Saint Anthony Mary Claret



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1514 Ib., 930 b.

1515 Cf. Hentrich, Guilhelmo and De Moos, Rudolfo Gualtero, Petitiones de Assumptione (Vatican 1942) I, p. 102. He signed the petition Cum iuxta apostolicam doctrinam with 112 of the Fathers.

1516 Although we have no specific data for it, we can only assume that Claret signed this petition. Among matters to be discussed in the Council, he notes: “Patron of the Universal Church for St. Joseph.” Moreover, in 1870 he published the booklet, The Devotion to St. Joseph (Barcelona 1870) 29pp. cf. Canal, José María, San Antonio María Claret, el Concilio Vaticano I y el culto de San José: SC 1 (1962) 127-131.

1517 Asking the Council to invite Jews to embrace Christianity. Cf. Lémann, Joseph and Augustin, La cause des restes d’Israel introduite au Concile Oecuménique du Vatican (Lyon et Paris 1912). 512 Fathers signed this petition. Claret’s signature is on p. 268.

1518 As the founder of Parish Credit Unions in Cuba, Claret was particularly bent on having the Church determine its social teaching regarding interest taken on loans. Therefore, with 19 other Fathers, he signed the postulatum de Usura. On Claret and savings, cf. Ciler, José María, El ahorro en las cajas de ahorros benéficas y en la doctrina social de la Iglesia (Madrid 1970), pp. 23-25; Lavastida, José Ignacio, El Padre Claret y las Cajas de Ahorros parroquiales en Cuba: SC 18 (1998) 23-44. Regarding usury cf. Mss. Claret, VII, 526, 647bis-648.

1519 Cf. Letter to Mother María Antonia París, Roma 17 June 1870 (EC, II, pp. 1474-1475).

1520 Cf. Fernández, Cristóbal, El confesor de Isabel II y sus actividades en Madrid (Madrid 1964) pp. 303-319.

1521 Letter to Mother María Antonia París, Roma 21 July 1869 (EC, II, p. 1411).

1522 Cf. HD, II, pp. 845-881.

1523 Acta Pii IX, IV, p. 406 ff.

1524 El colegial o seminarista instruido (Barcelona 1861) trat. 2, sec. 1.ª, cap. 35, art. 5, pp. 280-284.

1525 EC II, p. 1422.

1526 Among the books in Claret’s library we find López de Ayala, Ignacio, El sacrosanto concilio de Trento (Barcelona 1848), 372 pp. In session 23, devoted to the priesthood, there are many underlinings in pencil showing what the Saint thought most important. There are also heavy markings in chapter 18, dealing with the manner of establishing seminaries and educating the clergy (ib., pp. 209-235).

1527 St. Anthony Mary Claret had initiated the Assumptionist movement in Spain by having Isabel II write a letter to Pius IX (December 27, 1863) in which she stated: “I, as Queen and interpreter of the feelings of this Catholic nation which so loves the glories of Mary, desire to be the first to petition Your Holiness in this cause” (cf. Notes for the Governance of the Diocese, 2nd, ed. [Madrid 1865], pp. 191-192; cf. also Gorricho, Julio, Epistolario de Pío IX con Isabel II de España: in Archivium Historiae Pontificiae 4 [1966] 304). At the Council, Claret had a unique opportunity to further his hopes to see the dogmatic definition of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary come true: cf. Hentrich, Guilhelmo and De Moos, Rudolfo Gualtero, O.C., Petitiones de Assumptione (Vatican 1942) II, pp. 882-884; cf. also García Garcés, Narciso, España en el movimiento asuncionista: in Estudios Marianos 6 [1947] 521-524).

1528 The proclamation of the Patronage of St. Joseph was made on December 8, 1870, and Claret figured among the priests who petitioned it. With this in mind he wrote the booklet, La devoción a San José (Barcelona 1870), 29 pp. Since he was in exile, he could not sign the work, so he gave only the initials, “D.A.C.” [= Don Antonio Claret].

1529 “It is to be desired that canonries be given to the oldest pastors who have acquitted themselves well in their sacred ministry, or to other priests who, by their learning and virtue, have proved themselves worthy of this favor” (Notes for the Governance of the Diocese [Madrid 1865) 2nd ed., p. 93: Escritos Pastorales, p. 524).

1530 Clément Auguste, Abp. of Cologne, De la paix entre l’Eglise et les Etats (Paris 1844). The Saint cites this work either as La paix or as The Abp. of Cologne.

1531 Mt 22:21.

1532 St. Bernard (1091-1153), Founder and Abbot of Claraval, Doctor of the Church.

1533 St. Gregory the Great: Pope from 590-604.

1534 St. Leo the Great: Pope from 440-461.

1535 “The most important work, with the greatest and most happy results that a zealous and charitable priest can undertake is, without a doubt, to occupy himself in choosing innocent and simple children, inclined toward piety and virtue, with a disposition for learning, to teach them, to instruct them, and to guide them, for in time they will be holy and wise priests. This is the paternity of a priest in his greatest and most glorious undertaking.” (La vocación de los niños [Barcelona 1864] secc. 2.ª, cap. 1, p. 36).

