The book treats a familiar theme - the Indian experience of the last 1200 years - in a powerful way.
People should choose their elected representatives partly on the basis of how well they believe these representatives, once elected, can convince them to do or support whatever needs to be done.
People should choose representatives whom they believe will convince them to take action.
People should choose representatives on the basis of whether or not they believe the representatives can be convinced to do whatever needs to be done.
Although people should choose representatives whom they believe will convince them to take action, often they do not.
Representatives should be elected only as far as they are convinced to take action.
People should choose representatives whom they believe they can convince to do or support whatever needs to be done.
İkinci paragrafı oluşturan uzun tümcenin yüklemini bulun.
In one very long sentence, the introduction to the U.N. Charter expresses the ideals and the common aims of all the peoples whose governments joined together to form the U.N.
"We the peoples of the U.N. determined to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold suffering to mankind, and to reaffirm faith in fundamental rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, and for these ends, to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbours, and to unite our strength to maintain peace and security, and to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and to employ international machinery for the promotion of economic and social advancement of all peoples, have resolved to combine our efforts to accomplish these aims."
The name United Nations is accredited to U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and the first group of representatives of member states met and signed a declaration of common intent on New Year's Day in 1942. Representatives of five powers worked together to draw up proposals, completed at Dumbarton Oaks in 1944. These proposals, modified after deliberation at the conference on International Organization in San Francisco which began in April 1945, were finally agreed on and signed as the U.N. Charter by 50 countries on 26 June 1945. Poland, not represented at the conference, signed the Charter later and was added to the list of original members. It was not until that autumn, however, after the Charter had been ratified by China, France, the U.S.S.R., the U.K. and the U.S. and by a majority of the other participants that the U.N. officially came into existence. The date was 24 October, now universally celebrated as United Nations day.
The essential functions of the U.N. are to maintain peace and security, to develop friendly relations among nations, to cooperate internationally economic, social, cultural and human problems, promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms and to be centre for co-ordinating the actions of nations in attaining these common ends.
No country takes precedence over another in the U.N. Each member's rights and obligations are the same. All must contribute to the peaceful settlement of international disputes, and members have pledged to refrain from the threat or use of force against other states. Though the U.N. has no right to intervene any state's internal affairs, it tries to ensure that non-member states act according to its principles of international peace and security. UN members must offer every assistance in an approved U.N. action and in no way assist states against which the U.N. is taking preventive or enforcement action.
Ettirgen yapılar içeren aşağıdaki tümceleri inceleyin ve Türkçeye çevirin.
Detailed calculations find that the acceleration of an object under gravity depends on both the mass and temperature of an object in a way that makes heavier, or cooler objects fall faster than lighter or hotter ones.
The job of the typographer is to make the reading of the printed page easy and pleasant, and in illustrated books to make sure that, for example, the connection between text and illustrations is clear.
To be a good teacher, you need to make the material varied, interesting, and understandable to your students.
Although Miss Quested had not made herself popular with the English, she brought out all that was fine in her character.
Probably the child first becomes aware of causality when he himself causes things to move by pushing, pulling, and shaking them. Such movements occur at first by chance, and then the child begins to produce them intentionally. Thus one of Piaget's children found at the age of three months that by kicking around in her cot she could make her dolls, which were suspended from a framework above the cot, move to and fro.
The mere fact that something has happened a certain number of times causes animals and men to expect that it will happen again. Thus our instincts certainly cause us to believe that the sun will rise tomorrow.
(In India) To send a telegram in the ordinary public fashion necessitates at least four separate but interrelated operations. First, you approach the counter, which is besieged by a shrilling, gesticulating crowd.
Gandhi was released from prison early in 1924. Almost his first public act was a three-week fast in the cause of communal unity. This led to a conference on unity, and once more he was in the centre of affairs.
Mrs. Thatcher has succeeded in making people believe in her economic "miracle", which, as we have repeatedly argued, is largely an illusion.
As one delegate to the Cannes film festival put it: "Technically the British are always superb, but when you are watching a comedy show only one question really counts - does it make you laugh ?"
It is not surprising to find that success or failure in a task has some effect on the performance of that task itself, and may also affect tasks performed immediately afterwards.
Make-up does several things to the human face. It may disguise it or protect it from the sun; it may make it look younger and healthier, or it may label it as belonging to a particular social category.
A type of reading which necessitates careful attention to detail is proof-reading, in which the reader, in order to detect misprints, has to notice not so much on the meaning of what he reads as the exact shapes and order of letters and words in the text.
In any interaction which makes you anxious, you can learn to adjust your own body language and feel more confident. Try to avoid wringing your hands, as this conveys nervousness, or raising your forefinger when you speak because the implicit aggression will arouse an unco- operative response.
Immunotoxins The administration of active toxins to an animal or person will probably produce adverse side effects because the poison kills normal cells as well. It would be a good idea if we could modify the toxins so that they kill only cancer cells. One way is to attach these toxins to substances called antibodies, which react specifically with tumour cells to produce "immunotoxins". Antibodies are protein molecules produced by animals, in response to a foreign substance, or antigen. Antibodies combine specifically with the substance that induced their formation. In this case, specific active molecules on the surface of the cancer cells trigger the formation of antibodies. Therefore, in theory, the immunotoxin will selectively seek out and kill the tumour cell.
