Restructuring the teaching of the learning area: life orientation through research



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THE IMPACT OF RESEARCH ON THE TEACHING OF THE LEARNING AREA: LIFE ORIENTATION


RESTRUCTURING THE TEACHING OF THE LEARNING AREA: LIFE ORIENTATION THROUGH RESEARCH

  • Reality: Teaching within the Higher Education environment has changed dramatically over the past years.

  • The Stellenbosch University (SU) vision for 2012.

  • Teaching at SU: Continuous renewal of all teaching and learning programmes and the creation of effective learning and study opportunities. (SU Policy on Learning and Teaching: 2007).

  • Reality: The working environment that the student is prepared for, the Teaching environment, has also changed dramatically in South Africa since the introduction of Outcomes Based Education (1997).

    • Teaching at schools: Teachers that are qualified, competent, dedicated and caring. Individuals who will fulfill the various roles outlined in the Norms and Standards for Educators of 2000 (Government Gazette No 20844).


RESTRUCTURING THE TEACHING OF THE LEARNING AREA: LIFE ORIENTATION THROUGH RESEARCH

  • Challenges: New challenges have emerged in terms of the needs of students within the Higher Education environment and the realties for which they must be prepared for in order to meet the demands of an ever changing professional arena.

  • Professional preparation: Teachers as Learning Area/Phase specialists.

  • Challenges: Realities within society.

  • Lifestyle and societal changes: Teachers / Educators that are key contributors to the transformation of South African society.



THE IMPACT OF RESEARCH ON THE TEACHING OF THE LEARNING AREA: LIFE ORIENTATION

  • Presentation structure

  • The task

  • The NCS

  • Learning Areas

  • Implementation of the NCS

  • Problems: Motivation for research

  • FIRLT Research opportunity

  • Pilot study: Research findings

  • The future



REALITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR THE TEACHING OF THE LEARNING AREA: LIFE ORIENTATION

  • Introduction & background

  • The development of any new educational curriculum is a major challenge for any nation.

  • Through the selection of it’s content, it represents our priorities and assumptions of what constitutes “good education

  • and

  • how we see the new form of society being realised through our children and learners.



BACKGROUND

  • BACKGROUND

  • What kind of learners are envisaged?

  • The curriculum aims to develop the full potential of each learner, … and seeks to create lifelong learners who are confident and independent, literate, numerate and multi-skilled, compassionate, with a respect for the environment and the ability to participate in society as a critical and active citizen.

  • Challenge?

  • To be able to deliver the kind of learners that is envisaged by the NCS?



How can we achieve the aims and objectives of such an endeavor? …

  • How can we achieve the aims and objectives of such an endeavor? …

  • Strategies of the Constitution, Values and Nation building find expression in the National Curriculum Statement.

  • We must however be realistic about what a curriculum can and cannot achieve.

  • How can a curriculum be successful?

  • What is it dependant on? …

  • - Certain structures …

  • - Educators

  • - Learners

  • - ?



  • Educators are key contributors to the transformation of education in SA.

  • What kind of teachers are envisaged?

  • Teachers who are qualified, competent, dedicated and caring. Individuals who will fulfill the various roles outlined in the Norms and Standards for Educators of 2000 (Government Gazette No 20844).

  • Teachers as mediators, interpreters, designers of learning programmes and materials, leaders, administrators, managers, scholars, researchers, community members, citizens, assessors and learning area/phase specialists.



  • Realities?

  • South Africa’s fiercest educational battle at the moment is the successful and effective implementation of OBE

  • (Botha, 2002)

  • Major problems?

  • Inadequate training of teachers to teach in an outcomes-based manner

  • Lack of financial resources to train these teachers efficiently and effectively

  • (Chisolm, 2000)



  • The successful implementation of OBE in SA schools is hampered by the lack of resources and the lack of knowledge and skills of teachers and managers

  • (Todd & Mason, 1999)

  • A major challenge for Life Orientation (LO) as a new learning area is the preconceptions that exists about it. Teachers and especially school managers will have to revisit their values and attitudes and adjust and innovate their teaching practices.



  • RNCS: Learning Area Statements (LAS):

  • - Each LAS identifies main Learning Outcomes to be achieved.

  • - Each LAS specifies Assessment Standards for Learning Outcomes to be achieved.

  • Learning Areas: Each a field of knowledge, skills and values with unique features as well as connections with other Learning Areas and fields of knowledge.



