Structure and dynamics of australia's commercial poultry and ratite industries



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structure and dynamics of australia's commercial poultry and ratite industries




Structure and Dynamics of Australia’s Commercial Poultry and Ratite Industries

Report prepared for:

The Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry

Office of the Chief Veterinary Officer

By:

Scolexia Animal and Avian Health Consultancy

Authors: Dr Peter Scott, Dr Andrew Turner, Dr Susan Bibby, Dr Anthony Chamings


Office address: 8/19 Norwood Crescent Moonee Ponds Victoria Australia 3039
Postal address: 16 Learmonth Street Moonee Ponds Victoria, Australia 3039
Tel: +61 (0) 3 93260106 Fax: +61 (0) 3 9372 7576 Email: info@scolexia.com.au

Published in June 2005


Updated December 2009

Acknowledgements


All those involved in this consultancy would like to thank the various industry bodies and individuals who kindly gave their time to provide information about their industry, company or property.

Maps of Australia have been adapted from images provided by Geoscience Australia.

(c) Copyright Commonwealth of Australia (Geoscience Australia) 2005 Cnr Jerrabomberra Ave & Hindmarsh Drive SYMONSTON ACT 2609 Australia www.ga.gov.au

Contents


structure and dynamics of australia's commercial poultry and ratite industries 1

Acknowledgements 3



Acknowledgements 3

Contents 5



Contents 5

Executive Summary 11



Executive Summary 11

Summary of industry change since 2005 12



Summary of industry change since 2005 12

Chapter 1: The Chicken Meat Sector 16



Chapter 1: The Chicken Meat Sector 16

1.1 Introduction 16

1.1 Introduction 16

1.2 Background 16

1.2 Background 16

1.3 Genetic Breeding Stock 17

1.3 Genetic Breeding Stock 17

1.4 Levels of Integration and Live Sales 17

1.4 Levels of Integration and Live Sales 17

1.5 Chicken Meat Markets and Product Movements 18

1.5 Chicken Meat Markets and Product Movements 18

1.6 Typical Structure of Chicken Meat Flocks 20

1.6 Typical Structure of Chicken Meat Flocks 20

1.7 Fertile Egg Movements and Hatcheries 22

1.7 Fertile Egg Movements and Hatcheries 22

1.8 Broiler Grow Outs 24

1.8 Broiler Grow Outs 24

1.9 Horizontal Contacts 27

1.9 Horizontal Contacts 27

1.10 Industry Organisational Structure and Codes 40

1.10 Industry Organisational Structure and Codes 40

1.11 Chicken Meat Production Locality Areas 40

1.11 Chicken Meat Production Locality Areas 40

Chapter 2: The Egg Layer Industry 43



Chapter 2: The Egg Layer Industry 43

2.1 Background 43

2.1 Background 43

2.2 Introduction 44

2.2 Introduction 44

2.3 Structure of the Australian Egg Industry 48

2.3 Structure of the Australian Egg Industry 48

2.4 Typical Farm Structure 48

2.4 Typical Farm Structure 48

2.5 Shedding Design and Facilitation 50

2.5 Shedding Design and Facilitation 50

2.6 Free Range Housing 51

2.6 Free Range Housing 51

2.7 Horizontal Contacts 52

2.7 Horizontal Contacts 52

2.8 Industry Organisational Structure and Codes 55

2.8 Industry Organisational Structure and Codes 55

2.9 Chicken Egg ProductionLocality Areas 55

2.9 Chicken Egg ProductionLocality Areas 55

Chapter 3: The Turkey Industry 56



Chapter 3: The Turkey Industry 56

3.1 Description of the Australian Turkey Sector 56

3.1 Description of the Australian Turkey Sector 56

3.2 Sector Structure, and Establishing and Maintaining a Flock 57

3.2 Sector Structure, and Establishing and Maintaining a Flock 57

3.3 Production Unit Size, Husbandry and Shedding 58

3.3 Production Unit Size, Husbandry and Shedding 58

3.4 Factors affecting flock size and density 58

3.4 Factors affecting flock size and density 58

3.5 Commercial mixed species farming 59

3.5 Commercial mixed species farming 59

3.6 Dynamics Within the Industry Sector 59

3.6 Dynamics Within the Industry Sector 59