Find synonym for the underlined word.
1. Natural occurrences such as hurricanes, earthquakes and tornadoes can have catastrophic effects on people.
2. Unicorns, dragons and centaurs are all imaginary animals.
3. A huge mountain chain in Europe is formed by linking the Alps, the Pyrenees, the Balkans, the Caucaus, and the Carpathians.
4. Women in England achieved the right to vote only after various protest movements.
A) fought for
C) wrote about
5. Martin Luther King fought to put an end to racial segregation.
6. Her early skills with numbers was an indicative of a genius in mathematics.
8. A computer may be used in the math classroom to implement the lesson.
D) carry out
9. The pilot miraculously survived the crash unscathed.
10. The first man to reach the summit of Mt. Everest won worldwide acclaim for his feat.
Metin Analizi ve Çevirisi
Bu bölümde İngilizce-Türkçe çeviri için çeşitli metinler yer almaktadır.
Genel amaçlı çeviriyi hedefleyenler amaçlandığı için, metinlerde belli bir konu (tıp, ekonomi gibi) sınırlandırması yoktur.
Bir ya da birkaç örnek metnin çevirisinin yapılması, çeviride yetkinliğin ölçütü olamaz. Bu durumda da seçilen metinlerin belli başlı çeviri sorunlarını örneklemesi hedeflenmiştir.
Metinlerin olabildiğince güncel ve ilginç olması amaçlanmıştır.
Metinlerin uzunluğu görecelidir. Çok uzun bir metin çok az çeviri sorunu örnekleyebileceği gibi bunun tersi durumlar da söz konusu olabilir. Bu nedenle önemli olan metnin uzunluğu değil o metinde ön plana çıkarılan tümcelerdir.
Çalışmanız için derlenmiş 31 tane metinde - sergiledikleri çeviri sorunları açısından - kolaydan zora doğru bir sıralama izlenmiştir. Yine de, bu sıralamayı kendinize göre düzenleyebilirsiniz.
1 - INFLATION>
2 - GROWING VEGETABLES
3 - CHRISTMAS: MORE STUFFING?
4 - PACKAGING: THE INSANE WASTE OF MAKING THINGS TO BE THROWN AWAY
5 - SCHOOL AND CREATIVITY
6 - SCORPION
7 - LIE DETECTOR<
8 - CALCULATOR, CALENDAR AND CLOCK
9 - THE SECRET FEW PEOPLE COULD GUESS<
10 - TINY BRAIN
11 - LEARNING TO LIVE WITH THE COMPUTER>
12 - THEY HAVE YOU TAPED - AND THERE AREN'TT ENOUGH SAFEGUARDS
13 - GALAXY
14 - TEACHING
15 - POCKETY WOMEN UNITE?>
16 - YOU AND YOUR BODY
17 - TIGHTEN YOUR BELT
18 - THE 800TH LIFE
19 - DEMOCRACY AND HUMAN POTENTIAL
20 - PLAGIARISM IN THE ACADEMIC COMMUNITY
21 - NEW POLICY DEBATE
22 - THE WAY UP TO HEAVEN>
23 - COMMON SENSE ABOUT SMOKING<
24 - LANGUAGE
25 - THE BIBLE>
26 - ART
27 - IFS OF HISTORY
28 - NUCLEAR POWER>
29 - EARLY DAZE
30 - TELEVISION
31 - THE TWELVE BOTTLES OF WHISKY
Inflation is a modern economic disease, which all consumers suffer from. When we are told that we have got a pay rise, we are naturally pleased. Yet when we go to the shops to buy things, we find that we cannot buy as much as we could a month ago. How is this possible? The reason, of course, lies in the fact that prices are rising all the time and we usually receive pay rises that are not as large as general price increases. We find, furthermore, that the money we have carefully saved in the bank cannot buy the house that we want because the price of the house has doubled.
It seems, in fact, that our wages have gone down although our employees have told us they have increased. It is not surprising, then, that political parties win or lose elections according to how well they persuade the people that inflation can be controlled by their policies. It is only to be expected, therefore, that the ordinary voter will support a government that promises to restore the value of money in the bank and to make wage increases equal to the increase of prices in the shops. As a result of this situation, we find governments being defeated by their economic policies. People are impatient and prefer to vote for a new government rather than wait for old economic policies to become effective: Unfortunately, promises about controlling prices and wages are not generally kept because there is no simple cure for the complex disease of inflation.
If you grow your own vegetables, they are bound to be fresher than those you buy in the shops; and the chances are that you will find they taste better, too. You can also grow things it is difficult to find in the shops. And you may save money - a family of four could have saved around £70 last year by growing all their vegetables. All of this, by doing something that many people regard as a healthy leisure activity.
In the first part of this report, we tell you what is involved in growing your own vegetables and how to plan a vegetable garden. In the second, we tell you how to get the best value for money when buying seeds and plants.
