Saint Anthony Mary Claret

Sight: mortification of [393–398] (see mortification). Silence

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Sight: mortification of [393–398] (see mortification).

Silence: love of s. [50]; importance of s. [709]; recommends s. to nuns [709]; s. and fortitude [651] 690, 711; keeps s. to save reputation of sinner [72]; s. during retreats [611, 740]; means to advance in perfection 692; in adversities 707, 820; of things 656; speaking with God and with men incompatible 691; speaks not of the good done nor of that which makes him suffer 695.

Simplicity: in defending his ideas [60]; in all things 687; attractive [61] (see humility, meekness, modesty).

Sin: hatred of s. [17] 718; ease with which some commit s. [11, 206]; punishment for his own past s. [621]; pain [676]; malice of s. [16–17] 688 exemplary punishments of s. [802–822]; Blessed Virgin tells him to repent and be vigilant [676]; fleeing the occasions of s. [72] (see friendship).

Sinners: sad state of s. [160, 205–212, 239]; compassion for s., (St. Teresa) [251]; conversion of s. [231] 773–774; prayer as means of converting s. [264–266, 268]; confesses that he is a s. [664]; (see zeal, apostolate, missionary).

Sisters: see Religious Women.

Sisters of Charity: [265]; providential instrument for his going to Canary Islands [478]; preaches to them [304, 704]; eighteen on the ship “Nueva Teresa Cubana [503, 506].

Slander: to be borne patiently, [653, 667]; joy amid s., [628, 745]; silence amid s., [745, 853, 867] 711; resignation amid s., [798]; love of s. infused by God, [679]; reason he is slandered in Madrid, [628] 550; kinds of s., [798, 863­–866]; effects of s., [729]; borne as an apostolic means of converting sinners, [752]; pardons and loves his detractors, [628]; suffers much from s. at beginning of missions, [352]; s. of the "early risers," [477]: patience of Jesus in the face of slanders 671, 672; weapons of the weak, pay no attention to 678; do not quit because of them 671, 672; usefulness 707. See Persecutions, Assassination.

Sleep: sleeps little [8] (see rest).

Snails: symbol of sinners [209].

Socialism: its principles and effects [719–727].

Socialists: their teachings against the family [719]; errors they spread [719–727]; harm they cause and media they use in making propaganda [717–728]; slanders against priests [729].

Social Work: Claret studies ills of society, [357]; President of League of Friends of the Country, [571]; founds model ranch at Puerto Príncipe, [563–568]; work among the poor, [562–568]; education, [561, 568.]; establishes credit union, [569]; economic uplift of poor brings moral uplift, [569]; work among the sick in hospital, [571]; among cholera victims, [537]; among prisoners, [570, 637]; alms, [133–134]; (see apostolate, archbishop, charity, catechisms, worker).

Soler, Canon Jaime: (co worker, bishop), 365, 488, 496, 499.

Solitude: enjoys s. [50] (see silence).

Song: early pamphlets s. sheets [315] (see also Chant).

Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary: See Congregation of the I.H.M, Claretian Missionaries.

Sorrow: acts of s., 655; for past vanity, 341; s. over ills of Church in Andalucia, 728; Claret asks for deep s. for sin, 655; granted it by the Lord, 681; Blessed Virgin tells him to repent, 676; see Pardon.

Sorrows, Our Lady of: devotion to, [765[; her image left on his arm after incident at Holguin, [580]; he thanks her for freeing him from the attempted assassination at Altagracia, [586]; Confraternity of O.L.S., [94]; Septenary of O.L.S., [298]; substitute name for a mission, [468]. See Mary.

Souls: love for s., [155–156]; defends those s. the Lord entrusted to him, [664–665]; verses of the Te Deum asking for the salvations of the neighbor [661]; his books written for their salvation, [325]; his labors for their salvation, [752]; the converted s. is God's banquet, [753]; and for Jesus 701; novena for All Souls, another term for mission, [468]; (see zeal, apostolate, missionary).

Spain: Sentiments for Spaniards [129]; its evils [695, 696]; the church in Spain in the face of masonry [869]; returns to S. from Rome [859] (see archbishop, politics).

Spirit: of kindness [34]; account of his s. [139, 757–767]; excitement [245]; blessed are the poor in s. [363]; of discord [375]; worldly people do not have the s. of Jesus [412]; the Lord gave the cofounders the same s. as that of Claret [489]; anguish of the s. [845].

Spiritual Dryness: involuntary, benefits [102] (see piety fervor).

Spiritual Exercises: see Exercises.

Spiritual Life: Claret resolved to lead both an interior and exterior spiritual life, in his work, etc. [419]; his life is that of Jesus [754]; see Piety, Fervor, Jesus Christ.

Spiritual Retreat: see Retreat

Stature: his was small 527.

Straight Path, The: Claret's best seller and the book that brought about most conversions, 323; 39 printings in Claret's time, 476; everyone at court has copy, 616.

Study: application to s., [87]; s. to the point of illness, [89]; s. during evening at Madrid, [637]; occupied in s., [764, 801]; importance of s. for preaching, [665]; rectitude of intention at s. [744, 789]; plan of s. for Escorial, [870–871]; of a bishop 736–737; (see knowledge, work).

Studies: end of [104–105].

Students: application [59, 88]; humility [92]; need for piety [92]; preaches to them during his trips with the queen [639]; (see spiritual exercises, clergy, missions, priest, study).

Style: thrilled by that of Jesus [222]; simple and clear in sermons [297]; that of Claret, picturesque [123, 124, 131, 132] (see missionary, comparison).

Suffering: value of [651]; mission of s. [624, 650]; advantages of s. [624, 636]; desire and love of s. [679, 761]; offers to work and suffer even death [698] 770–771; asks God for s. [748]; thanks God for s. [752]; how to bear with s. [667, 752, 785] 725; he glories in s. [748]; chooses the most painful [649]; reasons for not complaining amid s. [650]; remembers that of Jesus 729; reward of s. (St. Teresa) [244]. See Troubles, Adversities, Slander, Persecution, Humiliation.

Summer Evenings in La Granja: book by Claret [799]

Sunday: day of greatest devotion, [39, 40, 47, 48].

Swearing: See Blaspheming.
Talent: as a child [26]; practical [59-60, 62-63, 314, 482]; organizer, opportune y efficient (cf. apostolate, missionary, writer, catechism, character).

