Research findings and discussion



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The Second Meeting

The second meeting was conducted on Friday, March 18th 2011. The materials in this meeting were (1) finding detailed information, (2) identifying tone and course, and (3) vocabulary elaboration (see page 107-110). At 08.50 A.M researcher came to Alumni Class with the collaborator. Students had attended the class because it was the second lesson. Researcher and collaborator said hello to students, then collaborator asked permission to seat back. Meanwhile researcher opened the class and greeted students enthusiastically and happily. Researcher told students that she was very happy because the night before one of students in Alumni Class had sent her message containing information to teach them reading. The message was “Bu NM saya ifa siswa kelas Alumni, besok ibu kan ngajar kelasku kita belajarnya reading aja ya bu.” After that researcher asked students,”What will you want to discuss this day?” students replied researcher question by saying, “Reading aja bu, kan sekarang tesnya reading semua. Lagian duluan SNMPTN daripada Ujian Mandiri”.

Having heard students’ response, researcher came to the whiteboard to draw the chapter which would be discussed. Meanwhile, The reading strategies were applied by researcher’s guidance and instruction. So, students followed certain instructions in answering reading text as the following description.

Rivalry among business and service industries is called competition. This feature of a market economy encourages business to improve their goods and services, keep their prices affordable, and offer new products to attract more buyers.

There are four basic types of competition in business that form a continuum from pure competition through monopolistic competition and oligopoly to monopoly. (see diagram). At one end of the continuum, pure competition results when every company has a similar product. Companies that deal in comodities such as wheat or corn are often involved in pure competition. In pure competition, it is often the ease and efficiency of distribution that influences purchase.

In contrast, in monopolistic competition, several companies may compete for the sale of items that may be substituted. The classic example of monopolistic competition is coffee and tea. If the price of one is perceived as too high, consumers may begin to purchase the other. Coupons and other discounts are often used as part of a marketing strategy to influence sales.

Oligopoly occurs when a few companies dominate the sales of a product of service. For example, only five airline carriers control more than 70 percent of all ticket sales in the United States. In oligopoly, serious competition is not considered desirable because it would result in reduced revenue for every company in the group. Although price wars do occur, in which all companies offer substantial savings to customers, a somewhat similar tendency to raise prices simultaneously is also usual.

Finally, monopoly occurs when only one firm sells the product. Some monopolies have been tolerated for producers of goods and services that have been considered basic or essential, including electricity and water. In these cases, it is government control, rather than competition, that protects and influences sales.




      1. An example of a product in monopolistic competition is _______

(A) corn

(B) electricity

(C) airline tickets

(D) coffee

(E) jewelry


      1. The word tolerated in paragraph 5 could best be replaced by

(A) permitted

(B) reserved

(C) criticized

(D) devised

(E) adapted


      1. What does the author mean by the statement “Although price wars do occur, in which all companies offer substantial savings to customers, a somewhat similar tendency to raise prices simultaneously is also usual?”

(A) it is not unusual for all companies to increase prices at the same time

(B) it is common for companies to compete for customers by lowering prices

(C) customers may lose money when companies have price wars

(D) prices are lower during price wars, but they are usually higher afterward

(E) Prices tends to be uncertain during price wars


      1. The author mentions all of the following as characteristic of monopoly except

(A) the use of coupons or other discounts

(B) government control

(C) basic or essential services

(D) only one firm

(E) protection from the government


      1. It can be inferred that this passage was printed in ...

(A) a business text book

(B) a government document

(C) an airline brochure

(D) a news paper

(E) a health journal
Discussion:

Question number 1, asking stated detailed information

Strategies based instruction which researcher’s applied was researcher instructed students to read the question first and find the key words (something which is questioned). The key words of the above question is “an example of a product in monopolistic competition”, then copy the key words, paste to the passage, and do scanning technique to find the answer quickly. The key words “an example of a product in monopolistic competition” can be found in the third paragraph of the pasage line 3. After that, the researcher instructed students to look around in finding the correct answers by eliminating wrong answers. Therefore the best answer is D “coffee.”