Much of the report is based on the experiences of our members - nearly 1,500 filled in a mammoth questionnaire. We are very grateful indeed for the help they gave us. One thing is clear from our members' experience: growing vegetables can be hard work. Routine jobs like weeding and clearing take up a lot of time, quite apart from the exhausting chore of digging. However, nearly all our vegetable-growing members thought the results were definitely worth all the effort.
CHRISTMAS: MORE STUFFING?
Merry Christmas to you all... "Merry", as you may know, has two meanings: a) happy, and b) drunk. If you're like a large number of British people, then your Christmas will be an alcoholic, rather than a religious, occasion.
If you walk down Piccadily or Oxford Street just before Christmas, you will see an incredible amount of money being spent on electronic games, bottles of spirits, expensive clothes, LPs, cassettes, cameras, and large number of luxury items. If you walk down the main street of several towns of the Third World just before Christmas, you won't see large amount of money being spent on presents: in fact, you won't see a large amount of money being spent on anything.
80% of all disease in the world is caused by bad water supply: for millions of people, the perfect Christmas present would be a tap in the village square which would give pure, clean water.
Do we think of these people when we sit down to our Christmas dinner? Of course not - we're too busy thinking about the turkey, the roast potatoes, and the presents sitting under the Christmas tree. The whole idea of Christmas now is completely unChristian - I'm sure that Christ would be furious if he could see what sort of celebrations are being carried out in his name.
So I'm against Christmas - I agree with Scrooge1 "It's all humbugg." If we're going to continue this wasteful, thoughtless ceremony, then let's be truthful about it, and call it "Stuff-Our-Faces Week", or "Stomach Week" - but let's get rid of the hypocritical pretense that Christmas is "the season of the goodwill".
1 Scrooge Charles Dickens'ın yarattığı, Noel kutlamalarının gereksiz olduğuna inanan bir roman kahramanı.
PACKAGING: THE INSANE WASTE OF MAKING THINGS TO BE THROWN AWAY
To get a chocolate out of a box requires a considerable amount of unpacking: the box has to be taken out of the paper bag in which it arrives; the cellophane wrapper has to be torn off, the lid opened and the paper removed; the chocolate itself then has to be unwrapped from its own piece of paper. But this insane amount of wrapping is not confined to luxuries. It is now becoming increasingly difficult to buy anything that is not done up in cellophane, polythene, or paper.
The package itself is of no interest to the shopper, who usually throws it away immediately. Useless wrapping accounts for much of the refuse put out by the average London household each week. So why is it done? Some of it, like the cellophane on meat, is necessary, but most of the rest is simply competitive selling. This is absurd. Packaging is using up scarce energy and resources and messing up the environment.
Little research is being carried out on the costs of alternative types of packaging. Just how is it possible, for instance, for local authorities to salvage paper, pulp it, and recycle it as egg-boxes? Would it be cheaper to plant another forest? Paper is the material most used for packaging - 20 million paper bags are apparently used in Great Britain each day - but very little is salvaged.
Both glass and paper are being threatened by the growing use of plastic. The trouble with plastic is that it does not rot. Some environmentalists argue that the only solution to the problem of ever-growing mounds of plastic containers is to do away with plastic altogether in the shops, a suggestion unacceptable to many manufacturers who say there is no alternative to their handy plastic packs.
It is evident that more research is needed into the recovery and re-use of various materials and into the cost of collecting and recycling containers as opposed to producing new ones. Unnecessary packaging, indeed to be used just once, is clearly becoming increasingly absurd. But it is not so much a question of doing away with packaging as using it sensibly. What is needed is a more sophisticated approach to using scarce resources for what is, after all, a relatively unimportant function.
SCHOOL AND CREATIVITY
Albert Einstein once attributed the creativity of a famous scientist to the fact that he "never went to school, and therefore preserved the rare gift of thinking freely." There is undoubtedly truth in Einstein's observation; many artists and geniuses seem to view their schooling as a disadvantage. But such a truth is not a criticism of schools. It is the function of schools to civilize, not to train explorers. The explorer is always a lonely individual whether his or her pioneering be in art, music, science, or technology. The creative explorer of unmapped lands shares with the genius what William James described as the "faculty of perceiving in an unhabitual way." Insofar as schools teach perceptual patterns they tend to destroy creativity and genius. But if schools could somehow exist solely to cultivate genius, then society would break down. For the social order demands unity and widespread agreement, both traits that are destructive to creativity. There will always be conflict between the demands of society and the impulses of creativity and genius.
Then one day I found a fat mother scorpion in the wall. She was wearing a fur coat. I look more closely. It was really a mass of very small babies holding on to their mother's back. I very much admired this family, and decided to take them secretly into the house and up to my bedroom. I wanted to watch them while they grew up. Carefully, I put the mother and family into a matchbox, and then ran to the villa.
Lunch was on the table. I put the matchbox carefully on a shelf in the sitting room and went to the dining room and joined the family for the meal. I ate slowly, gave Roger food secretly under the table and listened to the family. I completely forgot about my exciting new pets. When Larry finished his meal, he took some cigarettes from the sitting room. He sat back in his chair, put one in his mouth and picked up the matchbox which he had brought. I watched him with interest. He was still talking when he opened the matchbox.