Teacher: a good one is a gift from heaven [25]; gratitude for the education received [26]; obedience [27] (see parents).

Teaching Sisters of Mary Immaculate; foundation of [561].

Temper, Evenness of: resolves to keep e.t., 650; in imitation of Jesus, Mary, and Joseph, 650; see Character, Meekness.

Temptations: against Mary [51]; against his mother [52]; against chastity [72, 95-98]; Mary defends him from t. [701] 513; how to overcome t. [51–53, 95–97]; (see Mary, sin).

Tertiaries (Carmelites of Charity): his sister and nieces [6]; asks for prayers [265]; gives spiritual exercises [800] (see name index).

Teresa of Avila, St.: 242, 263, 654, 688, 797.

Thanksgiving: see Gratitude.

Theater: in palace [769].

Theology: in seminary of El Escorial [871]; moral and scholastic studies 526–527.

Time: appreciating t. [180,184]; the use of t. [263]; resolves to use well 653, 662; distribution of 665, 685; (see worker, weaver, schedule).

Titles, ecclesiastical: not favorable to [631] (see benefices).

Tobacco: Claret did not smoke [410]; abuse of t. displeases people [ 815]; (see mortification).

Tonsure: reception [90] 540-541; (See sacred orders).

Tongue: [384–385 400–402, 653] see mortification.

Towns: manner of moving from place to place [456]; where he preached [454-455].

Tosas; See Port of Tosas.

Trajanopolis: see Archbishop of T.

Tranquility: in times of danger [123–124, 131–132]; the Lord tells him to have more t. [678, 693] (see equanimity, patience, resignation).

Travels: Claret, like Jesus, traveled mostly on foot [121,123,126, 367, 432]; to Rome via France [121–137]; stopped by brigands while t. [123–125]; discomfort while t. [460]; in Catalonia [454, 455]; used road map of Catalonia [460]; God's Providence during his t. [461]; talks religion with mule drivers while he t. [461]; to Canary Islands [480–486]; t. on foot edifies people [484]; incident of the camel on Lanzarote [485]; voyage to Cuba [504]; rule aboard ship [506–508]; arrival in Cuba [509]; difficulties of Cuban t., especial­ly heroic trip to Baracoa [539–543]; apostolic t. in Andalucía [702–708] (see rivers).

Trent, (Council of): complies with the number of pastoral visits prescribed [550] (see name index).

Tribulation: advice of the Virgin Mary, displeasure of Jesus and Mary, a triumph of the devil 647–675.

Trinity: devotion 729; offers himself 628; the Sunday dedicated to the T. 692, 696, 699; (see name index).

Trips: See travels.

Trisagion: recites T. every morning [637, 695–696; 765] 816.

Troubles: are great 805; immense value of t. [421]; love of t. [465]; accepting t. is best homage to God [423]; the t. of Jesus as an incentive [425–427]; t. borne for the salvation of souls [752]. See Adversities, Suffering.

Trust: in God’s grace 733.
Ungrateful: Claret feels the most among men 821.

Union with God: asks it of the Blessed Virgin [749] 699; by means of the three powers 690; with Jesus in the sacrament 730; after Mass 701; desire for it 730, 745–746; the Lord grants it 824. See God, Mysticism.

U.S.A.: 601, 608. see Supplementary Readings ("The Tender Vine").

Upbringing: see Manners.
Vatican Council I : some materials 567–569: documents and dates 588–593; profession of faith 588; manifest against it 528–529; discourse on papal infallibility 611–614; uniform catechism 623–624; assassination attempts 627–628; deceased council Fathers 587.

Vanity: Claret's v. in dress as a young man [ 72]; v. of the world and its riches [77]; v. of things [244, 254]; v., the source of many conversations [68, 77]; his past feelings of v. [341]; v. of some preachers [401]; v. of some false cases of possession [188]; (see world, humility).

Vices: on mortification [417] (see sin).

Vilaro, Manuel, C.M.F.: (cofounder, coworker), 489, 502, 511, 526, 592, 596.

Vincent de Paul, St.: 226, 304, 503, 704.

Virtue: power of v. against evil [53]; v. is convincing and persuasive [135]; undertakes practice of certain v. [144–146]; courageous in v. [123–124]; tests of v. [149,151]; aspiration [269]; Jesus, model of all v. [428–437]; acts of v. in Jesuit novitiate [143–151]; v. essential for a missionary [340–453]; missionary must be virtuous before he preaches v. [388]; most necessary v. is love [438-442]; all v. can be practiced in one act of mortification [414, 415]; beauty of v. and mortification [416]; see Priest, Missionary.

Visitation, Pastoral: how he went about it [538]; made p. v despite difficulties [544]; gave missions and made p. v. throughout Cuba [550]; difficulties in travels; see Travels.

Visits: to the Lord [40]; to the Blessed Sacrament and to the Virgin Mary 515; forty-hour devotions [86] (see Eucharist); to the sick 528, 533; to hospitals and prisons 728.

Vocation: at 12 years of age [701] 534; free gift of God [14]; consults his spiritual director about v. [88–90,121]; spoke only to his director about v. [90]; did not want anyone to hinder his v. [81]; tells his parents [77]; difficulties to his v. [79]; follows his v. [80–83]; temporary. v [89, 93, 152, 167]; v. discovered in reading Bible [113–120] 535–537; missionary v. [121]; Claret's priestly v. [30]; Claret's missionary vocation: to confront the world's corruption; end and origin of missionary v. [687]; religious v. [225]; priestly v.: choice of candidates [555]; a way to increase Claretian vocations, 794–795] (see missionary); biblical texts on v. 808.

Vocation of children, (The): book [799].

Voice: of the Virgin Mary calls to him [47]; tells him to write 823.
Wars: predicts them [685] (see prophesies).

Way of the Cross: means of apostolate [265]; made it daily [765]; when he made it [801].

Weaver: skilled [31, 33, 58 f.]; seeks greater proficiency as w. [56–65]; obsessed by work as w. [58, 66–67]; teaches his teachers [60]; easily duplicates and improves patterns from catalogue [58]; a chance to become rich as w. [ 63]; kept up rosary devotion as w. [46]. See Worker.

Week: distribution of his days for his devotions 692, 696, 699.

