The Nazis Lessons for Contemporary Research



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The Nazis


“When a doctor [goes] wrong, he is the first of criminals. He has nerve and he has knowledge.”

  • “When a doctor [goes] wrong, he is the first of criminals. He has nerve and he has knowledge.”

  • - Sherlock Holmes to Dr. Watson, Arthur Conan Doyle



Guiding philosophy = Hegelian (rational utility)

  • Guiding philosophy = Hegelian (rational utility)

  • Social Darwinism - parallels in American and British Eugenics Movement

    • medical journals relatively silent
  • Ethics reduces morality to efficiency, economics, and aesthetics



  • An arm of state policy

  • Focus on racial purity

    • from eugenic sterilization (370,000)
    • to involuntary euthanasia (70,000)
    • to large-scale genocide (over 6 million)


Individual worth stated in economic terms; propaganda re obligations to the state

  • Individual worth stated in economic terms; propaganda re obligations to the state

    • “I Accuse”
    • “Mathematics in the Service of Political Education”


Doctoring the nation more important than doctoring individuals - Nazism as “applied biology” (Rudolph Hess)

  • Doctoring the nation more important than doctoring individuals - Nazism as “applied biology” (Rudolph Hess)

  • Focus on preventive medicine and public health: anti-tobacco and anti-alcohol campaigns, environmental toxins, organic farming -to improve Aryan stock

  • Nazi soldiers given anabolic steroids to increase aggresiveness



52,000 physicians

  • 52,000 physicians

  • National Socialist Party Members

  • Jews ostracized; replaced by young Aryans

    • today 0.2% of German physicians are Jews, c/w 17% pre-Nazis
    • 5% of non-Aryans committed suicide; 25% murdered


Economic hard times, physicians salaries rise, academic perks

  • Economic hard times, physicians salaries rise, academic perks

  • Blutkitt (“blood cement”)

  • Rare resistance

    • Catholics
    • Marxists
    • Dutch


Dr. Sigmund Rascher - coagulation/amputation studies; hypothermia experiments

  • Dr. Sigmund Rascher - coagulation/amputation studies; hypothermia experiments

  • Dr. Karl Gebhart: heteroplastic transplantation experiments

    • c.f. Stalin’s attempts to create interspecies (half-men/half-apes) “super-warriors”
  • Drs. Karl Clausberg and Viktor Brack: X-irradiation/sterilization



Drs. Joachim Mrugowsky, Erwin Ding-Schuler, and Waldemar Hoven: IV phenol and gasoline executions

  • Drs. Joachim Mrugowsky, Erwin Ding-Schuler, and Waldemar Hoven: IV phenol and gasoline executions

  • Dr. Friedrich Wegener (“Wegener’s Granulomatosis”): German pathologist, Nazi party member, autopsied a prisoner with oxygen injected into his bloodstream in an embolism study; may have participated in experiments on concentration camp inmates



Dr Hans Conrad Reiter (formerly “Reiter’s Syndrome”, now “reactive arthritis”): senior Nazi official

  • Dr Hans Conrad Reiter (formerly “Reiter’s Syndrome”, now “reactive arthritis”): senior Nazi official

  • Dr. Joseph Mengele: Septicemia/twin vivisection studies

  • Dr. Hans Eppinger - “father of modern hepatology”



Prof. J Hallevorden: “Look here now, boys, if you are going to kill all these people at least take the brains out so that the material could be utilized … the more (brains) the better….I accepted these brains of course. Where they came from and how they came to me was really none of my business.”

  • Prof. J Hallevorden: “Look here now, boys, if you are going to kill all these people at least take the brains out so that the material could be utilized … the more (brains) the better….I accepted these brains of course. Where they came from and how they came to me was really none of my business.”