Now I still say this: the mother scorpion did not want to hurt anyone. She was worried and angry, so she took the first chance to escape. She climbed out of the box very quickly. Her babies were still holding on when she climbed on to the back of Larry's hand. There she was a bit uncertain, and she paused. Her sting was curved up at the ready. When Larry felt the movement of her claws he looked down and saw her. Then everything got confused. He screamed with fear and Lugaretzia dropped a plate. Roger came out under the table and began to run wildly.
Larry shook his hand and the scorpion flew down the table. She fell between Margo and Leslie and her babies went everywhere when she fell on to the table-cloth. She was now very angry and ran towards Leslie. Leslie jumped to his feet, overturned his chair, and hit the scorpion with his napkin. Mother put on her glasses and looked down the table. At that moment Margo tried to stop the scorpion and threw a glass of water at it. But, the shower hit mother, who immediately lost her breath and couldn't speak. The scorpion was not behind Leslie's plate, but her babies were running all over the plate. And, Roger, who wanted to help, was making angry noises and running round the room.
"It's that horrible boy again !" shouted Larry.
"Be careful ! They're coming !" screamed Margo.
"All we need is a book," shouted Leslie. "Find me a book!"
"What's the problem ?" mother was asking while she tried to clean her glasses.
"It's that horrible boy ... he'll kill us all ... Look at the table ... knee-deep in scorpions ..."
Naturally, Roger did not know what the problem was. He knew that the family was in danger. He wanted to protect the family and, because Lugaretzia was the only stranger in the room, he bit her on the leg.
This did not help very much.
On February morning in 1966 Cleve Backster made a discovery that changed his life and could have far-reaching effects on ours. Backster was at that time an interrogation specialist who left the CIA to operate a New York school for training policemen in the techniques of using the polygraph, or "lie detector". This instrument normally measures the electrical resistance of the human skin, but on that morning he extended its possibilities. Immediately after watering an office plant, he wondered if it would be possible to measure the rate at which water rose in the plant from the root to the leaf by recording the increase in leaf-moisture content on a polygraph tape. Backster placed the two pscyhogalvanic-reflex (PGR) electrodes on either side of a leaf of Dracaena massangeana, a potted rubber plant, and balanced the leaf into the circuitry before watering the plant again. There was no marked reaction to this stimulus, so Backster decided to try what he calls "the threat-to-well-being principle, a well-established method of triggering emotionality in humans." In other words he decided to torture the plant. First he dipped one of its leaves into a cup of hot coffee, but there was no reaction, so he decided to get a match and burn the leaf properly. "At the instant of this decision, at 13 minutes and 55 seconds of chart time, there was a dramatic change in the PGR tracing pattern in the form of an abrupt and prolonged upward sweep of the recording pen. I had not moved, or touched the plant, so the timing of the PGR pen activity suggested to me that the tracing might have been triggered by the mere thought of the harm I intended to inflict on the plant."
Backster went on to explore the possibility of such perception in the plant by bringing some live brine shrimp into his office and dropping them one by one into boiling water. Every time he killed a shrimp, the polygraph recording needle attached to the plant jumped violently. To eliminate the possibility of his own emotions producing this reaction, he completely automated the whole experiment so that an electronic randomizer chose odd moments to dump the shrimp into hot water when no human was in the laboratory at all. The plant continued to respond in sympathy to the death of every shrimp and failed to register any change when the machine dropped already dead shrimp into the water.
CALCULATOR, CALENDAR AND CLOCK
Even the cheapest and least complicated digitals are minor miracles of modern technology. They replace the traditional hands, springs and cogs with flickering digits and electronic circuits.
Some just display hours, minutes and seconds, but many function like baby computers. At the push of a button you can check the time in New York or New Delhi, see exactly how long Mario Andreotti takes to lap a race track, set a small but shrill alarm, or even programme the watch, months in advance, to flash out a reminder about birthdays and other special dates. Some digitals have calendars that "know" all about leap years and remain accurate well into the 21st century.
Quartz, one of the world's most common minerals, lies at the heart of every digital watch. Almost a century ago, scientists discovered that quartz crystals vibrate at an absolute constant frequency when an electric current is passed through them. But quartz watches did not become practical until miracles of miniaturisation were developed to save weight and room in spacecraft. The typical watch crystal, powered by a battery the size of a fingernail, vibrates 32,768 times every second. The vibrations are fed into a tiny "chip" - little bigger than the end of a match - which is crammed with more than a thousand transistors and other components. This microscopic maze is watch's "brain" and can be designed to store a remarkable amount of information. But its most important function is to keep dividing the vibrations by two until the quartz is pulsing precisely once every second.
Battery, crystal and chip combine to produce remarkably accurate watches whose time keeping rarely strays by more than one or two seconds each month. They also tend to be very reliable, thanks to the absence of all the ticking machinery packed into a conventional clockwork watch.
If you fancy a digital watch, ask yourself how many of the tricks it performs are likely to be of genuine value. It makes no sense to spend extra money on what could become gimmicks once the novelty has worn off.