1536 Ps 57:4 Vulgate, (Ps 58:3): “The wicked go astray from the womb”

1537 Cf. 1 Jn 2:16.

1538 The Blessed Pedro Fabro (1506-1546), companion of St. Ignatius of Loyola and first German Jesuit.

1539 St. Vincent de Paul (1576-1660), hero of charity, founder of the Lazarists and the Daughters of Charity.

1540 St. Francis of Regis (1597-1660), Jesuit, missionary in the region of Ródano (France).

1541 The Blessed Bartolomew of the Martyrs (Lisboa 1514-Viana do Minho, today Viana do Castelo 1590). Dominican friar and Archbishop of Braga from 1559 until he retired in 1582.

1542 Friar Hernando de Talavera (Talavera de la Reina 1428-Granada 1507) was confessor to the Queen, Isabel the Catholic, and a member of the Royal Council. Bishop of Avila in 1486 and Archbishop of Granada from 1492 (cf. Suárez y Muñano, Pedro de Alcántara, Vida del Venerable D. Fray Hernando de Talavera, primer Arzobispo de Granada, Confesor y Consejero de los Reyes Católicos D. Fernando y D.ª Isabel [Madrid 1866]).

1543 St. John of Ávila (Almodóvar del Campo 1499 or 1500 - Montilla, Córdoba 1569). Great apostolic missionary, called “the apostle of Andalucía.” St. Teresa of Jesus, upon hearing of his death, broke into tears and, when someone asked her why she was crying, said: “I cry beacuse the Church has lost a great pillar.”

1544 The quotation is as follows: “That grand and admirable prelate, the Venerable Bartholomew of the Martyrs, Archbishop. of Braga, who attended the Sacred Council of Trent, one of those who worked the hardest for the reform of the clergy, this most zealous shepherd, when he went on pastoral visits to the parishes of his diocese, used to pick out those boys who seemed to him by nature more suitable to be formed in piety. He put these pious young men under the direction of a wise, prudent, virtuous, and above all, pious priest and sent them to him to keep watch over them. And he told him that he must work harder for their advancement in good manners and virtues than in the sciences, because great piety and middling knowledge sufficed to make them good Christians, whereas learning without piety usually does great harm. Indeed, many use their learning only to embolden them to seek the priesthood as a despicable abuse: not for the welfare of souls or the honor of God, but only to remedy their poverty and satisfy their pride” (WIS [Barcelona 1865] 5th ed., 1, pp. 17-18.)

1545 Section 3, chs. 4 and 5 (Barcelona 1864), pp. 109-115.

1546 Friar Luis de Granada (1504-Lisboa 1588) (Luis de Sarria). Dominican friar, preacher and mystic, author of numerous works of spirituality.

1547 Claret was thinking of the circumstances of his own childhood, when he had to interrupt his clerical studies. (cf. Autob. n. 30).

1548 He refers to his own book, the Art of Ecclesiastical Chant and Chant Book for the Use of Seminaries (Madrid 1861), 170 pp.

1549 He means the Catechism of Christian Doctrine which he wrote for the uniform teaching of catechism in Spain, a work he offered to Pius IX in 1865. The Catechism Explained, first published in 1848, had by this time reached its 18th edition.

1550 He recommends the first volume, since it is expressly addressed to the formation of seminarians.

1551 Gobinet, Carlos, Instrucción de la juventud en la piedad cristiana, sacada de la Sagrada Escritura y de los Santos Padres. Translated by Don Nicolás de Castro Palomino. LR (Barcelona 1851) 2 volumes.

1552 Historical compendium of religion from the creation of the world until the present time in the Church. A book by Fr. José Pintón, Piarist, who began its publication in 1760 and which had numerous editions.

1553 Notes for the Governance of the Diocese (Madrid 1857) 108 pp.: in Escritos Pastorales, pp. 463-545.

1554 In the passage cited, WIS states: proves the necessity of a spiritual director, and affirms: “It is not enough, then, to have a confessor to whom we may sincerely manifest all our sins; we also need a master who will teach us the path of virtue” (Barcelona 1860), p. 330. The second book cited is the Manuel de Piété à l’usage des Séminaires. Claret used the 1859 edition.

1555 Similar notions are expressed in Notes for the Governance of the Diocese (Madrid 1857), p. 62.

1556 Cf. Judg 16: 17.

1557 Lk 9:58.

1558 Lk 14:33.

1559 2 Chr 36:19. – The temple was destroyed for a second time by the Emperor Titus in the year 70.

1560 Pastoral de N. Smo. Padre Benedicto XIV (Madrid 1787) II, pp. 83-88. Ex libris.

1561 Fr. Fermín Costa, SJ (1806-1894), Rector of the Major Seminary of Barcelona, elected a consultor in April 1868 and appointed to the Commission of Regulars on November 23, 1868 (cf. Coll. Lacensis VII, p. 1054).

1562 Rm 8:9: “If anyone does not have the spirit of Christ, he does not belong to Christ.”

1563 Cf. Judg 16: 17.

1564 Sir. 19:1: “He who condemns small things [shall fall little by little].”

1565 Mt 25:21: “Because you have been faithful over a little, I will set you over much.”

1566 Mt 19:17: “If you would enter into life [keep the commandments].”

1567 Mt 19:21: “If you would be perfect [go, sell what you possess...].”

1568 Cf. Ps 94:7-8.

1569 1 Sm 3:9: “Speak, Lord, for your servant is listening.”

