Food shortage is a larged and growing problem in the world

  5. The quality of life does not affect the world’s resources as uch as other factors do

For question above, students had to find predict the sentence which preceded the paragraph above. At this item, researcher instructed students to read the first sentence of the text. Then, find the key words which can give clue and information about sentence which came before the passage. The key words were “starvation is widespread in the Thirld World”. From this sentence, it can be understood that the text talked about the starvation which happened in the Third World. So, it can be understood that the previous sentence started by explaining problems of food shortage in the general scope. Therefore, the right answer was option D “ food shortage is a larged and growing problem in the world”.

In Montana and Wyoming a cowboy’s life is harder in the winter than in other seasons. During the spring and fall round-ups, a cowboy works long hours. The weather is good, however, and he enjoys being out of doors. The sun shines almost every day, and it rarely rains. During July and August there is little work for a cowboy, and he can spend much of his time at rodeos, his favorite form of recreation. In the winter, as in the spring and fall, a cowboy also has a lot to do, but the severe weather makes his work very difficult. He often works in extreme cold and wind. Even when the weather is bad, he rides his horse continuously, watching over his stock and taking care of the weak animals that cannot stand the wind and cold _____________

SPMB 2007 KODE 441
With which of the following sentences should the paragraph end?


  1. Therefore, cowboys are usually considered very strong

  2. Thus, throughout the year cowboys work hard but they enjoy their social life

  3. To conclude, all cowboys are well trained and good at rodeos

  4. That’s why cowboys work every hard only during the spring and fall

  5. As a result of their hard work, cowboys do not socialize well

Strategies based instruction which can be applied to solve question above were researcher instructed students to find the key words in each sentence. The key words have to be able to give clues and information which sentence ended the passage. The key words above were underlined. Those underlined sentences gave clues that throughout the year cowboys work hard. Therefore, the right answer was option B that throughout the year cowboys work hard but they enjoy their social life. After that, researcher continued her explanation in discussing reading materials related to irrelevant sentence. As the previous materials, researcher explained the basic concept first.



Irrelevant Sentence

(1) ____________ (2) Thus, an elliptical galaxy has only a spheroidal component and looks much like the bulge and halo of a spiral galaxy. (3) Most of the interstellar medium in large elliptical galaxies consist of low density, hot x-ray, emitting gas like tha as in bubbles and supperbubbles in the Milky Way. (4) Elliptical galaxies usually contain very little dust or cool gas, although they are not completed dexoid of either. (5) Some have relatively small and cold gaseous disks rotating at their center. (6) Among large galaxies in the universe, most (75%-80%) are spiral or lenticular. (7) These disks may be the remnants of a collision with a spiral galaxy.


Which sentence is irrelevant to the text?

  1. 2

  2. 3

  3. 4

  4. 5

  5. 6

Strategies based instruction which can be applied to answer questions above were (1) researcher instructed students to choose a key word or idea in every sentence, the bold words above was the key words of each sentence. (2) researcher asked students to relate a logical idea in every sentences, it was done by relating each key words in every sentence with the key words in the following sentences. And (3) eliminating the wrong option. The irrelevant sentence was sentence 6 because the whole sentences relate each other, meanwhile sentence 6 jumped from the idea of the text. Therefore the correct answer was option D “6”.

After researcher had trained students with several questions, researcher asked students to do several exercises to train themselves became independent students. During this activity, students were encouraged to keep focus and did every steps as what researcher had been instructed. While waiting students did the exercies, researcher walked around the classroom, checked students’ answer, gave help if they faced difficulties. One by one researcher came to students’ seat and asked “Ada kesulitan?” There were 8 items which students must be done, these were related to transition paragraph, completing sentences, and determining irrelevant sentence. Researcher instructed students to understand the question first and practiced every steps in reading strategies given.

After evaluating students’ exercises, researcher interviewed students with several questions related to their feeling after the meeting, “Are determining transition paragraph and completing sentence still difficult for you?”. Student with the data source L-12 answered, “Udah bisa sekarang bu.” Then, researcher asked another students with the data source L-4, “How about you?” “Kalo aku irrelevant sentence-nya yang belum lancar bu.” Student with the data source L-1 replied, “Iya bu irrelevant-nya sulit?” Researcher smiled and gave him the next question, “Apanya yang sama dek?” he laughed and said, “Sama gak bisa di irrelevant-nya bu.” Researcher then advised students practice those strategies at home and any reading they faced to make them accustomed and trained.

When the researcher left the classroom, Students with the data source L-1, L-4, and L-5 approached the researcher and said, “Bu NM bisa ngasih tambahan gak? Ibu kosong kapan?” researcher answered students’ question by saying, “Ibu pagi kosong dek, gimana kalo dateng ke kantor ibu aja di Majapahit ato Lamper? Sekalian ajak yang lain ndak papa. Ntar SMS dulu aja ya”.