THE SECRET FEW PEOPLE COULD GUESS
Brenda Linson never goes anywhere without an empty spectacles case. It is as vital to her as her purse. Yet, she doesn't wear glasses. The reason she can't do without it is because she can't read and she can't write. If ever she gets into any situation where she might be expected to do either of these things, she fishes in her bag for the specs case, finds it empty, and asks the person concerned to do the reading for her. Brenda is now in her late thirties. She's capable and articulate and until a few months ago hardly anybody knew she was illiterate. Her husband didn't know and her children didn't know. Her children still don't.
She had any number of tactics for concealing her difficulty - for example, never lingering near a phone at work, in case she had to answer it and might be required to write something down. But, in fact, it is easier for illiterates to conceal the truth than the rest of us might imagine. Literacy is taken so much for granted that people simply don't spot the giveaway signs.
It has never occurred to the children that their mother cannot read. She doesn't read them stories, but then their father doesn't either, so they find nothing surprising in the fact. Similarly they just accept that Dad is the one who writes sick notes and reads the school reports. Now that the elder boy Tom is a quite proficient reader, Brenda can skillfully get him to read any notes brought home from school simply by asking, "What's that all about, then?"
Brenda's husband never guessed the truth in 10 years of marriage. For one thing he insists on handling all domestic correspondence and bills himself. An importer of Persian carpets, he travels a great deal and so is not around so much to spot the truth. While he's away Brenda copes with any situations by explaining that she can't do anything until she's discussed it with her husband.
Brenda was very successful in her job until very recently. For the last five years she had worked as a waitress at an exclusive private club, and had eventually been promoted to head waitress. She kept the thing a secret there too, and got over the practical difficulties somehow.
The one thing that went to get talked about non-stop throughout mid 1990s is about as big as this .
For the electro-technologically minded, it's a miracle of micro-processing wizardry with the mind-boggling potential to revolutionise the whole of life. For the uninitiated, it's a source of bafflement, unease, and a vaguely sci-fi fascination. It represents the major challenge of this century's last twenty years, so all the expert futurologists claim, yet sounds to most of us like some newly-fanged substitute for fried potato.
It's the silicon chip.
Not surprisingly, most non-scientists find that the effort of trying to grasp what a silicon is turns out to be just as bewildering as the struggle to comprehend what a silicon chip does.
Fifty years ago, the world's first electronic digital computers weighed about thirty tons and filled a room. Today silicon chip equivalent weighs a fraction of gramme and would disappear on your fingernail.
Once designed, a silicon chip can be ludicrously cheap to manufacture in bulk. That is why everyone can now buy for peanuts such sophisticated gadgets as pocket calculators or complex TV games. Desk-top computers are as familiar as desk-top typewriters.
Not only is the silicon chip small and ever more inexpensive, it is also reliable and immensely versatile. Already the world market is estimated at £3 billion a year. By the mid-2000s, one chip-maker predicts, every person in the world may need to own at least one microprocessing toy just to an outlet for the industry's burgeoning supply.
Such talk is typical of the increasingly extravagant claims being made on behalf of the silicon chip. It has been called the most significant invention since wheel. A single chip can far outstrip the mathematical speed and capacity of any man. Multi-chip computers can perform a million error-free calculations in the time it takes to blink and they're getting faster all the time. All that is holding them back is the speed at which data can be programmed in, or applications for them found.
More and more small firms take advantage of small, purpose- programmed computers to keep the books. Instrumentation on cars gets neater and more comprehensive. Telephones have increased international capability, telephone and television-linked information systems are more comprehensive and more wide-spread. Cameras get smaller and more automated, fun toys like talking calculators and programmable video gadgets fight for the home entertainment market. Money continues to give way to computerised accounting and debiting systems, all kinds of security systems are rapidly advanced. Shops keep track of their stock with micro-processing systems, all kinds of traffic control has become more efficient, less energy is wasted by better power systems.
The previous century, in short, certainly saw a gathering pace in the applied use of silicon ships but there is not the remotest chance that applications will keep pace with theoretical development. The long-term effects of the micro-processing revolution are incalculable - even for a silicon chip.
The most talked-about social implication is, of course, the effect of ever more sophisticated automation on employment. Here, too, there has been a marked tendency to take off into scare mongering with exaggerated claims that silicon chips will cause overnight disruption, making millions redundant. A study by the UK Central Policy Review Staff is characteristically sober: "Reports suggesting large-scale loss of jobs from micro-processing applications overestimate the speed at which these applications could be introduced and underestimate the new markets created in the process."
LEARNING TO LIVE WITH THE COMPUTER
A rapid technological advance has been accepted by many manufacturing industries for some time, but for the office worker, who has led a sheltered existence in comparison, radical changes are a new experience. With the advent of electronic data processing techniques and, especially, computers, this situation has altered very swiftly. Office staff are finding themselves exposed to the traumatic consequences of scientific progress.
Most offices, by the very nature of their structure and function, are geared to stability or slow change. Accelerated change of the kind that a computer brings is likely to prove disrupting and disturbing. This is because people in stable organizations tend to expect a steady continuation of existing arrangements, and because departments unaccustomed to change frequently find they have become too inflexible to assimilate it without stress. Social as well as technical factors are therefore highly relevant to a successful adaptation to new techniques.