Well Instructed Seminarian: contains Claret's catechetical method, [286]; why he wrote it, [326]; Jesus gives His approval of it, [690] 810, 812.

Weapons: of our army 775–776.

Will of God: motive of all his actions [744] 729; seeks and desires to know it [656] 717; how to know w. of G. [67]; wants nothing but God's w. [754] 701; God's w. in adversities [420] 718; seeks God's w. and wishes to fulfill it [755]; follows it [64]; offers himself to God's w. [656]; conformity to God's w. [579, 636, 650] 667, 671; prepared to do whatever God wills [656, 678, 762, 785, 798]; God's w. and his own w. [623].

Wine: never drinks [405] (see mortification).

Witness: to the truth 546–550.

Women: apostles, means and examples [234–263]; dealing with [394–397]. See also Chastity, Modesty, Mortification.

Word: the excellence of the W. [449–452]; ministry of the W. [452]. See Apostolate, Missionary, Propaganda, Zeal.

Work: Claret's love of w. [31–35]; flees idleness [646]; resolves always to be doing something [647]; evening occupations [645-646]; does much work [745]; w. as a means of the apostolate [752]; w. should be moderate [65–68]; obsessive w. is dissipating [82]; rewards and satisfactions of w. [59]; putting up with w. [653]; the queen keeps busy with handiwork [617]; the infanta always busy [ 618]; maxim 700.

Worker (s): tireless w., 59 ff., 71, 73; as assistant pastor, 111; see Apostolate, Archbishop, Missionary, Time; love for workers [32-34]. See Weaver.

World: contemptible (St. Teresa) [244­–245]; a lie [254]; leaving w. means leaving nothing (St. Teresa) [257]; salutary disenchantment with w. [71–75]; disenchanted, weary, and bored with w. [77]; Claret crucified to the w. [658]; distaste for things of w. [622–624]; detachment from all things of this w. [636]; benefits of detachment [622]; expect to be persecuted by the w. (St. Teresa) [257]. See Visits, Detachment.

Writer: [764, 775]; the Lord asks him to write books, [678]; an important activity, [640]; fruitful output of books and leaflets, [637]; writes Catechism, [799] (see catechism); some of his books, [779, 798, 799]; his writings spread, [640]; he is slandered through falsified books, [865–866]; (see apostle, apostolate, archbishop, books).
Xifre, Joseph, C.M.F.: (cofounder, Superior General after Sala), 1, 489; see Supplement.
Youth: during this phase he was exemplar [53]; spiri­tual crisis [66–69, 81, 85].
Zeal: its function, [378]; should be prudently controlled, [381]; directed against sin, not sinner, [382]; z. for souls, [8–17, 42, 152, 155] 671; powerful feelings of z., [157, 158, 159–163, 169, 211, 272, 273, 383, 664, 665]; z. makes him want to live long, [164], (St. Catherine of Siena) [236–237,] (St. Rose of Lima), [239–241], (St. M. de Pazzi), [259–262]; z. for the infidel, [120, 859]; qualities: ardent, universal, devouring, [153, 762]; allows him no rest, [227, 475, 735]; barking out against God's enemies, [671, 672]; yearning for the apostolate, [675, 762]; Claret offers himself to Mary to save souls, [156–161]; offers himself to Jesus to bring Him into souls, [669]; to work for Him, [675, 788]; z. demands purity of soul, [379]; the hen: an example of true z., [380]; Claret asks God for a prudent z., [383]; fatal consequences of bitter z., [376]; Job as example of false z., [382]; difference between true and false z., [378]; prayer, a means to obtain z., [264, 265]; motives for z. (St. Teresa), [243, 251]; z., an apostolic virtue, [686]; reflection on z. 772, 773. See Apostolate, Missionary, Souls.

1 (San Francisco: St. Ignatius Press, 2006).

2 Pius XI, Apostolic Letters Magnus vocabitur, February 25, 1934: AAS 26 (1934) 174.

3 Pius XII, Litterae decretales: Beato Antonio Mariae Claret, confessori Pontifici Sanctorum honores decernuntur: Quos Spiritus Sanctus, May 7, 1950: AAS 44 (1952) 351.

4 Jiménez Duque, Baldomero, Espiritualidad y apostolado, en: BAC, Historia de la Iglesia en España. V: La Iglesia en la España contemporánea (1808-1975) (Madrid 1979) p. 468.

5 Montalbán, Francisco Javier, Historia de la Iglesia católica, V: BAC (Madrid 1953) p. 607.

6 Carr, Raymond, España. 1808-1939 (Barcelona 1970) p. 280. (cf. R. Carr, Spain, 1808-1975, USA, Oxford Univerity Press; 2nd edition, 1982.)

7 Aguilar, Francisco de Asís, Vida del Excmo. e Ilmo. Sr. D. Antonio Ma­ría Claret, misionero apostólico (Madrid 1871).

8 Urbaniana, Sylloge (Roma 1939) 13, III.

9 HD, I, pp. 271-397.

10 Annales CMF 35 (1939) 165.

11 “Besides, I would thus be tying myself down to a single archdiocese, whereas my spirit goes out to all the world.” (letter to papal nuncio Brunelli, August 12, 1849: SL, 179).

12 Autob. n. 762.

13 Constituciones CMF, 1857, n. 2.

14 Autob. nn. 193, 460.

15 Autob. Doc. VII, 2.

16 Cf. Report of Marqués de la Pezuela to the Director General of Ultramar: Havana, February 7, 1854: AHN Ultramar leg. 1662, n. 81. Photocopy: CESC-Vic: FC-H 3.