      1. The Fourth Meeting

The fourth meeting was conducted on Monday, February 7th 2011. The materials for the fourth meeting were determining reference and drawing inference. Meanwhile, the activities were divided into pre activities, main activities, and post activities. At this meeting, researcher did the same teaching model in the classroom by giving explanation related to the materials first and then, it was continued by discussing the strategies given. Next, researcher explained the basic concept of determining reference which was continued by drawing inference (see page 139-140). After students had finished writing the materials, researcher invited them to discuss reading items. These procedures were explained in the following steps:

Determining reference

Fat is fuel, the body’s richest source of energy. It provides nine calories (kcal) of energy per gram, more than double that provided by either protein (four kcal) or carbohydrate (3.75 kcal). If you eat a lot of calories and don’t burn them off, your body will store them as flab. That is why eating a high-fat diet---inherently high in calories---makes people fat.



UM UNDIP 2007
The word “them” in the third sentence of the text refers to ...

  1. protein and carbohydrate

  2. a lot of calories

  3. people

  4. high-fat diets

  5. carbohydrate substances

Strategies based instruction which can be applied to solve questions above were researcher instructed students to read the question and understand the pronoun first, both its plural and singular. Students asked to look before the pronoun could refer to, then apply “look back form” to find the answer.

If you eat a lot of calories and don’t burn them off

mundur


After that, researcher continued her explanation in discussing reading materials related to drawing inference.

Drawing inference

Heat kills. A heat wave in France in 2003 caused an estimated 35,000 deaths, and a hot spell similiar to the one Britain had last month caused more than 2, 000 deaths, according to official estimates. Although no particular heat wave can be directly attributed to global warming, it will make such events more frequent.

UM UNDIP 2007
It can be inferred from the text that ...

A. The heat wave in France in 2003 was stronger than that in Britain

B. A heat wave is a quality of global warming

C. A heat wave has caused a big number of deaths in European countries

D. Global warming may happen in the future

E. Global warming may happen more frequently


Strategies based instruction which can be applied to solve questions above are (1) researcher instructed students to read the question first and focus on what was questioned. (2) find the idea of the paragraph by finding the key words in every sentence. The key words of every sentence were in bold form. (3) Relate kinds of key words of the paragraph. The key word of the first sentence was heat, it was discussed more in the second sentence. Therefore the inference of the text above was option A “the heat wave in France in 2003 was stronger than that in Britain”. After researcher had trained students with several questions, researcher asked students to do several exercises to lock their understanding and train themselves well in this kind of reading material and strategies independently. During this activity, students were encouraged to keep focus and did every steps as what researcher had been instructed. While waiting students did the exercies, researcher walked around the classroom, checked students’ answer, gave help if they faced difficulties.

      1. The Fifth Meeting

On Wednesday, February 16th 2011 researcher did the second post test to measure and evaluate students’ ability in reading. This kind of post test consisted 20 items which were break down into several materials. The class was conducted in 90 minutes, it was started from 09.45 and ended at 11.15 A.M. when the first bell was ringing, researcher came to Alumni Class. Some of the students had attended the class and seemed opened their book and noted, others seemed nervous and worry. Then, researcher greeted them and prepared reading post test, the post test given was based on reading materials which have been explained in the previous meetings.

The class was quiet and every students did the exercises seriously. Several students looked confused and others seemed easy to do the test. An hour later, researcher announced that time was up. Every students must be submitted their reading post test. From the result of the test, the researcher counted students’ achievement by counting the average score. At the second post test, students seemed to have better mastery in comprehending English reading. It could be seen from the post test result that was better than the result of the previous cycle (see appendix 8).



    1. Observing and Monitoring the Action

Having finished the post test, researcher came to the next steps in observing and monitoring the action. It discussed students progress during Classroom Action Research.

              1. The improvement on students’ reading competence

Basically, teaching and learning process in the second cycle could run well like the researcher planned. It was reflected in students’ reading post test which showed that students’ reading competence increased after Classroom Action Research had been implemented.

Table 4.8

The Result of Post Test 2



No


Reading Competence

The Average Score


Improvement

Pre Research

Post Test 1

Post Test 2

1

Topic & Main Idea

64.4

68.8

82.2

13.4

2

Detailed information

43.3

51.6

63.3

11.7

3

Transition paragraph

0

43.4

63.3

20

4

Completing sentence

40

56.6

70

13.4

5

Organization of the text

60

66.6

73.3

6.7

6

Purpose of the text

66.6

80

86.6

6.6

7

Vocabulary

36.6

50

66.6

16.6

8

Reference

73.3

80

93.3

13.3

9

Inference

53.3

60

73.3

13.3

10

Tone & Course

66.6

73.3

76.6

3.3

11

Irrelevant sentence

64.4

66.6

73.3

6.7

TOTAL

51.68

63.35

74.70

11.33

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