1570 Acts 22:10: “Lord, what would you have me do?”

1571 It could have been in the first Papal audience he had on his trip to Rome on Tuesday, November 7, 1865, or perhaps in the second which took place on Thursday, the 23rd of the same month and year.

1572 “Let the old depart, let all be new”: cf. 2 Cor 5:17.

1573 Probably refers to the short Denuntiatio dierum (schedule of days) (cf. Coll. Lacensis VII, p. 709).

1574 The Intimatio gave the Fathers the program for the opening of the Council: December 8, 1869 at 8:30 a.m. Archbishops and Bishops were expected to wear white cope and mitre of the same color. The vestry was the Lapidario Museum (cf. Coll. Lacensis, VII, p. 27).

1575 This election of the judges or moderators of excuses, disputes and controversies was announced in the Intimatio for the first general assembly (cf. ibid., p. 709).

1576 These general dispositions were contained in the apostolic letter Multiplices inter of November 27, 1869, distributed to the Fathers at the pre-synodal assembly of December 2nd (cf. ibid., p. 17).

1577 The Ordo was a résumé of the Ceremonial for the Council. It contained the texts of hymns, litanies and prayers for the inauguration: cf. ibid., p. 694.

1578 The Methodus contained dispositions to facilitate the use of the Ordo, which was strictly liturgical. There was a special Methodus for the first session, consisting of 148 numbers, and a general Methodus for ordinary sessions, consisting of 103 numbers (cf. ibid., p. 699). The copy Claret used is kept in the CESC-Vic. In the margins of its pages, one can see markings of the Saint in order to assure that he correctly followed the rubrics.

1579 In a letter to Fr. Joseph Xifré he says; “On Sundays we meet in the choir of the Vatican. There a Mass is sung with a sermon in Latin” (Rome December 16, 1869: EC, II, p. 1438).

1580 He does not mention the pre-synodal assembly, which took place in the Sistine Chapel on December 2nd.

1581 Cardinal Juan Ignacio Moreno y Maisonave (1817-1854), titular bishop of “Santa Maria della Pace,” lived in the Palazzo Gabrielli. This palazzo belongs to the Rione di Ponte near the piazza of the Chiesa Nuova (cf. Roma antica e Moderna [Rome 1765], p. 63). On today’s maps it is on the Via Monte Giordano, no. 36. and carries the name “Palacio Taverna.”

1582 Among the Fathers attending this first session, Claret figured as number 22 on the roster of Archbishops (cf. Coll. Lacensis VII, p. 35b; Vespignani, Virginio, Intorno della grande aula temporanea del Concilio Ecumenico Vaticano...Relazione e Descrizione [Rome 1874]) . On the floor of the Council Hall, he was assigned seat no. 29. It was located on the upper tier, before the tribune reserved for royalty, to the left as one entered the hall. In his immediate vicinity were a number of Fathers of the Oriental Rites. On the same tier and near the Saint, was the Dominican, Joseph Sadoc Alemany (1814-1888), first Archbishop of San Francisco, California, a fellow countryman of Claret.

1583 Apparently not only the Spanish Bishops attended, but also those of the Philippines and Cuba.

1584 On this day the first general assembly met. According to the wording of the Acta, the sessions were presided over by the Pope, while the assemblies were presided over by Cardinals. At the general assemblies, the archbishops were to wear the rochet and violet mantle.

1585 They received the Constitution Cum Romanis Pontificibus at the end of the general assembly of Dec. 10th (cf. Coll. Lacensis VII, p. 45). In it was prescribed, that in the event of the Pope’s death, the Council should be suspended until the Cardinals met in conclave and elected a new Pope.

1586 These ‘works’ were the schema of the dogmatic constitution against errors deriving from Rationalism, proposed for the Fathers’ examination under papal secrecy (ibid., p. 507 ff.).

1587 He refers to the choral Mass held on Sundays.

1588 At this assembly, the 24 members of the Commission on matters of faith were elected.

1589 This contains the reduction of censures latae sententiae (October 12, 1869).

1590 A printed sheet of those chosen by the Pope to receive and examine private petitions from the Fathers before their presentation to the Council. It also included the names of those appointed to judge excuses and disputes. Don Bienvenido Monzón (1820-1885), Archbishop of Granada, was among those elected to the first group (cf. Coll. Lacensis VII, p. 712).

1591 Dated December 17th, it announces the assembly of the 20th at 9:00, and states that the election of deputies for matters of church discipline will be made in writing.

1592 This list of those elected was published at the session of the 20th. In first place was Friar Manuel García Gil (1802-1881), Archbishop of Zaragoza. Among the Saint’s acquaintances in this group were Don Antolín Monescillo (1811-1897), Bishop of Jaén; Rafael Valentín Valdivieso (1804-1878), Archbishop of Santiago, Chile; and Joseph Sadoc Alemany (1814-1888), Archbishop. of San Francisco, California.