17 Autob. nn. 488-491.

18 Autob. nn. 685 and 118.

19 Cf. Declaration of D. Carmelo Sala: IPT ses. 3, art. 58.

20 Autob. nn. 439-488.

21 Autob. n. 427.

22 Autob. nn. 573-584,798.

23 HD, I, p. 227.

24 Montsonis, S. de, Un segle de vida catalana (Barcelona 1961) II, p. 786.

25 Autob. nn. 288, 291.

26 Autob. nn. 170, 171, 179.

27 Autob. nn. 285, 286.

28 Cf. letter to the Bishop of Vic, September 27, 1848 (SL, pp. 161-162).

29 Autob. nn. 56-77.

30 Historia general de las civilizaciones, VI: Siglo XIX (Barcelona 1958) pp. 28-48, 172-185.

31 Claret, Unidad de catecismo (Barcelona 1867) p. 4.

32 Autob. n. 312.

33 HD, II, cap. 12.

34 Autob. nn. 717-735; cf. HD, I, pp. 614-618.

35 Letter to Fr. Stephen Sala, Jiguaní, November 4, 1852 (SL, p. 327).

36 Letter from Fr. Pedro García, S. J., cit. en HD, I, p. 616.

37 Letter to Fr. Stephen Sala, Jiguaní, November 4, 1852 (SL, p. 327).

38 Letter from Fr. Pedro García, S. J., cit. in HD, I, p. 616.

39 Letter to Fr. Stephen Sala, Jiguaní, November 4, 1852 (SL, p. 327).

40 HD, I, pp. 761-803.

41 Daniel-Rops, Henri, L’Église des Révolutions (Paris 1960) p. 573. (cf. English trans. H. Daniel-Rops, The Church in an Age of Revolution, 1789-1870, trans. by John Warrington, Garden City, N.Y.: Image books, 1967, c1965).

42 Autob. n. 685; Ejercicios 1865; cf. Fernández, Cristóbal, La Congregación de los Misioneros Hijos del Inmaculado Corazón de María (1849-1912) (Madrid 1967) p. 374.

43 Claret, Antídoto contra el contagio protestante (Barcelona 1862).

44 Cf. Autob. n. 13.

45 Autob. n. 450.

46 Autob. n. 450.

47 Claret, Antídoto contra el contagio protestante (Barcelona 1862).

48 Floristán, Casiano, and Useros, Manuel, Teología de la acción pastoral, BAC (Madrid 1968) pp. 34-37.

49 Jiménez Duque, Baldomero, Espiritualidad y apostolado, en BAC, Historia de la Iglesia en España (Madrid 1979) V, p. 413.

50 Casanovas, Ignasi, Balmes: la seva vida, el seu temps, les seves obres (Barcelona 1932) II, p. 64.

51 Cit. in HD, I, p. 341.

52 Autob. nn. 222, 297-299.

53 Cf. HD, I, p. 343.

54 Cf. Fort i Cogul, Eufemiá, Itinerari de Sant Antoni M.ª Claret per Catalunya (Barcelona 1970); Autob. n. 458.

55 Gomá, Isidre, Panegíric del Beat Pare Anton Maria Claret (Barcelona 1934) p. 16.

56 Pius XI: L’Osservatore Romano, January 7, 1926.

57 Autob. n. 310.

58 Cf. Lozano, Juan Manuel, Un gran apóstol de la prensa (Madrid 1963) p. 44.

59 Tesoro de Barriosuso, II, n. 728, p. 1583.

60 Autob. nn. 323, 476; cf. Bibliography.

61 Ib.

62 Autob. n. 325.

63 Autob. n. 799, cf. Bibliography.

64 Cf. Bibliography; The Railway, pp. 171, 179.

65 Cf. Autob. n. 695.

66 Autob. n. 461.

67 Paul VI: Evangelii nuntiandi, n. 31.

68 Constituciones CMF, 1857, n. 93.

69 Cf. Autob. n. 568.

70 Autob. n. 569.

71 Ciller, José María, El ahorro en las cajas de ahorros benéficas y en la doctrina social de la Iglesia (Madrid 1971) pp. 25-35; Lavastida, José Ignacio, El Padre Claret y las Cajas de Ahorros parroquiales en Cuba: SC 18 (1998) 23-44.

72 Autob. n. 571.

73 HD, I, pp. 790-798.

74 Ib., pp. 763-765.

75 Hugh, Thomas, Cuba, la lucha por la libertad (Barcelona 1973) I, p. 295. (cf. Cuba or The Pursuit of Freedom, by T. Hugh, New York, N.Y. Da Capo Press, 1971, updated edition, 1998.)

76 Ib., p. 293.

77 Cf. Autob. n. 524.

78 Brunet, Manuel, Actualidad del Padre Claret (Vic 1953) p. 39.

79 Autob. n. 524.

80 Carr, Raymond, España. 1808-1939 (Barcelona 1970) p. 281. (cf. Spain, A history, ed by Raymon Carr, Oxford University Press, 2000, p. 328.)

81 Cf. Gorricho, Julio, Epistolario de Pío IX con Isabel II de España: Ar­chivum Historiae Pontificiae 4 (1966) 313.

82 Carr, Raymond, o. c., p. 280.

83 Letter to the nuncio, August 12, 1849: “Seeing the great lack of evangelical and apostolic preachers in our Spanish territories…” (SL, p. 179).

84 Autob. n. 307: “Not a few very zealous and fervent preachers have left (the exercises).”

85 Viñas, José María, San Antonio María Claret y la piedad de Cataluña: Analecta Sacra Tarraconensia 28 (1955) 493.

86 Bertrans, Pedro, Dos cédulas históricas: Boletín CMF Cataluña, núm. extr. (1949) pp. 56-58; Canal, José María, and Alonso, Joaquín María, La Archicofradía de Nuestra Señora de las Victorias (Madrid 1959) pp. 160-167.

87 Fernández, Cristóbal, La Congregación de los Misioneros... (Madrid 1967) p. 91.

88 Torres, Ismael, Filiación Cordimariana (Madrid 1960).

89 Cf. Autob. nn. 488-491; Constituciones CMF, 1857, 1865 and 1870.

90 Claret, Reglas del Instituto de los clérigos seglares que viven en comunidad (Barcelona 1864) prólogo. Cf. Works II, p. 383.

91 Ib.

92 Letter to the bishop of Vic, August 20, 1849 (EC, I, p. 307); Autob. n. 560.

93 HD, I, p. 495. Founded in 1846.

94 Cf. Autob. nn. 581, 332, 701.

95 Bermejo, Jesús, El apóstol claretiano seglar (Barcelona 1979) p. 155; Claret, Plan de la Academia de San Miguel (Barcelona 1859).

96 Claret, Apuntes de un Plan para conservar la hermosura de la Iglesia y preservarla de errores y vicios (Madrid 1857); see also Escritos Pastorales (BAC, Madrid 1997) p. 465-492.