Question number 2&3, asking vocabulary

Strategies based instruction which were applied were: researcher instructed students to read the question first, copied the vocabulary questioned, pasted to the passage and understood the context. For example, to answer the first question above, several strategies applied were: (1) read the question, (2) copy the vocabulary questioned “tolerated”, (3) paste to the passage and it will be found in the fourth paragraph. After that, (4) understand the context by seeing the words around. The words around the word tolerated was “Some monopolies have been tolerated for producers of goods and services that have been considered basic or essential, including electricity and water”. Therefore the correct answer for question was A “permitted.” The next example was question number 3, first researcher asked students to read the question, copy the vocabulary questioned, paste to the passage and it will be found in the third line. Then, understand the context. Therefore, the answer of question was E “prices tends to be uncertain during price wars.



Question number 4, asking stated detailed information

Strategies based instruction which can be applied to solve question above was: researcher instructed students to read the question first and find the key words (something which is questioned). The key words of the above question was “characteristic of monopoly”, then copy the key words, paste to the passage, and do scanning technique to find the answer quickly. The key words “characteristic of monopoly” can be found in the last paragraph of the pasage at line 2.

Then, researcher instructed students to look around the items by eliminating wrong answers. Researcher guided students by asking “Did you find any phrases mentioned “government control”?. All students answered “yesssss..”. “What about basic and essential service?” Students with the data source L-7 replied “yessss..., only one firm juga” L-5 continued “protection from the government juga ada bu.” So the correct answer is..? researcher asked, then students answered A “the use of coupons and other discount”. Researcher appraised students and said “Goooooddddd... let’s discuss question number 5.”

Question number 5, determining the course of the text

Reading strategies based instruction which can be applied to answer questions above were: researcher instructed students to read found the key words. The key words of every paragraph in the question above can be seen from several words which were in bold printed.

Rivalry among business and service industries is called competition. This feature of a market economy encourages business to improve their (paragraph 1)

There are four basic types of competition in business that form a continuum from pure competition through monopolistic competition and oligopoly to monopoly. (paragraph 2)

In contrast, in monopolistic competition, several companies may (paragraph 3)

Oligopoly occurs when a few companies dominate the sales of (paragraph 4)

Finally, monopoly occurs when only one firm sells (paragraph 5)


Those words were regarded as the key words because they became the subject of each paragraph. After knowing the key words, students were instructed to make generalization then came to the conclusion. The main discussion in each sentences was business and company or firm, therefore the correct answer for the question above is A “a business the book”. After that, researcher drilled students with vocabulary elaboration (see appendix 13).

        1. The Third Meeting

The third meeting was conducted on Wednesday, March 3th 2011. The materials discussed were (1) determining transition paragraph both preceding and following paragraph, (2) completing text both beginning and ending, and (3) finding irrelevant sentence. The activity was focused on explaining several reading strategies related to the topic discussed. The activities in the third meeting were divided into pre activities, main activities, and post activities. At this meeting, researcher did the same teaching model in the classroom by giving explanation related to the materials first (see page 126-128). Then, it was continued by discussing the strategies given.

Text 1

(1) ____________________ (2) Leonardo da Vinci made experimental models of flying machines in the fifteenth century. (3) the most famous work of Leonado da Vinci was Monalisa painting which has been admired for centuries. (4) a Frenchman, de Rogier, made the first baloon flight in 1782. (5) in 1842, an Englishman, Henson made a model of a steam-powered aircraft. (6) Henry Otto Lilienthal made the first glider in Germany. (7) In the early twentieth century, the first engine-powered, heavier-than-air planes were made and flown by the North Americans, Orville and Wilbur Wright, and the Brazilian Alberto Santos-Dumont.




  1. Which of the following statement could best begin the paragraph?

        1. Leonardo da Vinci is the one who painted Monalisa

        2. There were several discoveries in the field of science

        3. The science of aviation has developed greatly over the years

        4. The most well known discoveries throughout the 17th and 18th is aircraft

        5. Air transportation was greatly influenced by Germany scientist




  1. Which sentence is irrelevant to the text?

        1. 2

        2. 3

        3. 4

        4. 5

        5. 7


Discussion

Strategies based instruction which can be applied to answer questions above were, students were instructed to read every first sentence of the text. Then find the key words, key words were words that can give clue and information about sentence which came before the passage. Key words which were found were signed in bold printed. See the following explanation



Leonardo da Vinci made experimental models of flying machines in the fifteenth century. (sentence 2)

a Frenchman, de Rogier, made the first baloon flight in 1782. (sentence 4)

in 1842, an Englishman, Henson made a model of a steam-powered aircraft. (sentence 5)