1593 The text can be found in Coll. Lacensis VII, p. 29 ff.

1594 This list must have been in his hands before the 16th, because on that day he wrote to Fr. Xifré: “It struck me that you might like to have a catalogue of all those who are attending the Council. We are listed alphabetically, but in the Council we are seated according to priority of consecration. I am number 40. I’m one of the old ones” (EC, II, p. 1438).

1595 These words were written in pencil. Although he numbered this document with a 16, it was not published until the 28th. Among the Spanish-speaking members were Don Antonio Labastida y Dávalos (1817-1891), Archbishop of Mexico; Don Pantaleón Montserrat (1807-1870), Bishop of Barcelona; and Don Anastasio Rodrigo Yusto (1814-1882), Archbishop of Burgos.

1596 In this third general assembly, the names of those elected to the Commission on Matters of Faith were published. First on the list was Manuel García Gil (1802-1881), Archbishop of Zaragoza. The Commission on Church Discipline was voted for.

1597 It was a sung Mass, since it was the Feast of St. Thomas the Apostle.

1598 At the assembly of the 20th they had been unable to fix the date for the next assembly, so it was announced that word would be sent to each member’s lodgings. The Intimatio is dated the 23rd. Besides convoking the meeting for the 28th, it notes that the Commission on religious orders would be voted for and that the discussion would begin for the schema On Catholic Doctrine, against the multiple errors stemming from Rationalism (cf. Coll. Lacensis VII, p. 713).

1599 Probably to send Christmas greetings to the Pope, as can be inferred from the entry for the 27th. On the 23rd, a council commission appeared at the Vatican to greet the Pope. This day was also Father Claret’s 62nd birthday.

1600 That is, for the feast-day of the Pope, born John Mastai-Ferretti. The signatures of the Fathers can be seen in the Album illustratum autographorum omnium Emin. Ac Rever. Patrum Oecumenici Vaticani (Milan 1870). Claret’s signature is on p. 11.

1601 At this fourth general assembly the list of those elected to the commission on Church discipline was published, and the third commission on the state of religious life, was voted on. Discussions on De Doctrina Catholica began.

1602 Published in the assembly of January 3, 1870. Leading the list was Don Francisco Fleix i Solans (1804-1870), Archbishop of Tarragona. In 4th place was Friar Fernando Blanco (1812-1881), Bishop of Avila, whose spiritual director was Claret.

1603 In the first general session it had been agreed that the second general session would meet to make the solemn profession of faith prescribed by Pius IV in the constitution Iniunctum nobis of 1544. As the day drew near, the Intimatio was sent to the Fathers’ lodgings, together with a Monitum on how the session was to be conducted (cf. Coll. Lacensis VII, p. 49).

1604 Before the year ended, in the assembly of Thursday, December 30th, Don José Caixal (1803-1879), Bishop of Urgell, Claret’s close friend and capable collaborator, spoke on the theme of Catholic doctrine.

1605 Those who died were: Cardinal Karl August von Reisach, first president of the general assemblies; Cardinal Francesco Pentini, Cardinal Deacon of “Santa Maria in Portico”; Anton Manastyrski, Bishop of Prezémysl and Bernardino Frascolla, Bishop of Foggia.

1606 Bishop Bertrand-Sévère Laurence. Born in Oroix (Hautes-Pyrénées, France) in 1790, was bishop of Tarbes from 1844 and died in Rome on January 30, 1870.

1607 Don Mariano Puigllat (San Andrés de Tona 1804-Rome 1870), bishop of Lérida from the year 1862.

1608 Don Basilio Gil Bueno (Palazuelos, Guadalajara, 1811-Rome 1870), Bishop of Huesca, since the year 1862 From the handwriting, it seems that the dates referring to the deaths in January/February were inserted later. Claret must have keenly felt the loss of his friends, Bishops Don Mariano Puigllat and especially that of Don Basilio Gil y Bueno to whom he had paid a moving visit on the day of his death (cf. Javierre, José María, Refugio de los ancianos. Sta. Teresa Jornet [Madrid 1974], pp. 50-51).

1609 Assemblies were also held on January 3rd and 4th.

1610 Although the Saint clearly wrote the dates of the 7th and 8th, he should have written 8th and 10th, since no assembly was held on the 7th. On the 10th, the scheme De Doctrina Catholica went to the Commission on matters of faith, to be revised or, as some of its opponents stated, to be buried and resurrected.

1611 This schema was handed out in the assembly of the 8th (cf. Coll. Lacensis VII, p. 641).

1612 De sede Episcopali vacante (o. c., p. 651 ss.).

1613 Cf. Coll. Lacensis, VII, p. 50 ss.

1614 Cf. ibid., p. 659 ff. The discussion of disciplinary matters began. Among the five Fathers who opened the discussion, was Bienvenido Monzón (1820-1885), Archbishop of Santo Domingo (1862-1865), of Granada (1866-1885) and named archbishop of Seville, however never took possession, because he died before being able to do it.

1615 Cf. Coll. Lacensis, VII, p. 663.

1616 Among the speakers at this session were Don José Caixal (1803-1879), Bishop of Urgell from 1853; Don Joachim Lluch y Garriga (1816-1882), Bishop of Salamanca from 1868, and Don Fernando Ramírez Vázquez (1807-1890), Bishop of Badajoz from 1866.

