The commentary on Mipham's Sherab Raltri

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351. bdag.

352. khyad par.

353. bkod pa khyad par dag pa'i rang bzhin gyi rtags sbyor.

354. gzhan la ltos pa.

355. mi ltos par dag pa.

356. don grub.

357. tha snyad grub. The connection is between the meanings of the words.

358. ma dmigs pa'i rtags sbyor.

359. mtshan nyid and mtshan gzhi.

360. tshad = measure. OR made into pramana.

361. dpog mi nus.

362. By being claimed to be proved or refuted.

363. shes 'dod chos can.

364. 'brel zla and 'gal zla.

365. khyab byed ma dmigs pa.

366. 'gal dmigs rtags.

367. khyab bya.

368. mes khyab par non pa'i shar gzhir chos can.

369. khyab bya.

370. .

371. 'gal dmigs kyi rtags.

372. rtag dgnos.

373. grub.

374. dharmin, chos can.

375. phyogs.

376. phyogs chos.

377. khyab ches pa.

378. As above one cannot be certain whether an invisible rakshasa is here.

379. dwogs: fear doubt, uncertainty. Belief is important in Buddhist reasoning because in debate with persons of other schools arguments often take the form, "If you believe A, than you must/ can't also believe B." The debate must start with premises accepted by opponents if they are to be convinced.

380. ldog pa tha dad min pa'i thun mong ma nges pa'i rtags.

381. phyogs gnyis ka a'jug pa.

382. mthun phyos and mi mthun phyogs. A common usage EG for "Sound is impermanent, because it is produced:" the mthun phyogs = impermanent things. The mi mthun phyogs = permanent things.

383. Two things cannot have a characteristic in common if there are not two things to begin with. In western logic tautology is often used as the exemplar of necessity. For Buddhist logic too "son of a barren woman" is an exemplar of something certainly impossible. However while "parts is parts" is an example of the obious in the west, it seems that in Buddhist logic it is fallacious. This is more a matter of proper form than it is one of a difference in logical views. "Parts is parts is not well-formed in Buddhist logic.

384. In the text the examples actually follow below.

385. mnyan bya.

386. rig sgra bzhin lta bu mthun phyogs yod kyang ma mthong.

387. blo ltos lhag ldan thun mong ma nges gi rtags.

388. phyogs gnyis ka la cha gnyis su 'jug pa'o.

389. lhag ldan.

390. That the syllogism is certainly invalid is beside the point here. What is in question is only the relationship of the reason, being a speaker, to the according and non-according dharmas, omniscience and non omniscience. It is assumed that if there are Buddhas, they speak. I suppose mutes that would invalidate the reverse pervasion are also ignored. (Interestingly enough some sutra passages say that in some of the limitless worlds of the universe beings including buddhas do not literally speak, although they do communicate in other ways.)

391. don gyis.

392. rtags rigs.

393. a'jug tshul.

394. so so rang gis rig par bya'o. KPSR is very firm about translating the term this way rather than as discriminating awareness or self-awareness.

395. rang gi ngo bo nyis kyis stong pa. OR empty of their own nature, empty of themselves. In any case the point is that they and any purported nature of them will not bear madhyamaka's analysis for the absolute

396. rang mtshan.

397. Obviously there is a sense in which it can be expressed, since it has just been done, and Mipham does not regard this statement as self-refuting on its own level. If an exponent of madhyamaka accepts that it is proper to say "absolute truth is beyond concept" and deny the reverse, one must hold that there must be a level in which it is proper to make valid and invalid propositions, as well as a non-conceptual way to make sense of things, and that it is possible for the two kinds of validity these have to co-exist, because their criteria and meanings are different. This is in fact Mipham's position

398. yongs chod du.

399. mtshan gzhi. what is characterized, things that are examples of it or to which the definition applies.

400. snang yul du gyur ba'i rang mtshan rnams.

401. In English negation and denial are distinguished from refutation, a valid proof of a negation or denial. dgag in Tibetan can typically mean either. in same way sgrub can refer to assertion of existence or truth or proof of these.

402. In Buddhist logic affirming negation is like "this is not a horse." It is understood as presupposing the thing called "this" in such a way that it affirms "This is something other than a horse. Cf, "I am no fool." Non-affirming negation is like "There ain't no Santa Claus." It is understood as denying Santa Claus and not affirming anything.

403. rang rgyud.

404. rgol gshan dag.

405. gzhal bya'i gnas lugs.

406. .

407. chos mthun pa nyid can dang chos mi mthun pa nyid can no.

408. chos mthun sbyor gyi sgrub ngag [[EG what is produced is impermanent, like a vase, 1 of the {sgrub ngag yan lag gnyis ldan}]].

409. blo skyon.

410. don skyon.

411. tshig skyon.

412. blo bde.

413. sems med.

414. phyogs dang mthun phyogs gang rung yin pa'i phyir.

415. dam bca'.

416. That is accepted by both disputants.

417. sun 'byin ltar snang.

418. skyon la skyon du brjod. Either one says there is a mistake where there is none, or one identifies a fault that could be validly refuted, but the reasons one gives are not in fact valid.