3.7 Husbandry and Dynamics of Production Stock 60

3.7 Husbandry and Dynamics of Production Stock 60

3.8 Horizontal Contacts Between Industry Sectors 61

3.8 Horizontal Contacts Between Industry Sectors 61

3.9 Summary of Between Industry Contacts 63

3.9 Summary of Between Industry Contacts 63

Chapter 4: The Duck Industry 64



Chapter 4: The Duck Industry 64

4.1 Description of the Industry Sector 64

4.1 Description of the Industry Sector 64

4.2 Structure of Industry 65

4.2 Structure of Industry 65

4.3 Establishing and Maintaining a Flock 65

4.3 Establishing and Maintaining a Flock 65

4.4 Production Unit Size, Husbandry and Shedding 65

4.4 Production Unit Size, Husbandry and Shedding 65

4.5 Factors Influencing Flock Size and Density 66

4.5 Factors Influencing Flock Size and Density 66

4.6 Mixed species farming 66

4.6 Mixed species farming 66

4.7 Dynamics Within the Industry Sector 66

4.7 Dynamics Within the Industry Sector 66

4.8 Husbandry and Dynamics of Production Stock 68

4.8 Husbandry and Dynamics of Production Stock 68

4.9 Other Bird Species on Properties 70

4.9 Other Bird Species on Properties 70

4.10 Horizontal Contacts 70

4.10 Horizontal Contacts 70

4.11 Summary of Contact Between Sectors 72

4.11 Summary of Contact Between Sectors 72

Chapter 5: The Ratite Industry 73



Chapter 5: The Ratite Industry 73

Part 1: The Emu Industry 73

Part 1: The Emu Industry 73

5.1 Description of the Emu Industry 73

5.1 Description of the Emu Industry 73

5.2 Structure of the Emu industry 75

5.2 Structure of the Emu industry 75

5.3 Establishing and maintaining flocks 76

5.3 Establishing and maintaining flocks 76

5.4 Production Unit Size, Husbandry and Shedding 76

5.4 Production Unit Size, Husbandry and Shedding 76

5.5 Size and Density of Emu Farms 77

5.5 Size and Density of Emu Farms 77

5.6 Mixed Species Farming 78

5.6 Mixed Species Farming 78

5.7 Dynamics within the Emu Industry 78

5.7 Dynamics within the Emu Industry 78

5.8 Horizontal Contacts Within the Emu Industry 80

5.8 Horizontal Contacts Within the Emu Industry 80

Part 2: The Ostrich Industry 81

Part 2: The Ostrich Industry 81

5.9 Description of the Ostrich Industry 81

5.9 Description of the Ostrich Industry 81

5.10 Structure of the Industry 83

5.10 Structure of the Industry 83

5.11 Establishing and Maintaining Farms 84

5.11 Establishing and Maintaining Farms 84

5.12 Size of Production Units and Types of Shedding 85

5.12 Size of Production Units and Types of Shedding 85

5.13 Size and Density of Ostrich Populations 86

5.13 Size and Density of Ostrich Populations 86

5.14 Mixed species farming 87

5.14 Mixed species farming 87

5.15 Dynamics within the Ostrich Industry 87

5.15 Dynamics within the Ostrich Industry 87

5.16 Horizontal Contacts 88

5.16 Horizontal Contacts 88

5.17 Summary 89

5.17 Summary 89

Chapter 6: The Squab Industry 90



Chapter 6: The Squab Industry 90

6.1 Description of the Australian Squab Sector 90

6.1 Description of the Australian Squab Sector 90

6.2 Structure of Squab Sector 90

6.2 Structure of Squab Sector 90

6.3 Establishing and Maintaining Flocks 90

6.3 Establishing and Maintaining Flocks 90

6.4 Production Unit Size, Husbandry and Shedding 90

6.4 Production Unit Size, Husbandry and Shedding 90

6.5 Size and Density of Flocks 91

6.5 Size and Density of Flocks 91

6.6 Mixed Species Farming 91

6.6 Mixed Species Farming 91

6.7 Dynamics Within the Industry Sector 91

6.7 Dynamics Within the Industry Sector 91

6.8 Development of Genetic Stock 91

6.8 Development of Genetic Stock 91

6.9 Husbandry and Dynamics of Production Stock 92

6.9 Husbandry and Dynamics of Production Stock 92

6.10 Horizontal Contacts 92

6.10 Horizontal Contacts 92

Chapter 7: The Quail Industry 95



Chapter 7: The Quail Industry 95

7.1 Description of the Quail Industry in Australia 95