1617 The word Monitum is written in pencil; it was given on the 14th, not the 15th. In view of the grave harm done by leaking certain items of Council business to the press, and of the sectarian uses to which some newspapers were making of them, this Monitum reminded the Fathers of their obligation to keep such matters secret, under pain of mortal sin. It is dated the 14th.

1618 At the assembly of the 19th, the results of the election for the Commission for Oriental Rites and Apostolic Missions were published.

1619 The schema De Ecclesia was distributed at the beginning of the session of the 21st. It consisted of 47 pages of text and 166 of notes (cf. Coll. Lacensis VII, p. 567).

1620 After discussing the schema De Episcopis, they turned to the schema De vita et honestate clericorum (On the Life and Probity of the Clergy). The Saint, who was very interested in this matter, kept his own daybook of the meetings. (which is translated below).

1621 Don José María Urquinaona (1813-1883), Bishop de Canary Islands from 1869, spoke first, and after him, Don Bienvenido Monzón, Archbishop of Granada.

1622 At this assembly, two of Claret’s friends spoke: Don José Caixal, Bishop of Urgel, and Don Antonio Luis Jordá (1822-1872), Bishop de Vic.

1623 This was a sung Mass in honor of the Purification of Blessed Virgin Mary.

1624 At the end of this assembly, the president announced the death of Claret’s good friend, Bishop Mariano Puigllat of Lérida, who had died that same day, the 3rd .

1625 After 38 Fathers had spoken on it, the discussion of De vita et honestate clericorum ended.

1626 They began dealing with De parvo Catechismo.

1627 At the end of this assembly, the death of Don Basilio. Gil Bueno, Bishop of Huesca was announced. On the 11th, Claret had written to Xifré: “You must already have learned that the Bishop of Lérida died. Today they gave viaticum to the Bishop of Huesca, and I am afraid that he, too, is going to die. There have already been seven deaths at the Council: two Cardinals and five Bishops. God’s will be done” (EC II, p. 1449). Assemblies met on the 18th, 21st and 22nd. On the 22nd, the discussion on De parvo Catechismo ended, and the schemata listed by the Saint were handed out.

1628 From February 22 to March 18, no assemblies were held because of repairs to improve the acoustics of the council hall. The architect, Virginio Vespignani, reduced the dimensions of the hall by removing the papal throne (not needed for the general assemblies) and rearranging the benches. He installed a huge vertical curtain to isolate the open spaces around the hall, and hung another above, to prevent the members’ voices from being lost in the high, vaulted ceiling (cf. V. Pelletier, Célébration du Concile Oecuménique premier du Vatican, VII, p. 127).

1629 De titulis ordinationum, has 2 pages of. text and 3 of notes in folio (cf. Coll. Lacensis VII, p. 669).

1630 De oneriubus Missarum aliisque piis dispositionibus, 5 pages oftext, 4 of notes in folio (cf. o.c., p. 667 ff.).

1631 That is, four schemata on the religious life: De regularibus (o.c., p. 671), De voto oboedientiae (p. 672), De vita communi (o.c., p. 675) and De clausura (o.c., p. 678 ff.). These four schemata de reformatione Ordinum Regularium [on the reform of Orders and Regulars] were distributed to the Fathers at the assembly on the 22nd of February.

1632 This Monitum convoked the participants to attend Ash Wednesday services in the papal chapel in the Vatican Basilica. It also stated the days when services would be held in the papal chapel during Lent, and those on which there would be Lenten preaching (cf. Pelletier, Victor, o. c., p. 313).

1633 He means the consistorial palace.

1634 This Notice clarifies the disposition given at the assembly of the 22nd regarding observations on the schema De Ecclesia. These must be submitted in writing. The Notice is dated February 23rd (cf. Coll. Lacensis VII, p. 729).

1635 This Notice, dated March 6th , states that since many Fathers had asked that papal infallibility be addressed in the Council, the Pope had agreed. Among the 400 Fathers was St. Anthony Mary Claret, together with all the Spanish-speaking Bishops. The petition is dated January 28th (cf. Coll. Lacensis, VII, p. 923. The text of the Monitum is on p. 729).

1636 Probably not a Monitum on the same subject, but a formula for dealing with new matter proposed for discussion, which would become chapter 11 of the dogmatic constitution De Ecclesia Christi. This formula was handed out with the preceding Monitum (cf. Coll. Lacensis, VII, p. 641).

1637 This decree was an indult granting the use of the previous year’s oils in places where new oils could not be consecrated because their bishops were absent and attending the Council. Dated February 17, 1870 (cf. Pelletier, Victor, o.c., p. 312).

1638 This Notice presented the revised schema De Fide, and prescribed the procedure for those who wanted to take part in the discussion. Dated March 14th .

1639 The text is in Collectio Lacensis VII, p. 69 ff. It consists of 23 pages of text and 3 of notes in folio. Discussions on the schema De Fide had begun on December 28, 1869. Even the most moderate found it ponderous and saw the need to redraft it. This task was entrusted to Bishops Pie, of Poitiers; Dechamps, of Malines and Martin, of Paderborn. In its new form it was well received.

1640 At this 30th general assembly, discussion began on the revised schema De Fide. At noon, the Pope went down to the Basilica to gain the seasonal indulgences and to venerate the relics. The Council Fathers accompanied him.