German invasion of Poland (1939)

  • German invasion of Poland (1939)

  • Drs Eugene Lazowski and Stanislaw Matulewicz created a fake typhus epidemic, using a harmless bacterium to innoculate non-Jews, knowing that infected Jews would be summarily executed

  • Germans fooled, quarantined area, many Jews escaped death



23 German physicians tried

  • 23 German physicians tried

  • 16 found guilty

    • 7 hanged (incl. Gebhardt, Brack, Hoven, and Mrugowsky)


Rascher died before trial

  • Rascher died before trial

  • Mengele fled for Argentina (remains verified 1985)

  • Hallevorden committed suicide before trial

  • Otto Ambros (chemist) – invented sarin (nerve gas), convicted of mass murder at Nuremberg Trials, later freed and worked with US chemical industry on thalidomide





Voluntary consent is absolutely essential

  • Voluntary consent is absolutely essential

  • Avoidance of unnecessary physical and mental suffering

  • Option to quit/responsibility to terminate

  • Other safeguards



“I will not permit considerations of religion, nationality, race, party politics or social standing to intervene between my duty and my patient”

  • “I will not permit considerations of religion, nationality, race, party politics or social standing to intervene between my duty and my patient”

  • “I will not use my medical knowledge contrary to the laws of humanity.”

  • “It is unethical for physicians to employ scientific knowledge to imperil health or destroy life.”



Patients’ rights to respect, self determination, informed decision-making

  • Patients’ rights to respect, self determination, informed decision-making

  • Investigators’ duties: primacy of subjects’ welfare, ethical considerations take precedence over laws and regulation

  • Allows for surrogate consent



Extensive biological and chemical weapons program involving prisoners of war

  • Extensive biological and chemical weapons program involving prisoners of war

  • Many participants later achieved positions of prominence in Japanese medical schools and societies

  • Japanese scientists brought to Fort Detrick, MD, to help establish U.S. biological/chemical weapons program



Over 700 Nazi rocket scientists and their families brought to the U.S. (including Werner von Braun) to help build nuclear missile program

  • Over 700 Nazi rocket scientists and their families brought to the U.S. (including Werner von Braun) to help build nuclear missile program

    • Operation Paperclip


German Medical Association unanimously issues blunt, straightforward apology for its role in the Holocaust (2012)

  • German Medical Association unanimously issues blunt, straightforward apology for its role in the Holocaust (2012)



James Ketchum (psychiatrist), L Wilson Green (scientist), Van Murray Sim – psychochemical warfare studies for US Army

  • James Ketchum (psychiatrist), L Wilson Green (scientist), Van Murray Sim – psychochemical warfare studies for US Army

    • Ketchum later joined faculty of University of Texas Medical School


Tuskegee Syphilis Study

  • Tuskegee Syphilis Study

    • “The men’s status did not warrant ethical debate. They were subjects, not patients; clinical material, not sick people.”
      • Dr John Heller, Director of Venereal Diseases at PHS between 1943 and 1948 (interviewed in 1976)


Sterilizations

  • Sterilizations

  • Radioactive iodine to study adaptation of thyroid gland to extreme cold

  • Forced removal of children to English language, religious schools (c.f., Australia)

  • Distrust and reluctance of minorities to participate in medical research



1905: cholera experiments on “volunteers”

  • 1905: cholera experiments on “volunteers”

  • 1915: Joseph Goldberger – pellagra studies

    • Prisoners pardoned or paroled in exchange for participation
    • 1941: Physician William Black infects children with herpes virus, paper published by J Peds


Pharmaceutical and government sponsored studies on prisoners

  • Pharmaceutical and government sponsored studies on prisoners

    • 1940s and 1950s esp.
    • Halted in mid-1970s after drug company executives admitted prisoners were cheaper to use than chimpanzees
  • WW II: gonorrhea, gas gangrene, dengue fever, malaria



Guatemala STD study (1946-8)

  • Guatemala STD study (1946-8)

    • U.S. researchers deliberately infected 1,308 prisoners, military conscripts, prostitutes, orphans (provided by Sisters of Charity), and mental health patients with gonorrhea and syphilis
    • Scientists treated 87% of those infected (10% later required re-treatment), lost track of 13%


Guatemala STD study (1946-8)

  • Guatemala STD study (1946-8)

    • Wives, children, and grandchildren treated, but sexual contacts not traced
    • Study approved by Guatemalan government
      • Received material for resource-starved institutions in return
    • Subjects received cigarettes for participating


Guatemala STD study (1946-8)

  • Guatemala STD study (1946-8)

    • U.S. apologized (2010), has pledged $1 million to study research ethics, $775,000 to fight STDs in Guatemala
    • Class action lawsuit against U.S. government filed on behalf of 700 victims/relatives (2011)


Guatemala STD study (1946-8)

  • Guatemala STD study (1946-8)

    • Dr. John Cutler (research coordinator): “Unless the law winks occasionally, you have no progress in medicine”
    • In 1943, Cutler infected volunteer federal prisoners in Indiana with gonorrhea in exchange for cash


Guatemala STD study (1946-8)

  • Guatemala STD study (1946-8)

    • After Guatemala, Cutler oversaw the Tuskegee Syphilis Study
    • Was acting dean at University of Pittsburgh in 1960s


University of Minnesota malaria study (1940s)

  • University of Minnesota malaria study (1940s)

  • Drs. Thomas Francis, Jr. and Jonas Salk infect psychiatric hospital residents with influenza (?if consent adequate?)