97 Cf. El colegial o seminarista instruido (Barcelona 1860-1861) 2 vols.; Carta pastoral al clero. Santiago de Cuba 1852; La vocación de los niños (Barcelona 1864); Autob. n. 326; See also Escritos Pastorales, o. c. pp. 624-627.

98 El seminario y colegio de San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Madrid 1863); Autob. nn. 869-872.

99 Carr, Raymond, o. c., p. 444: “The evangelical spirit, revived by Fr. Claret in the last quarter of the century, was dedicated to the efficient organization of the existing piety, with the intention of protecting the faith, through social pressures and powers; and above all, by means of a Catholic education. This protection could no longer be entrusted in the hands of the state. Formal religion was not enough when it was losing the battle.”

100 La colegiala instruida (Barcelona 1863); La cesta de Moisés (Barcelona 1846).

101 Religious of Mary Immaculate Claretian Missionary Sisters, Adorers of the Blessed Sacrament, Carmelites of Charity.

102 Letter to Fr. Joseph Xifré, Rome, July 16, 1869 (EC, II, p. 1406).

103 Letter to M. María Antonia París, Rome, July 21, 1869 (EC, II, p. 1411).

104 Letter to D. Paladio Currius, Rome, October 2, 1869 (EC, II, p. 1423).

105 Autob. nn. 685, 686; “Lights and Graces,” September 23, 1859.

106 Rev. 8:13; Commentaria in Apocalypsin (Amberes 1672) pp. 167-168: “Quarto... aptissime Ribera per aquilam hanc intelligit aliquem sanctum et coelestem prophetam, quem Deus in fine mundi excitabit, ut hominibus toto orbe existentibus praenuntiet sequentes tres plagas, atque Antichristi adven­tum imminere. Unde volabit per medium caelum, id est, celerrime per mediam terram discurret, ut praedicet graviora instare impiis supplicia, ni vitam mutent...

Vae... terrenis et mundanis, qui corde affectu habitant in terra, imo eidem prorsus affixi sunt” (see the contradictory quote in “Lights and Graces” and in the Autobiography).

[Translation: Wisely, Ribera understands by this eagle some heavenly and holy prophet that God will rise up at the end of time, to announce in advance to the people scattered around the world the three coming plagues and the imminent arrival of the Antichrist. Afterwards, he will fly through the skies, i.e. travel, across the land, to prophesize that the greatest torments are to fall on the wicked, if they do not change their lives. Woe to the earthly and mundane whose heart and affection abide on earth, indeed, are completely committed to it.]

107 Cf. Autob. n. 687.

108 Método de misionar en las aldeas o campos y arrabales de las ciudades (Santiago de Cuba 1857).

109 Apuntes de un Plan... (Madrid 1857).

110 Aguilar, Francisco de Asís, Vida de Claret..., p. 414.

111 Cf. Autob. n. 120.

112 Aguilar, Francisco de Asís, o. c., p. 15: “He was an apostle before he was a man.”

113 Cf. Autob. nn. 31, 33, 34, 62, 63.

114 Cf. Autob. nn. 106-111.

115 Cf. Autob. nn. 130, 135, 192-467.

116 Cf. Autob. nn. 538-544.

117 Cf. Autob. nn. 637-641.

118 Cf. Autob. Doc. XV: discourse on papal infallibility.

119 Cf. Resolutions of 1869: particular examine, n. 3.

120 Cf. Clotet, Jaime, Resumen de la admirable vida del Excmo. e Ilmo. Sr. Don Antonio María Claret y Clará (Barcelona 1882) pp. 118-119.

Claret's native tongue was not Castilian, but Catalan. He learned to speak Castilian only later in life, and there are many traces of Catalanisms in his writings in Castilian, except in those works that have been extensively edited by others.

These are taken from Lozano, John, Mystic and Man of Action: Saint Anthony Mary Claret, translated by Joseph Daries, Appendix II and III, 317-336 (Claretian Publications, Chicago 1977).

121 The original text in Latin says: “Alienis quippe oculis, intra secretum mentis, quasi post parietem corporis stamus; sed cum manifestare nosmetipsos cupimus, quasi per linguae ianuam egredimur, ut quales sumus intrinsecus ostendamus” (Sancti Gregorii Magni, Expositio in librum Job libri XXXV (Moralium), liber II, cap. VI, vers. 8: PL 75, p. 559).

122 Cf. Lejeune, Philippe, Le pacte autobiographique. Seuil (Paris 1975) 326 pp.; Id., Signes de vie: le pacte autobiographique. Tome 2. Seuil (Paris 2005) 276 pp.

123 Autob. n. 1.

124 Cf. Autob. Doc. VIII.

125 San Ignacio de Loyola, Autobiografía, prologue of Father Luis Gonçalves da Cámara, n. 4, BAC, Obras completas (Madrid 1977) 3rd ed., p. 90.

Father Claret asked Saint Mary Michael of the Blessed Sacrament, founder of the Religious Adorers of the Blessed Sacrament and of Charity, to write about her own life for the Institute, because―according to Sister Catalina de Cristo―Father Claret said that it was suitable for the principles of a religious institution “to declare the divine favors for the benefit and prestige of that institution” (Proceso Apostólico de Valencia, 295, in: Barrios Moneo, Alberto, Una intervención decisiva en la vizcondesa del Jorbalán [Madrid 1964] p. 199).

126 Autob. n. 1.

127 Cit. in Juan Postius, “Advertencias sobre las ‘Autobiografías’ del V. P. Claretin Archivo Histórico CMF, I, (Madrid 1915) pp. 358, 363.

128 EC, II, p. 442.

129 Juan Postius, “Advertencias…”, p. 371

130 EC, II, p. 438.

131 EC, II, p. 471.

132 Juan Postius, “Advertencias…”, p. 370.

133 EC, II, pp. 475-476.

134 HD, II, p. 366.

135 Juan Postius, “Advertencias…”, p. 317.

136 Ib., p. 289.

137 The restoration work was carried out by the monks of the Greek Abbey of San Nilo of Grottaferrata (Italy) between 1960 and 1961: cf. CMF, Los manuscritos de nuestro Santo Padre Fundador: Annales CMF 45 (1959­-1960) 326-331.