1641 After discussing the schema as a whole, they went back to discuss the foreword. This day saw the most tumultuous scene of the Council, in reaction to the anti-infallibility speech of Bishop Josip Strossmayer of Djakovo, the Vicar Apostolic of Serbia. His voice was drowned out by such an outburst, that he had to step down from the pulpit.

1642 The first speaker was Don José Caixal, Bishop of Urgell. The discussion on the foreword to the schema De Fide came to an end. Claret’s calendar of the Council also breaks off here. Perhaps the pages that followed were lost. At the assemblies of March 24th, 26th, 28th and 29th, the first chapter of De Fide was discussed. The discussion of the second chapter began on March 30th and continued on April 1st, 2nd, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th and 12th. On the 12th there was a vote on the constitution Dei Filius as a whole. Of the 598 voting, 515 voted placet and 83 voted placet iuxta modum. On April 19th, the third public session was set for April 24th, Low Sunday.

1643 This third session must have been very satisfactory to Archbishop Claret because of his great satisfaction hearing the unanimous vote of the Fathers. In the official roster of those attending, he was 21st among the Archbishops. The Intimatio for this ceremony prescribed the wearing of red copes, since the Mass of the Holy Spirit was said. The constitution Dei Filius fulfilled one of Claret’s greatest desires, as he had fought hard against the errors it condemned: materialism, pantheism and atheism (cf. Coll. Lacensis VII, p. 248). The “brief and very touching address” the Saint refers to, reads as follows: “Behold, dearest brothers, how beautiful and agreeable it is to live in God’s house with unanimity and peace. May you live thus always! And since our Lord Jesus Christ offered His peace to His Apostles on this day, I too, His unworthy vicar, offer you peace in His name. This peace, as you know, casts out fear. This peace, as you know, closes our ears to groundless talk. Ah! May this peace accompany you all the days of your lives. May it bring you fortitude in death and everlasting joy in heaven” (cf. o.c., p. 267).

1644 After the third general session, the question of a uniform catechism for the whole Church was dealt with. The schema was discussed in the assemblies of April 29th and 30th. On May 4th, Bishop John-Baptist Zwerger of Seckau spoke on behalf of the Commission for Church Discipline. At this same session, they proceeded to a vote. Of the 591 Fathers present, 491 voted placet, 44 voted placet iuxta modum, and 56 voted non placet. At the assembly of the 13th, the conditions proposed by some of the Fathers were examined. Only one of the proposed corrections was accepted. Thus ended the discussion on the unified catechism (cf. Coll. Lacensis, VII, p. 741 ss.).

1645 Letter to Mother María Antonia París, San Ildefonso 31 August 1860 (EC II, p. 174).

1646 In fact, the discussion of the schema De vita et honestate Clericorum began at the 16th general assembly on Tuesday, February 25th. The first speaker was Cardinal Luis de Lastra y Cuesta (1803-1876), Archbishop of Seville.

1647 “The corruption of the best is the worst,” cited by Archbishop Janos Simor (1813-1891), Archbishop of Esztergom since 1867 and Primate of Hungary.

1648 Tommaso Salzano, Bishop of Tanis in pártibus infidelium.

1649 The bishop of the Canary Islands, Don José María Urquinaona, spoke the following day.

1650 Ps 33:15 Vulgate, (Ps 34:14): “Turn away from evil, and do good.”

1651 Konrad Martin (1812-1879), Bishop of Paderborn (Westfalia, Germany).

1652 Bishop Augustin Vérot (1805-1876), Apostolic Vicar of Florida (United States) in 1857, Bishop of Savannah (Georgia) from 1861 and of Saint Augustine (Florida) from March 11, 1870 where he died on June 10, 1876.

1653 Bishop József Papp-Szilágyi, Bishop of Gross-Wardein, of the Ruthenian Greek Catholic Rite. The Saint stresses that he is a Catholic, because Pius IX had also invited the Orthodox.

1654 Don José María Urquinaona, Bishop of the Canary Islands and San Cristóbal de la Laguna.

1655 Don Bienvenido Monzón y Martín, Archbishop of Granada.

1656 Melkon Nazarian, Armenian Archbishop of Mardin (Mesopotamia).

1657 Paul Ludolf Melchers (1813-1895), Archbishop of Cologne (Germany), Cardinal (1885) and member of the Society of Jesus (1892).

1658 Gennaro Maria Acciardi, of Anglona-Tursi (Basilicata). In vol. 1 of the Colección de cartas pastorales y edictos del Excmo. Señor D. Felipe Bertrán (Madrid 1783), there is a pastoral letter on clerical garb which Claret marked extensively with underlinings and hand-markings. In it, the same documents and popes which the Saint mentions here are cited (pp. 207-262).

1659 Bishop José Caixal.

1660 Pankraz Dinkel (1811-1894), Bishop of Augsburg (Bavaria).

1661 Don Antonio Luis Jordá y Soler (1822-1872), Bishop of Vic.

1662 “Light of the world,” “Salt of the earth”: cf. Mt 5:13-14. The ideas expressed here are those of Bishop Thomas Gallucci of Recanati and Loreto.