Henry Otto Lilienthal made the first glider in Germany. (sentence 6)

In the early twentieth century, the first engine-powered, heavier-than-air planes were made and flown by the North Americans, Orville and Wilbur Wright, and the Brazilian Alberto Santos-Dumont. (sentence 7)
Those words were regarded as the key words because they became the subject of each sentences. Key words above discussed several discoveries in the field of science, therefore the best answer for the question above is option B. Meanwhile, for determining the irrelevant sentence, strategies based instruction which can be applied to answer questions above were (1) researcher instructed students to choose a key word or idea in every sentences, the bold words above was the key words of each sentences. (2) researcher asked students to relate a logical idea in every sentences, it was done by relating each key words in every sentence with the key words in the following sentences. And (3) eliminating the wrong option. The irrelevant sentence was sentence 3 because the whole sentences told the discoveries in the field of science, meanwhile sentence 3 told the most famous work of Leornardo da Vinci “Monalisa painting” which is in the field of art.

Text 2

The Celtic languages are a group of languages of northern europe that are descendents of the Indo-European family of languages. These languages developed from the language of the Celts, a warlike civilization originating in the eastern part of central European, in the northern Alps, and along the Danube during the Bronze Age. The Celts reached the height of their civilization during the Iron age, the last five centuries B.C., and they fanned out from their original hemoland into many parts of continental Europe and across the channel and into the British Isles. Celtic languages were spoken in much of western Europe during Pre-Roman and Roman Times. Place names of Celtic origin can be found today all over the British Isles and France, in northern Spain and Italy, and in Switzerland and parts of Germany.

Rather than one language, the Celtic languages consist of two distinct clusters: the Gaelic group and the Brythonic group. These two clusters of languages most likely developed from dialects of the same language, the language of Celts in their original homeland. These two dialect were most likely mutually intelligible to some degrees as late as the fourth century. The Gaelic group of Celtic languages consists of Irish, Scottish, and Manx, the language of the Isle of Man. The Brythonic group of Celtic languages includes welsh, Cornish, Breton, and Gaulish, the language of Gaul Prior to the days of the Roman empire, with its Latin-speaking population.

Many though not all, of the Celtic language are either extinct or are in the process of becoming extinct. Gaulish apparently dissappeared around 600 A.D. Cornish and Manx both actually became extinct, the former in the nineteenth century and the later just a few decades ago, but both are being revived and are now taught in a few schools each. Scottish, irish, and Breton are all declining in use. There are under a hundred thousand speakers of Scottish Gaelic, mostly on the northern Hebridean Islands; there are more than a hundred thousand speakers of Irish, mainly in the western countries of Ireland; there are about a half million speakers who use Breton on a daily basis. In all these situations, though, the rate of transmission to new generations is low, and this does not bode well for the survival of these languages. Of all the Celtic languages, perhaps only Welsh has a strong hold on the future




  1. The paragraph following the passage most likely discusses

        1. How Wels is surviving

        2. Efforts to classify Celtic language

        3. Languages that preceded Celtic language

        4. How to pressure Celtic language

        5. How to deal with the Celtic language

Strategies based instruction which can be applied to answer questions above in which students had to find paragraph that followed the paragraph was researcher instructed students to read the last sentence of the last paragraph. Then find the key words, key words were words that can give clue and information about topic which came after the passage. Researcher instructed students to read the last line of the last paragraph and underlined it “Of all the Celtic languages, perhaps only Welsh has a strong hold on the future.” From the last sentence, researcher instructed students to relate it with the following topic. The key words of the sentence above was “perhaps only Welsh has a strong hold on the future”. If it mentioned Welsh in the future, the following topic must discuss how Welsh is surviving in the future. Therefore, the right answer was option A.

After evaluating students’ exercises, researcher interviewed students with several questions related to their feeling after the meeting, “ Do you still get difficulty in understanding transition paragraph, completing sentence, and irrelevant sentence?”. Student with the data source L-13 said, “alhamdulillah udah bisa bu sekarang.

When researcher left the classroom, Students with the data source L-2 approached the researcher and said, “Bu NM besok kita ke Majapahit ya tambahan” researcher answered students question by saying, “Anytime you want, but please see me in my office and send me message first before you come.”