138 Juan Postius, “Advertencias…”, p. 295.

139 Aramendía, Julio, El Beato P. Claret, místico mariano: Vida Sobrenatural 3 (1934) 514-519.

140 Juan Postius, “Advertencias…”, p. 364.

141 Aguilar, Francisco de Asís, Vida de Claret..., p. 15.

142 Autob. nn. 8-15.

143 Autob. nn. 56-65, 66-82, 93.

144 Autob. nn. 113-119.

145 Autob. n. 113.

146 Autob. nn. 95-98.

147 Autob. n. 101.

148 Autob. nn. 112.120.

149 Autob. nn. 121-135.

150 Autob. nn. 141-152.

151 Autob. nn. 170-174, 193.

152 Autob. nn. 192-487.

153 Autob. nn. 491, 495.496.

154 Autob. nn. 587.614

155 Autob. nn. 511, 514, 525-528.

156 Autob. nn. 638, 639, 702-708, 869-872.

157 Autob. n. 221.

158 Autob. nn. 114-119; Autob. Doc. IV and VIII.

159 Autob. nn. 5, 154-164, 270-272, 686.687.

160 Autob. nn. 8-16.

161 Autob. nn. 56-57.

162 Autob. nn. 378, 379; Autob. Doc. VII; letter to the bishop of Vic, September 27, 1848 (SL, p. 162).

163 Autob. nn. 518-524, 562-572; letter to Father Esteban Sala, Jiguaní November 4, 1852 (SL, pp. 326-328).

164 Autob. nn. 685, 717-735; Tardes de verano. Barcelona 1864; Rops, Daniel, L’Église des Révolutions (Paris 1960) p. 573.

165 “We say modern... with regard to the objectivity of the media and methods adopted” (Pius XI, The Roman Observer, January 7, 1926).

166 Autob. n. 227.

167 Autob. nn. 211, 212.

168 Andrés Ortega, Augusto, El P. Claret: Bolívar 37 (1955) 305-331.

169 Autob. n. 40.

170 Autob. n. 120.

171 Autob. n. 798, Resolutions 1864, 8.

172 Autob. nn. 428-437; Spiritual notes: Royal Confesor, 7.

173 Autob. nn. 340-356.

174 Autob. nn. 372-383.

175 Autob. nn. 438-453.

176 Autob. nn. 357-371.

177 Autob. nn. 384-389.

178 Autob. nn. 390-427.

179 Autob. n. 434.

180 Autob. nn. 114, 120.

181 Autob. nn. 420-423.

182 Autob. nn. 264-272, 659-663.

183 Autob. n. 442, 4.°.

184 Autob. n. 766.

185 Autob. n. 745, 2nd ; Resolutions 1843, 1858 (“I will pass the nights in prayer”).

186 Autob. nn. 488-494.

187 Autob. nn. 793-795.

188 Autob. n. 491.

189 Autob. n. 491.

190 Autob. n. 608.

191 Autob. n. 612.

192 Autob. n. 606.

193 Autob. n. 607.

194 Autob. n. 609.

195 Aguilar, Francisco de Asís, Vida del Excmo. e Illmo. Sr. D. Antonio María Claret, misionero apostólico (Madrid 1871).

196 Clotet, Jaime, Resumen de la admirable vida del Excmo. e Ilmo. Sr. Don Antonio María Claret y Clará (Barcelona 1882).

197 Biografía del arzobispo Antonio María Claret. In: Escritos autobiográficos y espirituales. Ed. prepared by José María Viñas; BAC (Madrid 1959) pp. 179-423 (numbered: from 1 to 872).

198 Cf. Lumen gentium, nn. 49, 50.

199 Cf. Autob. 233.

200 Expression of Fr. Juan Postius in “Advertencias …”, p. 289.

201 Saint Anthony Mary Claret wrote this title in the upper part of the first page of the autobiographical manuscript. Fr. Jaime Clotet (1822-1898) attached a note to it that says: “Preface. His Excellency Monsignor. Claret leaves us the manuscripts of his biography in draft form, not to be read and certainly not to be published in its current state, but only after the grammar is corrected, leaving the substance in tact. Nor was it his will that everything be told to everyone, but rather that certain things remain reserved for the oldest and most prudent Fathers. - Thuir, January 1, 1880. - Jaime Clotet, CMF” (Mss. Claret, I, introduction).

202 Fr. José Xifre (Vic, February 19, 1817 - Cervera, November 3, 1899), co-founder of the Congregation of Missionaries and it’s third Superior General (1858-1899). He first asked, and later ordered, Claret (1861) to write his Biography, which traditionally has been called the Autobiography.

203 Fr. Xifre must have imposed upon him this precept of writing towards the end of 1861, during the visit he made to deal with the foundation of the Segovia mission-house. In a letter written on February 17, 1862, the Saint said: “I am complying out of obedience to you, writing this, although with much repugnance” (EC, II, p. 442). By May 21, 1862, he already had it written (cf. Letter to Don Paladio Currius: EC, II, pp. 410-471) and on July 1st he took it to Catalonia to submit it to Fr. Xifre.

204 This explicit mention of the Virgin is not casual. It reveals an important characteristic of Claretian spirituality: sonship. It is the first in a series of quotes that prove what is very evident that Saint Anthony Mary Claret is one of the great saints of the Marian era. The expression "my sweet Mother" will appear again at the end of his life so as to indicate that the life of Claret is deeply rooted in Mary and marked by her maternal presence at all times.

205 Some expressions in the Autobiography seem to be in contradiction to this norm of humility. The best response to this was already given by his confessor Don Carmelo Sala y Vines, well-known to the Saint from January of 1859 to November of 1866: “I read the notes as they were being written by the Servant of God, who, guided by his humility and the confidence that he had in me as his ordinary confessor at that time, wanted me to read them . . . Whoever knew the Servant of God as I knew him could easily see, upon reading these notes of his (the Autobiography), that he leaves unsaid far more than he reports. The reason for this is, without a doubt, that in writing as he did he could fulfill the precept imposed on him in obedience and yet not jeopardize his deep humility” (Informative Process, Tarragona, session 8, art. 134).