1663 These lines are marked by a line in the margin, to stress their importance and their agreement with the Saint’s own thought. He had written to Fr. Joseph Xifré of the need to have the Missionaries devote themselves to teaching (cf. letter of July 16, 1869: EC, II, pp. 1405-1408).

1664 The ideas expressed in these two numbers were those of Bishop Salvatore Angelo DeMartis, Bishop of Gatelli-Nuoro (Sardinia).

1665 Cyril Behnam-Benni, Archbishop of Mossoul (Mesopotamia) of the Syriac Rite.

1666 The ideas in this section are those of Bishop William Hugh Joseph Clifford (1823-1893), Bishop of Clifton (England).

1667 Peter Bostami, Archbishop of Tyre and Sidon (Syria).

1668 These lines are a résumé of the address by Francesco Pedicini, Archbishop of Bari (died in 1886).

1669 Resumé of the address by Francesco Gandolfi, Bishop of Corneto and Civitavecchia (died in 1882).

1670 In his own archdiocese, Claret had made the wearing of clerical garb obligatory for all his priests. In his edict, a penalty or fine of 10 duros was attached to violations. He notes, “Only one failed.” (Autob. n. 555).

1671 Resumé of the address by Manuel del Valle, Bishop of Huánuco (Peru).

1672 Resumé of the address by Vincent Jekelfalusy (1802-1874), Bishop of Székesfehérvár (Hungary).

1673 “The will to sin is in us”; “We are being poured out like water”; cf. 2 Kgs 14:14.

1674 “Piety above all”; cf. 1 Tim 4:8.

1675 Resumé of the address by Lajos Haynald (1816-1891), Archbishop of Colocsa (Hungary), Cardinal from 1879.

1676 Stefan Stefanopoli, Archbishop of the Philippi, of the Greek rite.

1677 S Paul Hildi, Bishop of Cezira (Mesopotamia).

1678 Cf. Jn 8:11.

1679 Cf. Jn 4:10.

1680 Cf. Lk 10:39-42.

1681 Proves to be an interesting application of the Parable of the Good Samaritan (cf. Lk 10:25-37) to priests, especially to confessors.

1682 Antônio de Macedo Costa (1830-1891), Bishop of Belem of Pará (Brazil) from 1861 to 1890, year in which he became Archbishop of San Salvador of Bahia.

1683 He refers to the Pious Latin-American College (cf. Letter to Fr. Joseph Xifré, Novemebr 16, 1869: EC, II, pp. 1429-1432).

1684 “Send workers...”; cf. Lk 10:2.

1685 Jean-Pierre Bravard, Bishop of Coutances (France).

1686 Jean-Paul-François-Marie Lyonnet (1801-1875), Archbishop of Albi (Castres-Lavaur, France).

1687 2 Tm. 4:16: “Look to yourself and to your teaching.

1688 Resumé of the address by Josip Juraj Strossmayer (1815-1905), Bishop of Bosnia and Sirmich (Croatia).

1689 “These are the weapons of our warfare” (cf. 2 Cor 10:4 – Claret wrote this phrase on the first page of the work: Diertins, Ignatius, Exercitia Spiritualia S. P. Ignatii Loyolae. Edit. Nova. Taurini. Excudebat Hyacinthus Marietti 1826, 330 pp.

1690 Ez 3:3.

1691 Lk 11:13: “Keep working until I come.”

1692 Cf. Jn 10:12.

1693 Resumé of the address by Don Joaquín Lluch (1816-1882), Bishop of Salamanca and Ciudad Rodrigo.

1694 Eccl 7:19: “He who fears the Lord neglects nothing.”

1695 Resumé of the address by Bishop Lorenzo Gastaldi, of Saluces (Piedmont).

1696 Eccl 4:10: “Woe to him who is alone!”

1697 Théodore Joseph Gravez (1810-1884), Bishop of Namur (Belgium).

1698 Melkon Nazarian, Armenian Archbishop of Mardin (Mesopotamia).

1699 Luigi Moreno, Bishop of Ivrea (Piedmont).

1700 Bishop Vincenzo Moretti (1815-1881), Bishop of Imola (Papal States). Cardinal in 1877.

1701 Rm 8:29-30.

1702 Gal 2:20: “It is no longer I who live, but Christ who lives in me.”

1703 Gn 42:21: “We are deservedly suffering these things, because we have sinned.”

1704 Cf. Jn 2:10.

1705 Giovanni Ghilardi, O.P., (died in 1873) Bishop of Mondovi, (Piedmont). In all, 38 Fathers had spoken. The schema, with all its difficulties, was sent to the Commission on Church Discipline.

1706 Cf. note 170.

1707 St. Dominic de Guzmán (Caleruega 1170-Bolonia 1221). Founder of the Order of Preachers and a great promoter of the Rosary.

1708 The daily Council journal of Father Claret ends this day, Tuesday, February 8th. A few days after, Saturday the 12th, in the morning, he visited one of the Council fathers, Don Basilio Gil y Bueno, Bishop de Huesca, who was gravely ill. He left a record of this episode with his nephew and personal secretary Don Saturnino López Novoa (see Appendix no. II).