Research into the social and organizational problems of introducing computers into offices has been in progress in the social science department in Liverpool University for the past four years. It has been shown that many firms get into difficulties partly because of lack of technical knowledge and experience, but also because they have not been sufficiently aware of the need to understand and plan for the social as well as the technical implications of change. In the firms that have been studied, change has been seen simply as a technical problem to be handled by technologists. The fact that the staff might regard the introduction of a computer as a threat to their security and status has not been anticipated. Company directors have been surprised when, instead of cooperation, they encountered anxiety and hostility.
Once the firm has signed the contract to purchase a computer, its next step, one might expect, would be to "sell" the idea to its staff, by giving reassurances about redundancy, and investigating how individual jobs will be affected so that displaced staff can be prepared for a move elsewhere. In fact, this may not happen. It is more usual for the firm to spend much time and energy investigating the technical aspects of the computer , yet largely to ignore the possibility of personnel difficulties.
This neglect is due to the absence from most firms of anyone knowledgeable about human relations. The personnel manager, who might be expected to have some understanding of employee motivation, is in many cases not even involved in the changeover.
THEY HAVE YOU TAPED - AND THERE AREN'T ENOUGH SAFEGUARDS
The dangers of increasing computerization of personal, official and business information have long been recognized, and are scarcely any longer controversial.
First, data can be stored which is inaccurate, incomplete or irrelevant, and yet can be used as the basis for important decisions affecting people's lives.
Second, people may have no idea of the information kept on them, have no way of finding out, and no opportunity to correct mistakes. Third, there is the possibility that the information can fall into unauthorized hands, who could use it for all sorts of hostile, even criminal, purposes. Fourth, the information could be used for a purpose other than that for which it was gathered. Fifth, because computer systems can now communicate with each other easily and speedily, the possibility is increased that comprehensive Big Brother1 files will be compiled on private citizens.
From birth to death, every individual will regularly find something appearing about him in some file or other. Estimates of how many different files are kept on the average individual range from 15 to 50. Some may be thought trivial in themselves - though even library computers can now reveal that a reader took out a book on guerrilla warfare and another on Marxist ideology. Credit card files might disclose an inappropriate spending pattern. The Vehicle Licencing Department keeps tabs on every driver's change of address, and their computer is available to the police. The list of information kept on the individual - his health, income, social security poosition, details of property, his car, his job, and so on - goes on.
Of course, for those who have been in trouble with the police, or been members of an "undesirable" political group, even though they have done nothing illegal, the information kept on them multiplies. More and more of all this information has been removed from the old-fashioned filing cabinet and is being put into computers.
The need for safeguards is not limited to personal information. Business, too, needs protection. If a company's list of customers, or its pricing or production formulae, got into the hands of the competitors, the result could be financial ruin.
In 1978, the Lindop Committee set out the principles which should govern data protection: (1) The individual should know what personal data is being kept, why it is needed, how long it will be used, who will use it, for what purpose, and for how long. (2) Personal data should be handled only to the extent and for the purposes made known at the outset, or authorized subsequently. (3) It should be accurate and complete, and relevant and timely for the purpose for which it is used. (4) No more data should be handled than is necessary for the purposes made known. (5) The individual should be able to verify that those principles have been compiled with.
1 Big Brother, 1984 başlıklı romanda her şeyi denetleyen, gözetleyen ve yöneten sistem.
1984 filminden bir sahne
Aşağıda yer alan metindaha önce ele alınmış ve bilinmeyen sözcükleri ile ilgili bir çalışma yapılmıştı. Bu çalışmadan yararlanarak, metni Türkçe'ye çevirin.
For centuries man believed the Earth to be the centre of Creation. The true picture is far more awe-inspiring.
We live on a small planet revolving round a star of only average size, which is itself revolving, with thousands of millions of other stars, in one galaxy among millions in a Universe that may well be boundless.
Scientific observation has so far probed only a fraction of it. Yet to travel to the frontiers of that observed fraction, even at 186,300 miles per second (the speed of light) would take 6,000 million years, about 20,000 times the total period that human life is estimated to have existed on Earth.
The different bodies and structures in the universe, all of which appear to be receding from us, range from single galaxies to mammoth clusters containing as many as 500 galaxies.
Although the cluster of galaxies to which our galaxy belongs is comparatively small (it has only 25 members), our galaxy itself, the Milky Way System, ranks among the larger of the known stellar systems. Counting its almost 100,000 million stars (of which the Sun with its family of planets is one) at the rate of one star a second would take about 2,500 years.
Teaching is supposed to be a professional activity requiring long and complicated training as well as official certification. The act of teaching is looked upon as a flow of knowledge from a higher source to an empty one. The student's role is one of receiving information; the teacher's is one of sending it. There is a clear distinction assumed between one who is supposed to know (and therefore not capable of being wrong) and another, usually a younger person who is supposed not to know. However, teaching need not be the province of a special group of people nor need it be looked upon as a technical skill. Teaching can be more like guiding and assisting than forcing information into a supposedly empty head. If you have a certain skill you should be able to share it with someone. You do not have to get certified to convey what you know to someone else or to help them in their attempt to teach themselves. All of us, from the very youngest children to the oldest members of our cultures, should come to realize our own potential as teachers. We can share what we know, however little it might be, with someone who has need of that knowledge or skill.
