The more powerful the elite, the more they can engage in long distance warfare and trade
The more new territory is conquered, the greater the area from which surplus is harvested.
The greater the state’s political control, the less opportunity a person has to move outside state controlled land.
Four Opportunities for Control
Risk management--there is always a danger of regional food scarcity when there is high population density. Production of food surplus provides a safeguard against starvation.
Capital Investment-- as people produce more food, technology helps offset the rising labor costs of increased agricultural output. Irrigation permits intensified production through the management of water which provide an opportunity to produce surpluses that supports local chiefs.
Warfare–In order to achieve regional integration, warfare had to be brought under control. Although warfare alone does not necessarily lead to stratification, it enables chiefdoms to expand by incorporating and controlling additional populations that provide surplus production.
Large scale trade-- Long distance trade requires political coordination and management to construct roads or sea-going canoes. Trade provides access to valuable raw materials (for prestige goods) and storable food resources (to reduce the risk of food shortages), and it builds alliances that manage regional relations of war and peace.
ROLE OF IDEOLOGY
Religious institutions legitimize power relations within society.
Religious ideology imparts an understanding of what is right and natural—that represents the status quo
These experiences are derived from material objects such as large public monuments, ceremonial facilities, and special regalia (such as fine clothes, a crown, or jewels), that represent the power of the dominant classes.
MATERIALIZATION OF IDEOLOGY
ideology becomes transformed from abstract ideas and values into material objects that become public symbols
The Trobrianders- Simple chiefdom – had yams
Hawaii—Advanced chiefdom that did not achieve state organization (lacked storage)
Inca – Pristine state (had grain, corn, and freeze dried potatoes.
The Inka State integrated warring chiefdoms throughout the region and instituted peace.
The state imposed indirect rule through exiting political systems using a new ruling elite (curaca) who managed production
The state granted rights of land use in exchange for labor obligations (mit’a) that included cultivating land to feed state and religious personnel and public works.
Storage of staple goods (maize, potatoes and quinoa) in massive storehouses provided security against starvation and supplies for state personnel
The state sponsored massive improvements—irrigation, terracing and construction of roads.
Entire communities were relocated (mitmaq) to work on newly developed land and to reduce possibility of old hostility resurfacing..
Chosen women (acalla) wove fine grade cloth (prestige goods).
Specialists (yana) worked as servants to elite members.
The Kipu system kept track of state owned resources.