Atlanta, Alabama, and Terre Haute prison gonorrhea studies (1940s and 1950s)

  • Atlanta, Alabama, and Terre Haute prison gonorrhea studies (1940s and 1950s)

  • Study evaluating effects of antibiotics on growth rate (1950s, Navy recruits, mentally disabled, Guatemalan schoolchildren)

  • Patuxent prison Asian flu experiment (1957)

  • U.S. govt.-sponsored radiation, LSD (MK Ultra) experiments



Pentagon/CIA experiments on soldiers and civilians

  • Pentagon/CIA experiments on soldiers and civilians

    • Edgewood Arsenal Experiments (involving more than 7,000 soldiers who were exposed to at least 250 biological and chemical agents)
      • Including sarin, VX, LSD, ritalin
      • Caused long-term health effects
    • Deliberate release of Serratia over San Francisco Bay; radioactive cadmium over St. Louis


1963: Dr. Chester Southam injects tumor cells into extremely infirm patients at Jewish Hospital for Chronic Disease in NY without informing them that the shots contain cancer cells

  • 1963: Dr. Chester Southam injects tumor cells into extremely infirm patients at Jewish Hospital for Chronic Disease in NY without informing them that the shots contain cancer cells

    • Southam later elected President of American Association for Cancer Research


Willowbrook Hepatitis Experiments (1960s)

  • Willowbrook Hepatitis Experiments (1960s)

  • Pre-WW1: Joseph Goldberger’s pellagra experiments on Mississippi prisoners

  • Henry Beecher, NEJM (1966)



Ongoing sterilization programs

  • Ongoing sterilization programs

    • Buck v. Bell (USSC, 1927) – 60,000 Americans sterilized
    • WI, NJ, CA, IN, NC, OR, others
    • Alabama’s Governor Graves vetoed law in 1930s law citing “hazard to personal rights”
    • Oregon governor Kitzhaber apologized in 2002 for the over 2500 state-forced sterilizations that occurred between 1917 and 1983
    • 2012 – NC to compensate victims


Iowa elementary school race experiment (1968; good or bad?)

  • Iowa elementary school race experiment (1968; good or bad?)

  • Milgram’s obedience studies (1963); Milgram redux (2008)

  • Soviet psychiatry

  • US military/pharmaceutical vaccine and medication trials in the developing world



Largest uncontrolled trial in history of humanity

  • Largest uncontrolled trial in history of humanity

  • E.g., Chinese children with vitamin A deficiency used for feeding trials of Golden Rice by Tufts University investigators

    • Without preceding animal studies
    • ? Nature of informed consent
    • May violate Nuremberg Code


>90% of pharmaceutical industry research in early 1970s

  • >90% of pharmaceutical industry research in early 1970s

  • Rapidly curtailed by state/federal laws and new university regulations

  • 2006: IOM approves with safeguards

    • 2009: 44% of jurisdictions allow compensation


Albert Hoffman (LSD)

  • Albert Hoffman (LSD)

  • Werner Forssmann (right heart catheterization)

  • Barry Marshall (Helicobacter pylori)

  • Others



Inter-species breeding (ape-man, Ilya Ivanovich Ivanov, Guinea, 1927)

  • Inter-species breeding (ape-man, Ilya Ivanovich Ivanov, Guinea, 1927)

  • Two-headed dog (Vladimir Petrovich Demikhov, 1950s, Russia)

  • Monster Study (Wendell Johnson, 1939, University of Iowa) – deliberate induction of stuttering in orphan children



90% of research dollars spent on diseases affecting 10% of the world’s population

  • 90% of research dollars spent on diseases affecting 10% of the world’s population

    • Neglected tropical diseases
  • Research on special populations (cultural minorities, prisoners, developing world, etc.)