206 The omission of the birth date has generated confusion and controversy among scholars. The birth record, written by Don Anthony Toll, rector of Saint Mary of Sallent from 1784 to 1809, states: “Die vigessima quinta Decembris baptizatus... ante pridie natus.” The expression ante pridie only appears in this birth record, and in all likeliness refers to “two days earlier”; in other words, the 23rd. Many biographers interpreted it as such: Aguilar, Francisco de Asís, Vida del Excmo. e Illmo. Sr. Don Antonio María Claret, misionero apostólico (Madrid 1871) pp. 9 y 409; Clotet, Jaime, Resumen de la admirable vida del Excmo. e Ilmo. Sr. D Antonio Marta Claret y Clará (Barcelona 1882) p. 11; Aguilar, Mariano, Vida admirable del Siervo de Dios P. Antonio María Claret (Madrid 1894) I, p. 10. Today, this is the most common and founded opinion. Nonetheless, on February 18, 1890, Don Picus Palou, vicar of Sallent, claimed ante pridie to signify the day before; in other words, the 24th. This interpretation was defended by: Blanch, Jacinto, Fecha del nacimiento de N. V. Padre: Anales CMF 25 (1929) 185 193; Serra Fitó, Juan, Dietari del venerable servent de Déu P. Antoni Maria Claret i Clará (Barcelona 1931) p. 6; Echevarría, Juan, Recuerdos del Beato Antonio María Claret (Madrid 1934) p. 11, and Aramendía, Julio, Claret: Dictionnaire de Spiritualité, II, col. 932. This matter in its entirety was studied by Jiménez Delgado, José, Valor del “ante pridie natus” en la partida de bautismo de San Antonio María Claret: Salmanticensis 6 (1959) 143 157). At the end of his study, this great Latinist arrives at the following conclusion: “The historians that set the birth date of the Saint as the antevíspera of Christmas, or the 23rd day of December, are correct, and, consequently, those who support the interpretation of the birth date as the 24th; in other words, the víspera of the Birth of the Lord, are in fact incorrect” (art. cit., p. 157). To Francis Besalu, it was evident that Claret had been born on December 23rd “having celebrated in the company of Fr. Claret the anniversary of his birthday many times” (IPM ses. 5) on this date.

207 Sallent belongs to the jurisdictional district of Manresa and to the province of Bar­celona. It is located 15 and 51 kilometers from these two cities respectively. At the beginning of the XIX century, it had a population of about 2,000. It currently has 8,000 inhabitants. The name originates from the leaps—sallents—that the river Llobregat makes as it descends upon the populated area. The river and the drive of the hard-working inhabitants have made Sallent an expanding industrial center. Claret is, without a doubt, the greatest glory of the village, and the Sallentinos have recognized him as such, including the Saint’s episcopal coat of arms in that of the town (cf. Solá, Fortià, Historia de Sallent [Vich 1920] pp. 12 14; Llopis, Arturo, Cuna y hogar del P. Claret: Destino, 26 marzo 1949, p. 12 ss). Claret wanted precisely to pay tribute to his birthplace with the bridge and the river on the coat of arms: “The bridge, river, cascade and houses indicate Sallent, my birthplace. My father was from this side of the river, my mother from the other. They are symbolized by the sun, Claret, and the moon, Clará” (letter to a religious sister in Manresa, July 25, 1850: EC, I, p. 413; SL, p. 226).

208 Juan Claret Xambo (1774 1854) was a weaver, like his ancestors. Josefa Clara Rodoreda (1771 1842) came from a working-class family. They lived in a house “of one-story, with its orchard at the back and an adjacent room of more or less 31 square meters... on a street named Cos, number 4” (Property Registry, Manresa). The family lived on the first floor, and the loom was installed in the bottom of the building. On June 11, 1814, they moved to Grande street, where they had bought house number 1 (cf. HD, I, p. 30). The family environment was one of deep piety and hard work, but of middle-class economic position. The mother was able to see Anthony become an apostolic missionary. The father had the opportunity to attend his episcopal consecration. In his final years, his blindness forced him to retire from his work. The archbishop-son, after consulting with him, helped him with a daily pension to meet the demands of filial piety (ib., pp. 1008-1009). The family tree of the Clarets is found in Blanch, Jacinto, Estudi bibliogràfich sobre el V. P. Antoni Maria Claret (Barcelona 1907) pp. I-XV. Regarding the origin of the last name Claret cf. Mir, José María, De cognomine “Claret”: Palaestra Latina 11 (1941) 87 90, 113 116.

209 Saint Mary’s church became a parish in the XII century. The church was completely reconstructed between 1883 and 1901. An iron statue of the then Venerable Fr. Claret was placed on the facade, and later destroyed in the war of 1936.

210 The translated baptism record states: “On December 25th of the year 1808 of the Lord’s birth, Rev. Ramon Mas, priest and vicar of the parish of Saint Mary of Sallent, Diocese of Vic, solemnly baptized according to the rite of the Holy Roman Church - Anthony, John, Adjutor, born two days earlier (ante pridie natus), legitimate and natural son of John Claret, cotton weaver, and Josephine Clara, a married couple, of said village. The godfathers were Anthony Claret, muleteer, and Mary Claret, wife of Adjutorio Canudas, basket maker (cisteller) from the city of Manresa. All from the same diocese of Vic” (cf. certification authorized 1832 in its original Latin in Mss. Claret, XIV, 165). The priest that administered the baptism, Don Ramon Mas, passed away in 1849, at the age of 68, as rector of Manlleu.

211 At the time of his episcopal consecration (October 6, 1850), he added the name Mary to Anthony, although previously, at least one time, he signed his name this way (cf. EC, I, p. 392, note 34; SL, p. 221-222). His sister Mary declared in the beatification processes: “He had told me many times that he was envious of me for being named Mary” (IPV ses. 36, int. 12). “The name ‘Mary’ indicates my spiritual origin, for she is my mother and Mary is the patroness of the parish in which I was baptized” (letter to a religious sister in Manresa, March 25, 1850: EC, I, p. 413; SL, p. 226).

212 Rose (1800 1874) married José Muntanola, on April 15, 1828 and had five children: Valerio, two named Isidro (older and younger), Mariana, Francisca and José. Francisca entered the congregation of the Carmelites of Charity. Further on, he would say that Rose was “very devout” (Autob. n. 49); she was also the most beloved by Anthony, because she accompanied him to the sanctuary of Fusimaña. Widowed in 1848, and alone again, Anthony assigned her a pension (cf. HD, II, p. 372). She died at the end of April of the year 1874 (cf. Sidera, Juan, La familia de San Antonio María Claret [Vic 1991] p. 66. – Multicopied document.

