Status and corpus planning: addressing language policy implementation problems in south africa



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STATUS AND CORPUS PLANNING: ADDRESSING LANGUAGE POLICY IMPLEMENTATION PROBLEMS IN SOUTH AFRICA

  • Mtholeni N. Ngcobo

  • DEPARTMENT OF LINGUISTICS

  • UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AFRICA


LANGUAGE PLANNING

  • A social construct

  • Production of a policy

  • Policy aspect of planning;

  • Allocation (Gorman, 1973)

  • Language happening (Jernudd & Das Gupta, 1971)

  • Language Treatment (Neustupný, 1974)



Language Planning

  • De facto language planning vs. de jure language planning

  • Practices vs. Policy



FOURFOLD MODEL

  • Selection of the norm

  • Codification

  • Implementation

  • Elaboration

  • Antia (2000) two-by-two matrix

  • Norm + function = language

  • Society + language = planning



THEORETICAL MODELS

  • Rational model (canonical or ideal planning)

  • Alternative model

  • Rational model:

  • National/official language choice – purely government decision

  • Alternative model

  • Accommodate several types/levels of government or non-governmental decision-making and implementation



THEORETICAL MODELS cont…

  • Several planning mechanisms

  • Less organized and less coordinated sources of change



LANGUAGE MANAGEMENT

  • A reaction against centralisation

  • Focus on discourse



STATUS vs. CORPUS PLANNING

  • Compartmentalization (Kloss, 1969)

  • Status planning:

  • Discourse of language politics and society

  • Social aspects of language planning (Kaplan and Baldauf, 1997)

  • Related to political issues

  • Focus on legislative decisions



STATUS vs. CORPUS cont…

  • Corpus Planning

  • Focus on changes by deliberate planning to the corpus or shape of a language

  • Orthography, grammar, lexica (Antia, 2000)

  • Relationship (status & corpus)

  • Dichotomous and complementary



LP IN SA

  • Socio-historical view:

  • Traditional structural planning of culture and language

  • Symbolic power: the creation of the linguistic field; hebitus (Bordieu, 1991)

  • The de jure emphasis (1822) – Anglicisation

  • Objection – Dutch speaking people

  • 1910 – Union of SA



LP in SA cont…



LP in Democratic SA

  • Correction intervention: 11 official languages

  • Compromise and accommodating (Bellamy, 1999)

  • LANGTAG and PANSALB

  • Promotion of the use of official languages

  • Development of minority language

  • Constitutional base & the Bill of Rights



POLICY DOCUMENTS

  • The National Policy Framework- 2003

  • The Implementation Plan - 2003

  • Language in Education Policy - 1996

  • Language Policy for Higher Education

  • The Western Cape Provincial Language Act of 1998



THE NATURE OF SALP

  • Emotional connotations that languages hold: various voices and interests

  • Objectively designed: to maintain ethnic diversity and compromise

  • Deliberate and political policy of multilingualism

  • Symbolic



THE NATURE OF SALP cont…

  • Aims: promote, develop, respect

  • Language groupings: Nguni, Sotho, Venda, Ndebele, English and Afrikaans



CHALLENGES AND CONSTRAINTS

  • Implementation problem

  • English dominance

  • The balance of the needs and preferences

  • Escape clauses: practicability, usage etc.

  • Discourse: equality vs. equity, individual rights vs. group rights



FROM STATUS TO CORPUS LP

  • Interlinguistically competitive market place

  • Policy approach vs. the cultivation approach

  • Policy: created the climate of transformation or reconstruction and development (Webb 2000)

  • Development and corpus planning (a practical implementation strategy)



FROM STATUS TO CORPUS LP

  • Beautify, amplify and dignify (Fishman 1996)

  • Terminology development, interpreting and translation

  • The use of new and acceptable conventions and the involvement of the designated audience

  • The development of teaching material and other applications



CONCLUSION

  • The SA Policy is good

  • Status planning should be complemented with corpus planning

  • Idealistic vs. pragmatic types of language planning

  • A need for localisation or glocalisation: a response to global technology (Antia, 2000)




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