  • NCS Learning Programmes:

  • The NCS Grades R-9 implemented in schools by means of Learning Programmes.

  • These are structured and systematic arrangements of activities that promote the attainment of learning outcomes and assessment standards for a phase.

  • General Education & Training Band (GET):

  • Foundation Phase: Grades R - 3

  • Intermediate Phase: Grades 4 - 6

  • Senior Phase: Grades 7 - 9



  • Further Education & Training Band (FET):

  • Grades 10 – 12

  • The implementation

  • Learning Programme guidelines: Ensure national standards

  • Time allocations: Ensure delivery within the NCS

  • - Foundation Phase: Life Skills – 25%

  • - Intermediate / Senior Phase: Life Orientation – 8%

  • Assessment



  • Life Orientation

  • Guides and prepares learners for life and its possibilities. Equips learners for meaningful and successful living in a rapidly changing and transforming society.



  • Life Orientation: Five focus areas

  • Health promotion

  • Social development

  • Personal development

  • Physical development and movement:

  • Learners are able to demonstrate an understanding of, and participate in activities that promote movement and physical development.

  • Orientation to the world of work



  • Recently education was depicted in the South African (SA) media as being in crisis.

  • In the realm of Sport Science, Education transformation in SA had far reaching implications regarding Physical Education (PE) as a school subject.

  • Currently with the introduction of Curriculum 2005 and the NCS, PE as a school subject “disappeared” from the national curriculum.



  • - Where do we stand?

  • Physical Education (PE)/Movement Education is now resembled by a learning outcome within a Learning Area/subject

  • The only resemblance that remains …

  • In the GET: Outcome - Physical development & movement

  • In the FET: Subject – Recreation & Physical Well-being

  • - Our concern?

  • Higher Education Institutions (HEI) mostly train prospective teachers to deliver a school subject. But now the HEI have to train teachers to deliver a Learning Outcome within a Learning Area/subject related to PE. Quality training practices exist at HEI to meet the demands of the Education system in SA … but



The problem?

  • The problem?

  • PE Specialists are no longer being appointed at schools.

  • According to the NCS schools have the scope to determine what should be taught and how it should be taught and confirms the fear is that if schools do not have the services of qualified PE teachers, learners will not be exposed to quality movement experiences.

  • Life Orientation is compulsory for all schools, but, due to its low priority, no implementation and monitoring strategies are in place to ensure delivery. With regard to Life Orientation and it’s outcomes, problems are presently encountered by schools. The problem seems to be a mismatch between sophisticated policies of the Department of Education and realities that most schools experience.



  • What to do?

  • The aim of our research is to determine whether the “movement” Learning Outcome of Life Orientation, in the NCS (Grades R – 10) is being implemented as it should be and to identify the problems and needs that are currently being encountered.

  • Quantitative date will be captured by a questionnaire (report on pilot study data)

  • From the information assembled, strategies and recommendations will be developed to address the needs identified/indicated



LIFE ORIENTATION (LO): STATUS Research on the implementation of LO in selected schools

  • How?

  • - Opportunity & Funds:

  • The Fund for Innovation and Research into Learning and Teaching (FIRLT) at the Faculty of Education at the Stellenbosch University

  • Method

  • A literature review to provide a theoretical basis for generating the formulation of research questions



LIFE ORIENTATION (LO): STATUS Research on the implementation of LO in selected schools

  • Report back of preliminary findings on selected content:



LIFE ORIENTATION: STATUS

  • In a recent study, Todd and Mason (2005) concluded that the implementation of OBE in SA would rely heavily on in-service teacher education (INSET).

  • In SA legislation prescribes precise and comprehensive requirements and prerequisites regarding outcomes-based teacher education (Dreyer & Booyse, 2003; Dreyer & Booyse, 2004). The quality of the teachers, at the end of the day, make a huge difference in the class (Mason, 1999; Talbot, 2001)



LIFE ORIENTATION: STATUS Conclusion

  • Contributions can made …

  • By determining the problem areas and needs in schools, regarding the implementation of LO, … certain recommendations can be made.

  • Support structures should/can be developed for teachers in training, teachers and schools, to achieve the standards expected for successful teaching and for Education in South Africa.

  • Our greatest concern at this stage is …

  • How best to “prepare” and guide the “teacher in training” to manage the realities and challenges of teaching the “movement” content in any curriculum or teaching environment.



Thank you / Dankie




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