POCKETY WOMEN UNITE ?
Pockets are what women need more of. The women's movement in the past decade has made giant strides in achieving greater social justice for females, but there's a great deal of work yet to be done. And it can't be done without pockets.
It has been commonly thought that men get the best jobs and make the most money and don't have to wash the dinner dishes simply because they're men, that cultural traditions and social conditioning have worked together to give them a special place in the world order.
While there is undoubtedly some truth to this, the fact remains that no one has investigated the role that pockets have played in preventing women from attaining the social status and right that should be theirs.
Consider your average successful executive. How many pockets does he wear to work ? Two in the sides of his trousers, two in the back, one on the front of his shirt, three on his suit coat, and one on the inside of the suit coat. Total: nine.
Consider your average woman dressed for office work. If she is wearing a dress or skirt and blouse, she is probably wearing zero pockets, or one or two at the most. The pantsuit, that supposedly liberating outfit, is usually equally pocketless. And it usually comes with a constricting elastic waist to remind women that they were meant to suffer. Paranoid, you say? Well, how many men's trousers come with elasticized waists?
Now, while it is always dangerous to generalize, it seems quite safe to say that, on the whole, the men of the world, at any given time, are carrying about a much greater number of pockets than are the women of the world. And it is also quite clear that, on the whole, the men enjoy more power, prestige, and wealth than women do.
Everything seems to point to a positive correlation between pockets, power, prestige, and wealth. Can this be?
An examination of the function of the pocket seems necessary. Pockets are for carrying money, credit cards, identification (including entrance to those prestigious clubs where people presumably sit around sharing powerful secrets about how to run the world), important messages, pens, keys, combs, and impressive-looking handkerchief's.
All the equipment essential to running the world. And held close to the body. Easily available. Neatly classified. Pen in the inside pocket. Keys in the back trouser pocket. Efficiency. Order. Confidence.
What does a woman have to match this organization? A purse.
The most hurried examination will show that a purse, however large or important-looking, is no match for a suitful of pockets. If the woman carrying a purse is so lucky as to get an important phone number or market tip from the executive with whom she is lunching, can she write it down? Can she find her pen ? Perhaps she can, but it will probably be buried under three grocery lists, two combs, a checkbook, and a wad of Kleenex. All of which she will have to pile on top of the lunch table before she can find the pen.
Will she ever get another tip from this person of power ? Not likely. Now she has lost any psychological advantage she may have had. He may have been impressed with her intelligent discussion of the current economic scene before she opened her handbag, but four minutes later, when she is still digging, like a busy prairie dog, for that pen, he is no longer impressed.
He knows he could have whipped his pen in and out of his pocket and written fourteen important messages on the table in the time she is still searching.
What can a pocketless woman do?
Two solutions seem apparent. The women can form a pocket lobby (Pocket Power?) and march on the New York garment district1.
Or, in the event that effort fails (and well it might, since it would, by necessity, have to be run by a bunch of pocketless women) an alternate approach remains.
Every man in the country for his next birthday finds himself the lucky recipient of those very stylish men's handbags, and to go with it, one of those great no-pocket body shirts.
1 New York'ta moda evlerinin bulunduğu bölge
YOU AND YOUR BODY
The imagery that we use for reconstructing our own insides seems to vary from country to country. For example, the French seem to have an obsession with the liver, while in Germany, they explain all their peculiar feelings in terms of an organ which they call "the circulation" - whatever that is. I remember, when I was producing an opera in Frankfurt about six months ago, that whenever singers arrived late for rehearsal they would apologize for it by saying they had had "ze circulation collapse" which had somehow reduced their efficiency.
It is very easy to get the impression that everyone outside the English-speaking world is a hypochondriacal loony, or a visceral fantasist. This is not altogether so, because, although I have not been able to find, so far, an American "national organ" among the British, the last four feet of the intestine seem to loom larger than they ought to. The word "constipation" is used so often that it is very hard to know what is being referred to - regularity of the bowel, headaches or lassitude. A vast laxative industry is based on our national fantasy, and even the medical profession has sometimes fallen victim to the same obsession. In the early 1900s, there was a surgical craze for removing yards and yards of intestine at the slightest excuse.
TIGHTEN YOUR BELT
The fact is that the energy crisis, which has suddenly been officially announced, has been with us for a long time now, and will be with us for an even longer time. Whether Arab oil flows freely or not, it is clear to everyone that world industry cannot be allowed to depend on so fragile a base. The supply of oil can be shut off at whim at any time, and in any case, the oil wells will all run dry in thirty or so at the present rate of use. New sources of energy must be found, and this will take time, but it is not likely to result in any situation that will ever restore that sense of cheap and copious energy we have had in the times past. To make the situation worse, there is as yet no sign that any slowing of the world's population is in sight. The food supply will not increase nearly enough to match this, which means that we are heading into a crisis in the matter of producing and marketing food.
Taking all this into account, what might we reasonably estimate supermarkets to be like in the year 2005?