213 Juan, being the oldest of the male children, was the heir (l’hereu) to all the property. He married Maria Casajuana on May 20, 1828. Four children were born from this marriage: Juan, Domingo, Mauricio, and Valerio. The last one was baptized by Claret, in his role as vicar of Sallent, on the 1st of August of the year 1837 (cf. Mss. Claret, XVII, 3). Mauricio and Valerio undertook an ecclesiastical career, but the Saint dissuaded them, as he did not see a well-rooted vocation in them. (cf. letter to Fr. Joseph Xifre, April 20, 1861: EC, II, p. 267). After becoming a widower, he got married again in March of 1856 to Antonia Sellares, with whom he had no offspring. Juan suffered an attack of apoplexy and died on April 21, 1870 (cf. EC, I, p. 439, note 13).

214 In numerous documents, including official ones, the year of birth appears as 1808, due to the very statement of Fr. Claret here in n. 4.

215 José (1810 1870) had a textile factory in Olost. He married Manuela Sola on November 20, 1834, and from this marriage were born: Maria Filomena and Juan who died at an early age, the same as another Juan; and later Dolores, Ramón and María Asunta. Dolores of Saint Anthony (n. in Olost on December 11, 1835, was a Carmelite of Charity since 1854. She resided in Madrid from 1855 and in Sabadell from 1859. She passed away on November 12, 1859 and was buried in Sallent (cf. Carmelites of Charity: Registro General, volume I, Vich 1890). Also, her sister María Asunta, born posthumously on January 4, 1845, entered the same institute in 1854, but was not able to profess, because she died on August 10, 1861 (cf. ib.; Blanch, Jacinto, Estudi bibliogràfich, apendix p. VII).

Claret spent a few days in Olost in 1837, when he negotiated his resignation from the parish of Copons; and again in 1839, there, he obtained the pass that permitted him to travel to the French border. Upon his return from Rome, he took the house of his brother as place of departure.

216 María was born on July 27, 1815. Anthony registered her in the Confraternity of the Rosary of Vic on April 20, 1834 (cf. Mss. Claret, II, 282). She accompanied Anthony when he was made Administrator of the parish of Sallent (1835 1839). When he embarked on his fully apostolic career, she entered the Carmelites of Charity on May 7, 1842, taking the name of María de Santa Teresa. In 1845, she was named superior of Borjas Blancas, and in 1851, Mistress of Novices. She was “of tall stature, brown eyes, regular nose, elongated face, and healthy color,” according to the description of her passport (cf. Alonso, Fernández, Ana María, Historia docu­mental de la Congregación de las Hermanas Carmelitas de la Caridad [Madrid 1968] I, pp. 205, 273 275). She was an example of all of the virtues, above all humility and strict observance of the Rules of the Institute. In 1888, in the Informative Process in Vich, she declared, “I have been envied as the sister of a saint; I have seen myself confused many times at seeing my imperfections before the innumerable congratulations granted me for simply being the sister of a Servant of God” (IPV ses. 36, int. 12). She revealed to us important details on the virtues of Claret the seminarian and priest. She passed away in a saintly manner in Vic on March 2, 1894.

217 Manuel (1823 1836). In addition to what the Saint tells us, we know that he registered him for the Confraternity of the Rosary in Vic on April 20, 1834 (cf. Mss. Claret, II, 282). In the liturgical calendar that Anthony used for prayer, he consigned his death, on September 20, 1836 with these words: “En aquest dia morí mon estimat germá Manuel, de edat 13 anys y mesos, a la una y cuart de la tarde” [Trans. On this day died my beloved brother Maual, at the age of 13 years and months, at 1:15 in the afternoon.](Ordo recitandi et celebrandi iuxta rubricas in Sancta Cathedrali totaque Vicensi Dioecesi, pro anno Bisext. MDCCCXXXVI). On the first page lies the autographed signature of the Saint: “Anton Claret, Pbre.” In the family archive (Arxiu Pairal) of Vic is preserved a book with the signiture of Juan Claret, written by Simon Salomo and Melchor Gelabert, and translated into Castilian by a clergyman, with the title Regla de vida muy útil para los pobres y para el pueblo menos instruido, muy saludable a los ricos y a las personas doctas (Barcelona s. a.) 350 pp.

218 It has not been possible to identify this wetnurse. Perhaps she belonged to a parish nearby to Sallent. The testimony of Teresa Altarriba, native of Oló, who was thought to have been the second nursemaid of Claret, does not seem trustworthy. It only confirms that said woman knew the Saint years later, being a courier or messenger between the priests and the curia of Vic. (cf. HD, I, p. 28).

“In the human—not the divine—sense it is interesting to note how long the child lived among strangers, for this must have had an influence on his character. That humility of his that left everyone impressed, that marked sense of obedience and respect that he will never lose... may very well be the consequence of this period of displacement and lack of understanding, and of the many hours when he must have felt smaller than anyone else” (Lerena Acevedo de Blixen, Josefina, Alto camino: vida de San Antonio María Claret [Montevideo 1955] p. 10).

219 In the small book Bona nit, that was published when Claret was an adolescent, there is mention of eternity, which at the end speaks of the always of Saint Teresa (cf. Roquer, Pedro, Bona nit [Vich 1834] 2nd ed., pp. 137-156).

220 Saint Teresa spoke of her childhood in the book she wrote entitled Life: “It used to cause us great astonishment when we were told that both pain and glory would last for ever. We would spend long periods talking about this and we liked to repeat again and again, ‘For ever—ever—ever!’” (Libro de la vida, cap. 1, n. 2: Obras de la gloriosa Madre Santa Teresa de Jesús, fundadora de la Orden de Nuestra Señora del Carmen, de la primitiva observancia. Dedicated to the King our Lord Don Ferdinand VI. In Madrid. In the Printing Press of Don Joseph Doblado. Year of MDCCXCIII, vol. I, p. 4. Ex libris (In the Claretian Theologate Library of Granada, Spain)[English text taken from: The Life of Teresa of Jesus, The Autobiography of Teresa of Avila, Translated and edited by E. Allison Peers, from the citical edition of Fr. Silverio de Santa Teresa, C.D.

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