  • Ghostwriters

  • Contract Research Organizations

  • Role of institutional and for-profit IRBs



Use of placebo controls

  • Use of placebo controls

    • Various drug trials
    • Anti-HIV medications and maternal-fetal transmission(sub-Saharan Africa)
    • Surfactant for neonatal RDS (Brazil, Bolivia)
    • Hep A vaccine (Thailand)
    • Trovan/meningitis/Nigeria (control = inadequate ceftriaxone dose)


Large majority of phase 3 US drug company trial sites outside US, many in developing countries

  • Large majority of phase 3 US drug company trial sites outside US, many in developing countries

    • Majority of developing nation trial sites without institutional review boards
    • Victims may seek redress under “Alien Torts Statute”
  • ICE drugging immigrants for deportation



Nerve-sparing clitoroplasty as substitute for female genital cutting

  • Nerve-sparing clitoroplasty as substitute for female genital cutting

    • AAP reversal of position (2010)
  • Kennedy Krieger Institute (Johns Hopkins) lead paint abatement study (1992)



Uninsured become research subjects to receive needed care

  • Uninsured become research subjects to receive needed care

  • Human guinea pigs (professional lab rats)

  • Parent investigators

  • Neonatal analgesia



Under-representation of women and minorities in clinical trials

  • Under-representation of women and minorities in clinical trials

  • Trust issues:

    • Racial minorities often wary of participation in medical experiments


2009 survey

  • 2009 survey

    • 50% of adults afraid that physicians will not try as hard to save their lives if they have agreed to donate organs
    • 44% fear their organs might be sold on the black market
  • May explain in part why only 45% of U.S. adults have registered as organ donors



Informed consent for treatment – physician/patient negotiation vs. unilateral decision-making when treatment options limited

  • Informed consent for treatment – physician/patient negotiation vs. unilateral decision-making when treatment options limited

  • Relaxation of international research standards by eliminating Declaration of Helsinki standards (FDA, 2008)



2003: Ban on industry experiments testing safety of pesticides/other potentially toxic chemicals in humans lifted by NAS and EPA

  • 2003: Ban on industry experiments testing safety of pesticides/other potentially toxic chemicals in humans lifted by NAS and EPA

    • 2013 – EPA adds safeguards, issues regulations prohibiting studies on pregnant women and children
  • Monsanto’s Roundup purchased by US government for aerial spraying in Colombia as part of “War on Drugs”



2008: Former director of UCLA School of Medicine’s donated body program pleads guilty to 5 year scheme to sell donated body parts to medical, drug, and research companies, netting more than $1 million

  • 2008: Former director of UCLA School of Medicine’s donated body program pleads guilty to 5 year scheme to sell donated body parts to medical, drug, and research companies, netting more than $1 million

  • Clinical Trials Registry



Physician participation in “War on Terror,” Abu Ghraib, Guantanamo, Black Ops sites

  • Physician participation in “War on Terror,” Abu Ghraib, Guantanamo, Black Ops sites

    • “Basic Science Consultation Teams”
    • Co-optation of anthropologists in Iraq, Afghanistan
    • Nurses injecting psychotropic drugs to forcibly sedate deportees
    • AMA, AAP, APA oppose physician involvement in interrogation/torture


  • Eduard Pernkopf’s Atlas; Dachau Hypothermia Experiments; Phosgene gas experiments; biological weapons data (offensive vs. defensive)

  • Japan’s Unit 731 and biological warfare experiments



Move to rename “Hallevordan-Spatz syndrome”: “pantothenate kinase-associated degeneration” or “neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation”

  • Move to rename “Hallevordan-Spatz syndrome”: “pantothenate kinase-associated degeneration” or “neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation”

  • Breast cancer cure scenario



All proposed experiments using human subjects should undergo proper ethical evaluation by a human studies review board before being undertaken.

  • All proposed experiments using human subjects should undergo proper ethical evaluation by a human studies review board before being undertaken.

  • Responsibility for revealing that the data are from unethical experiments lies in the hands of authors, peer reviewers, and editors of medical texts that publish results of experimental studies.



Each publication should adopt a standard regarding publication of data from unethical experiments.

  • Each publication should adopt a standard regarding publication of data from unethical experiments.

  • If data from unethical experiments can be replaced by existing ethically sound data and achieve the same ends, then such must be done.