  1. The Fourth Meeting

The fourth meeting was conducted on Friday, April 8th 2011. At 09.00 A.M. The materials discussed were (1) determining the reference, (2) identifying the inference. The activity was focused on explaining several reading strategies related to the topic discussed. The activities in the third meeting were divided into pre activities, main activities, and post activities. At this meeting, researcher did the same teaching model in the classroom by giving explanation related to the materials first (see page 139-140). After that, researcher continued her explanation in discussing reading materials related to drawing inference. Those were explained in the form of basic concept which consisted of understanding the questions and kinds of strategies used. As the previous materials, researcher explained the basic concept first before going to discuss the items. After students had finished writing the materials, researcher invited them to discuss reading items. These procedures were explained in the following steps:

Improved method of transportation have made distance between places seems smaller. In 1856, people travelled from New York to California by train and stagecoach. The trip took 29 days, in the 1869, the entire trip could be made by train and required only 7 days. In 1930, fast trains travelled from coast in less than 4 days. Finally, today airplanes can cross thee country in less than 7 hours. Thus, in just over 100 years, the travel time has been reduced from 29 days to a matter of hours.


From the text we can conclude that?

        1. Time has made transportation distance smaller

        2. The improvement of the means of transportation from time to time has made us need less time to travel

        3. Development in transportation media makes the distance shorter and thus makes us more convenient

        4. Time and distance are the most essential part of transporatation

        5. The discovery of airplanes have been the starting point of modern transportation

Strategies based instruction which can be applied to solve questions above are (1) researcher instructed students to read the question first and focus on what was questioned. (2) find the idea of the paragraph by finding the key words in the text.



Improved method of transportation have made distance between places seems smaller. In 1856, people travelled from New York to California by train and stagecoach. The trip took 29 days, in the 1869, the entire trip could be made by train and required only 7 days. In 1930, fast trains travelled from coast in less than 4 days. Finally, today airplanes can cross thee country in less than 7 hours. Thus, in just over 100 years, the travel time has been reduced from 29 days to a matter of hours.
The key words were in bold form. (3) Relate the key words of the paragraph. The key words of the paragraph above were transportation have made distance between places seems smaller, it was discussed more in the following sentence and by explaining certain information related to its development. Therefore the best answer was option B “the improvement of the means of transportation from time to time has made us need less time to travel.

After researcher had trained students with several questions, researcher asked students to do several exercises to lock their understanding and train themselves well in this kind of reading material and strategies independently. In the last 15 minutes, researcher invited students to discuss their exercises. Researcher instructed students to understand the question first and showed the way how to applied the strategies. Students seemed enthusiastic at this evaluating activities, most of them can answer correctly in determining reference, and in drawing inference. At the end of classroom activity, students seemed happy and satisfaction because their answers were commonly correct although mistakes were still found.




  1. The Fifth Meeting

The fifth meeting was conducted on Wednesday 13 February 2011 researcher did post test to measure and evaluate students’ ability in reading (see appendix 9). Students started reading post test at 10.00 AM and ended at 11.00 A.M. The class was quiet and every students did the exercises seriously. Several students looked confused and others seemed easy to do the test. An hour later, researcher announced that time was up. Every students must be submitted their reading post test, while researcher asked students comment related to the test. “what do you think about the test?”, researcher asked. Then L-2 answered “mudah-mudahan ya bu hehehehe” it continued by L-7 “semoga...aja bu”

After asking several questions to students related to the test, researcher invited students to check their answer by using the clues which have been provided by the text. In the last 10 minutes, researcher discusseed the questions with the students. Asking the students’ answer, giving clues in each paragraph to make finding answers easier. Some students asked and discussed about their answers. From the result of the test, the researcher counted students’ achievement by counting the average score. At the third post test, students seemed to have better mastery in comprehending English reading. It could be seen from the post test’s result in cycle 3 that was better than the result of the previous tests (see appendix 10).



  1. Observing and Monitoring the Action

Observing and monitoring the action was the following phase which should be done by researcher after cycle 3 had been done. At this phase, researcher evaluated everything happened during classroom activities through classroom observation, interviews, and test. Classroom observation was carried out during teaching and learning processes. It was done by the researcher and the collaborator in every meeting. Since there were five meetings in cycle 3, the observation was done in five times. Meanwhile the interview was carried out after each meeting had been finished. Furthermore to measure students’ improvement and progress in reading competence, researcher used reading test. Based on the Classroom Action Research, it was found that there were some results of the research. These were:

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