7.1 Description of the Quail Industry in Australia 95

7.2 Structure of the Quail Industry 96

7.2 Structure of the Quail Industry 96

7.3 Establishing and Maintaining a Flock 97

7.3 Establishing and Maintaining a Flock 97

7.4 Production Size, Husbandry and Shedding 97

7.4 Production Size, Husbandry and Shedding 97

7.5 Size and Densities of Quail Flocks 98

7.5 Size and Densities of Quail Flocks 98

7.6 Dynamics Within the Quail Industry 99

7.6 Dynamics Within the Quail Industry 99

7.7 Summary 99

7.7 Summary 99

Chapter 8: The Game Bird Industry 100



Chapter 8: The Game Bird Industry 100

8.1 Description of the Game Bird Industry 100

8.1 Description of the Game Bird Industry 100

8.2 Structure of the Game Bird Industry 101

8.2 Structure of the Game Bird Industry 101

8.3 Establishing and Maintaining Flocks 103

8.3 Establishing and Maintaining Flocks 103

8.4 Production Unit Size, Husbandry and Shedding 104

8.4 Production Unit Size, Husbandry and Shedding 104

8.5 Size and Density of Flocks 105

8.5 Size and Density of Flocks 105

8.6 Mixed Species Farming 106

8.6 Mixed Species Farming 106

8.7 Dynamics Within the Industry Sector 106

8.7 Dynamics Within the Industry Sector 106

8.8 Horizontal Contacts Between Industry Flocks 107

8.8 Horizontal Contacts Between Industry Flocks 107

8.9 Summary 108

8.9 Summary 108

References 108

References 108

Chapter 9: The Goose Industry 109



Chapter 9: The Goose Industry 109

9.1 Description of the Australian Goose Sector 109

9.1 Description of the Australian Goose Sector 109

9.2 Structure of Sector 109

9.2 Structure of Sector 109

9.3 Establishing and Maintaining a Flock 109

9.3 Establishing and Maintaining a Flock 109

9.4 Production Unit Size, Husbandry and Shedding 109

9.4 Production Unit Size, Husbandry and Shedding 109

9.5 Flock Size and Density 109

9.5 Flock Size and Density 109

9.6 Mixed Species Farming 110

9.6 Mixed Species Farming 110

9.7 Dynamics Within the Industry Sector 110

9.7 Dynamics Within the Industry Sector 110

9.8 Horizontal Contacts 110

9.8 Horizontal Contacts 110

Chapter 10: Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) Production 111



Chapter 10: Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) Production 111

10.1 Description of the Australian SPF Sector 111

10.1 Description of the Australian SPF Sector 111

10.2 European Pharmacopeia SPF Egg Status 111

10.2 European Pharmacopeia SPF Egg Status 111

Chapter 11: Live Bird Sales 112



Chapter 11: Live Bird Sales 112

11.1 South Australia 113

11.1 South Australia 113

11.2 Victoria 114

11.2 Victoria 114

11.3 New South Wales 114

11.3 New South Wales 114

11.4 Tasmania, Queensland, Western Australia 114

11.4 Tasmania, Queensland, Western Australia 114

11.5 Summary 114

11.5 Summary 114

Chapter 12: Small & Mixed Poultry 115



Chapter 12: Small & Mixed Poultry 115

12.1 Description of the Industry or Industry Sector 115

12.1 Description of the Industry or Industry Sector 115

12.2 Structure of Industry/Sector 115

12.2 Structure of Industry/Sector 115

12.3 Establishing and Maintaining a Flock 115

12.3 Establishing and Maintaining a Flock 115

12.4 Production Unit Size, Husbandry and Shedding 116

12.4 Production Unit Size, Husbandry and Shedding 116

12.5 Flock Size and Density 116

12.5 Flock Size and Density 116

12.6 Mixed Species Farming 116

12.6 Mixed Species Farming 116

12.7 Dynamics Within the Industry Sector 117

12.7 Dynamics Within the Industry Sector 117

12.8 Horizontal Contacts 118

12.8 Horizontal Contacts 118

Appendix 1: Egg Industry Data - 2009 121



Appendix 1: Egg Industry Data - 2009 121

Appendix 2: Chlorine Dioxide for Water Sanitation in the Poultry Industry 123



Appendix 2: Chlorine Dioxide for Water Sanitation in the Poultry Industry 123





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