1709 Coll. Lacensis, VII, p. 923 ff. [“in every respect unavoidably necessary”] (cf. Collectio Lacensis VII, p. 923 ff.).

1710 Ib., p. 290 ff.

1711 EC II, p. 1468.

1712 Coll. Lacensis VII, p. 744.

1713 Letter to Don Paladio Currius, Rome, June 17, 1870 (EC, II, p. 1471).

1714 Letter to Fr. Joseph Xifré, Rome, July 1, 1870 (EC, II, p. 1481-1482).

1715 The Venerable León Dehon (1843-1925), founder of the Priests of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, commented drily: “Mgr. Claret y Clará, Traianopolitanus in part. (Spaniard). Discourse favorable.” (Dehon, Leon, Diario del Concilio Vaticano I [Rome 1962] p. 152).

1716 Cf. HD, II, p. 838. (cf. C. Fernández, El Beato II, p. 838).

1717 APV ses. 44.

1718 Coll. Lacensis VII, pp. 1146 ff.

1719 Eccl 3:1, 7.There is a time for everything..., a time to be silent, and a time to speak.”

1720 On day 17, in assembly 52, Bishop Joseph Hefele of Rottenburg spoke-out against infallibility (cf. Pelczar, Giuseppe Sebastiano, Pio IX e il suo Pontificato sullo sfondo delle vicende della Chiesa nel secolo XIX [Torino 1910] II, p. 529). On the 17th of May Karl Johann Greith, Bishop of St. Gallen, had given a vehement testimony against the definition of papal infallibility.

1721 Is 6:5,Vulgate.

1722 Cf. Is 29:14; 1 Cor 1:19.

1723 Cf. 2 Cor 11:14.

1724 Cf. Ps 73:23, Vulgate.

1725 Cf. 1 Pt 1:19.

1726 Gn 1:4.

1727 Regarding the attempt on his life at Holguín, cf. Autob. nn. 573-584.

1728 Gal 6:17.

1729 The exact quote is: “All the evil in the world comes from ignorance of the truths of the holy writings in their clear simplicity” (Teresa of Avila, The Life of St. Teresa of Jesus, Produced by Elizabeth T. Knuth Translated from the Spanish by David Lewis. Third Edition Enlarged. With additional Notes and an Introduction by Rev. Fr. Benedict Zimmerman, O.C.D. London: Thomas Baker; New York: Benziger Bros. Project Gutenberg. Release Date: May, 2005 [EBook #8120] [This file was first posted on June 16, 2003] http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext05/8trsa10h.htm#l40.0 The original Spanish text is taken from Claret’s own publication: Santa Teresa De Jesús, Libro de la vida, cap. 40, n. 1: Obras completas, LR [Barcelona 1851] II, p. 128). One of the Fathers of the Church said the same thing many years before: Haec est omnium malorum causa nescire Scipturas [This is the cause of all evils, the not knowing the Scriptures. (St. John Chrysostom, Ep. Ad Colossenses, Homil. IX; English text available online at Christain Classics Ethereal Library. http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf113.html)].

1730 “Ah, My daughter, they are few who love Me in truth; for if men loved Me, I should not hide My secrets from them.” (Ibid.).

1731 Lk 10:21.

1732 Ps 66: 2 Vulgate, (Ps 67:1).

1733 This address was published by Mansi, v. 52, col. 364-365. The stenographic text is found in ASV/CONCILIO VATICANO I, 302, 11v.-12r., 90-93.

1734 Cf. HD, II, p. 837. “He delivered a valiant, lightning-like, and expressive discourse…Fr. Claret’s brief and expressive discourse is a throbbing witness in the Pauline style, showing to believers the scars on his body wounded for preaching and intrepidly defending the Truth, the faith of Christ” (See also Armas, Gabriel De, Tu es Petrus [Las Palmas 1972] pp. 88-89; cf. Mainka, Rudolf Maria, Pater Clarets Rede auf dem ersten vatikanischen Konzil: SC 2 [1964] 213-221). On the other hand, Archbishop Vincenzo Tizzani (1809-1892), Archbishop of Nisibi “in pártibus infidelium”, tried to cut him short and practically nullified the intervention of Claret (cf. Pasztor, Lajos, Diario di Vincenzo Tizzani 1869-1870, Stuttgart 1992; Croce, Giuseppe M., Monsignor Vincenzo Tizzani ed il Concilio Vaticano I. A proposito di una recente pubblicazione: Archivum Historiae Pontificiae 31 [1993] 307-348; Bermejo, Jesús, Claret en el Concilio Vaticano I: Una campana disonante: SC 10 [1992] 111-121).

1735 There were sessions until July 13th, when the vote was cast on the schema. On the 18th , in the 4th General Session, all but two of the 535 Fathers attending voted placet for the definition (cf. Coll. Lacensis, VII, pp. 488-497). Pius IX confirmed the canons and decrees by his authority (cf. ib., pp. 269 ss.). “This definition, greatly desired and hoped for, will fill our afflicted Church with joy and confuse her enemies” (The Two Standards [Barcelona 1870] p. 34: Escritos Pastorales, p. 670).

1736 Cf. 1 Pt 1:19.

1737 Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils, 2 Volume Set, Norman P. Tanner, Editor (Georgetown University Press 1990); also available on line
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