419. For logical reasons, rather than because there are reasons but the opponent failed to think of them.

420. Again this is logical rather than a question of what the opponent actually does.

421. mtha' gcig tu khyab.

422. skabs su babs pa'i don.

423. mi srid. The absolute refutes everything is impossible, but that viewpoint alone loses the distinction between valid and invalid conventional pramana.

424. If one presses the eyeball while looking at the moon one seems to see two moons.

425. Because it deals with distinctions in the conventional or relative spheres all of which do not bear analysis for absolute truth.

426. ­Or their essence is established as emptiness. ngo bo nyid kyis stong. In conventional pramana the two may have a different sense, but here the absolute pramana free from all complexities of characteristics is meant.

427. de la don dam par ma grub pas so.

428. Here the distinction is not the vision of noble ones vs ordinary beings, but what is normally called true and false by ordinary beings. Here too someone might argue that Buddhism needs only the distinction between absolute truth and what is not true and does not need the further distinction of what confused beings who know only the conventional truth of the world call true and false.

429. rang gis rang tshugs. This autonomy is not like proving the existence of God or a first cause in rationalist philosophy so much as a claim that the features of our conceptual structure that madhyamaka uses to establish emptiness are intrinsic to language.

430. yang dag mtha'.

431. The kayas are the object and the perceiver is wisdom.

432. blo gros,


434. We will rely on the individual rather than the dharma etc.

435. .

436. brda sbyor yin pa'i phyir.

437. skabs don gyi tshig.

438. lhur len.

439. bor: literally thrown away.

440. chos mtshungs: This could mean "It is the same with the dharma." That does not change the meaning much.

441. 'chel.

442. spros pa lhur len.

443. shing 'on shig. shing = tree/ wood; 'on = bring take, get, carry.

444. rab tu phyungs.

445. A nyingma translator.

446. dgongs gshi gang la dgongs nas su.

447. See below.

448. thod rgal. Though the same term is used for a very profound stage of realization in ati, here the connotation is negative.

449. Of suffering.

450. dka' thub.

451. gzhal.

452. rlom

453. cung zad.

454. kha drangs par ma yin pa'i tshul dgos ched dang bcas par rtogs pa.

455. dgongs pa bzhi.

456. mnyam pa nyid: ES: even mindedness

457. don gzhan

458. dus gzhan.

459. intentions concerning other individuals.

460. What one means by and hopes to accomplish by giving a certain teaching etc. dgongs gzhi gzhan lo dgongs pa. dgongs gzhi gzhan la dgongs pa: intending another intention.

461. The first buddha of this kalpa.

462. bzung, the sense is just hearing, reading etc.

463. Feminists must deal with the fact that traditionally it is said that all buddhas must be male.

464. The four concealed intentions are bzhugs pa ldem por dgongs pa, mtshan nyid..., gnyen po, bsgyur ba...

465. 'khyog.

466. gnas skabs theg pa gsum.

467. bslab pa rnam gyyengs med la nan tan.

468. dgongs and ldem dgongs.

469. dgongs gshi dgongs nas.

470. spyi don.

471. stegs yin tshul.

472. sgra mthun don 'phags kyi gtan tshigs: cf commentary below.

473. tshad ma bka' gsung.

474. bdag pa chen po.

475. rgyud rnams.

476. These are: dbyings don dam: absolute truth of space/ the dhatu, ye shes don dam: absolute truth of wisdom, and a'bras bu don dam the absolute truth of the fruition, which has the five categories of the body, speech, mind, quality and action of buddhahood. GD.

477. dpyod.

478. {gsung rab kyi yan lag bcu gnyis 12 branches of the [Buddhist] scriptures, 12 kinds of excellent speech (1 {mdo a'i sde}. = general teachings. 2 {dbyangs kyis bsnyad pa'i sde}. = hymns & praises. 3 {lung du bstan pa'i sde}. = prophecies. 4 {tshigs su bcad pa'i sde}. = teaching in verse. 5 {ched du brjod pa'i sde}. = aphorisms. 6 {gleng gzhi'i sde}. = pragmatic narratives. 7 {rtogs pa brjod pa'i sde}. = biographical narratives. 8 {de sta bu byung ba'i sde}. = narratives of former events as examples. 9 {skyes pa'i rabs kyi sde}. = {jataka.m} narratives of former births. 10 {shen tu rgyas pa'i sde}. = extensive teachings. 11 {rmad du byung ba'i sde}. = narratives of marvels. 12 {gtan la dbab pa'i sde}. = teachings in profound doctrines.

479. in tshul khrims, discipline; shes rab, prajna; and sems, mind = meditation GD.

480. gzhol.

481. chu bur, also bubble.

482. gzhol bar shes.

483. .

484. gzu bo'i blos]lit by genuine mind/ thoughts.

485. phyag mtshan.

486. "profound and extensive" cut for metrical reasons.

487. rol mtsho are lakes of play of chang curds etc where the naga kings live.

488. The following passage compares the eight treasures of confidence to the eight auspicious symbols.


490. 'khyug.

491. spyi brtol..

492. through the ten directions [cut for metrical reasons.

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