To begin with, the world food supply is going to become steadily tighter over the next thirty years. This means, for one thing, that we can look forward to an end to the "natural food" trend. It is not a wave of the future. All the "unnatural" things we do to food are required to produce more of the food in the first place, and to make it last longer afterward. It is for that reason that we need and use chemical fertilizer and pesticides while the food is growing, and add preservatives afterward. In fact, as food items will tend to decline in quality and decrease in variety, there is very likely to be increasing use of flavouring additives. Until such time as mankind has the sense to lower its population to the point where the planet can provide a comfortable support for all, people will have to accept more artificiality. Then, too, there will be a steady trend toward vegetarianism. A given quantity of ground can provide plant food for man or it can provide plant food for animals which are then slaughtered for meat. Yet, land devoted to plant food will support ten times as many human beings as land devoted to animal food. It is this (far more than food preferences or religious dictates) that forces overcrowded populations into vegetarianism. This will come about because our herds will decrease as the food demand causes more and more pasture land to be turned to farmland, and as land producing corn and other animal fodder is diverted to providing food directly for man.
The Beginning and The End Isaac Asimov'dan uyarlandı.
THE 800TH LIFE
In the time between now and the twenty-first century, millions of ordinary, psychologically normal people will face a sudden confrontation with the future. Many of the citizens of the world's richest and most technologically advanced nations will find it increasingly painful to keep up with incessant demand for change that is a characteristic of our time. For them, the future will have arrived too soon.
This book is about change and how we adapt to it. It is about those who seem to thrive on change, as well as those multitudes of others who resist it or seek flight from it. It is about our capacity to adapt. It is about the future and the shock that its arrival brings.
Western society for the past 300 years has been caught up in a storm of change. This storm, far from abating, now appears to be gathering force. Change moves through the highly industrialized countries with waves of ever-accelerating speed and unprecedented impact. It brings with it all sorts of curious social phenomena - from psychedelic churches and "free universities" to science cities in the Arctic and wife-swap clubs in California.
It breeds odd personalities, too: children who at twelve are no longer children; adults who at fifty are children of twelve. There are rich men who playact poverty, computer programmers who turn on with LSD. There are married priests and atheist ministers and Jewish Zen Buddhists. A strange new society is apparently developing in our midst. Is there a way to understand it, to shape its development?
Much that now seems incomprehensible would be far less so if we took a fresh look at today's rapid rate of change, for the acceleration of change does not merely affect industries or nations. It is a force that reaches deep into one's personal life, compels him to act out new roles, and confronts him with the danger of a new and powerfully upsetting psychological disease. This new disease can be called "future shock", and a knowledge of its sources and symptoms helps explain many things that otherwise resist rational analysis.
DEMOCRACY AND HUMAN POTENTIAL
Nearly every aspect of life affects every other part of life in some way. Historically, we can see that revolutions in social order have caused profound and gradual changes in people's lives, not just politically and socially, but also personally and emotionally.
Democracy, for example, is a relatively new kind of social order. Although democracy was born in ancient Greece, it was not until about two hundred years ago that a modern opportunity for a democratic government arose. The United States was formed on democratic principles in 1776. Yet the results of democracy are still forming. Over a hundred years passed before the principle of equality for all human beings generalized enough to include women as well as men. In 1920, women's right to vote was exercised for the first time. Full rights for women leaders were won slowly. By the 1960s, women leaders were gaining influence. People like Betty Friedan and Gloria Steinem were busy "raising consciousness" about the silken chains that still bound women to servitude, to second class status.
However, the basic appeal of the premise1 that all people are created equal eventually began to have results. Young women had the courage to apply for admission to professional college programs; mature women were encouraged to ask for better jobs, for respect, and for responsibility outside their homes. The movement that began with women's struggle for the right to vote thus developed into what came to be called "women's liberation" and generalized into human potential movement2.
If women had rights, then surely men had rights too. If women were being encouraged to ask for what they wanted, men too had the right to voice their feelings about their work situations, their problems, their worries. Whereas once people chose a life profession and were expected to work at that one job for the rest of their lives, the liberation movement in the 60s and 70s restored to people the power over their own futures. Suddenly a college physics professor decided to study yoga, an accountant became a carpenter, and a doctor gave up his or her practice. Suddenly society in general was more willing for women to have what had been traditionally male characteristics of leadership, assertiveness, and strength. Simultaneously the more gentle and caring side of many men was freed, making it acceptable for a man to be actively involved in the care of the sick as nurse, instead of always being cast as the cool, clinical doctor.
Because of the education in the human potential movement, society accepted men who chose to teach young children and saw the benefits of having both male and female roles for preschool and elementary school children. Because of the education in the human potential movement, women were free to work in traditionally masculine jobs; for example, in mines, in factories, on road-construction crews. Furthermore, women were also free to be feminine in dress and in manner while being successful at their jobs just as the men who were now in professions that had been female-dominated were still seen as masculine and attractive males.
The transition to a truly egalitarian, or democratic, state is still going on. Parts of the order of society are still in flux. New rules and new guidelines for the family are being formed as people learn which solutions to problems work and which ones do not.
Right now, the American family is changing. Divorce, single-parent homes, "his and her"3 families are all common. Yet, the next twenty years might show results of yet another stage of development in life, caused ultimately by the human values of democracy.