If ethically tainted data that have been validated by rigorous scientific analysis are the only data of that nature available, and such data are necessary in order to save lives, then the utilization of such data by physicians and editors may be appropriate.

  • If ethically tainted data that have been validated by rigorous scientific analysis are the only data of that nature available, and such data are necessary in order to save lives, then the utilization of such data by physicians and editors may be appropriate.

  • Should editors and/or authors decide to publish an experiment or data from an experiment that does not reach standards of contemporary ethical conduct, a disclaimer should be included. Such disclosure would by no means rectify unethical conduct or legitimize the methods of collection of data gathered from unethical experimentation.



This disclaimer should:

  • This disclaimer should:

    • (1) clearly describe the unethical nature of the origin of any material being published
    • (2) clearly state that publication of the data is needed in order to save human lives
    • (3) pay respect to the victims
    • (4) avoid trivializing trauma suffered by the participants
    • (5) acknowledge the unacceptable nature of the experiments
    • (6) endorse higher ethical standards.


Based on both scientific and moral grounds, data obtained from cruel and inhumane experiments, such as data collected from the Nazi experiments and data collected from the Tuskegee Study, should virtually never be published or cited.

  • Based on both scientific and moral grounds, data obtained from cruel and inhumane experiments, such as data collected from the Nazi experiments and data collected from the Tuskegee Study, should virtually never be published or cited.

  • In the extremely rare case when no other data exist and human lives would certainly be lost without the knowledge obtained from use of such data, publication or citation is permissible.

  • In such a case, the disclosure should cite the specific reasons and clearly justify the necessity for citation.



Certain generally accepted historical data may be cited without a disclaimer, though a disclosure of the ethical issues would be valuable and desirable.

  • Certain generally accepted historical data may be cited without a disclaimer, though a disclosure of the ethical issues would be valuable and desirable.



Denial of moral responsibility for consequences

  • Denial of moral responsibility for consequences

  • Recognition of moral responsibility but competing obligations

  • Recognition of moral responsibility and refusal to participate

  • Responsibility to inform or lead public opinion

  • Publication of research on dangerous/novel pathogens



  • Archimedes, da Vinci, Galileo, Haber, Fieser

  • Farraday

  • Nobel, Einstein, Szilard



Played major role in development of chemical warfare in WWI

  • Played major role in development of chemical warfare in WWI

  • In violation of Hague Convention of 1907

  • “During peacetime a scientist belongs to the world, but during wartime he belongs to his country”



3 future Nobel laureates served in his unit, which developed Zyklon A (insecticide used in gas chambers)

  • 3 future Nobel laureates served in his unit, which developed Zyklon A (insecticide used in gas chambers)

  • Irony: Jewish, fled Germany in 1933, ultimately took position at what is now the Weizmann Institute in Israel



Pediatrician George Habash – founder of Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine

  • Pediatrician George Habash – founder of Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine

    • Behind aircraft hijackings of Black September
  • Dr. Fathi Shiqaqi – founder of Palestinian Islamic Jihad



Ayman Al-Zawahiri – leader of Al Qaeda

  • Ayman Al-Zawahiri – leader of Al Qaeda

  • Ikuo Hayashi – chief of circulatory medicine at a leading Japanese hospital

    • Pleaded guilty to planting sarin gas on Tokyo subway
  • Radovan Karadzic (psychiatrist) – on trial for war crimes against Bosnian Croats and Muslims



Dr Bilal Abdullah convicted in bungled Heathrow Airport car bombing (2007)

  • Dr Bilal Abdullah convicted in bungled Heathrow Airport car bombing (2007)

  • Psychiatrist Major Nidal Hasan – awaiting trial for Fort Hood shootings (2009)

  • Humam Khalil Abu-Mulal al-Balawi: Jordanian suicide bomber, killed 7 CIA agents in Afghanistan (2009)



Bashir Assad (Syrian President, ophthalmologist) – 2011/12 civilian bombings and use of sarin nerve gas

  • Bashir Assad (Syrian President, ophthalmologist) – 2011/12 civilian bombings and use of sarin nerve gas

  • Dr. H. H. Holmes, - "the torture doctor,"

  • Linda Burfield Hazzard - "the starvation doctor"

  • Dr. Marcel Petiot

  • GP Harold Shipman – world’s most notorious serial killer (up to 400 victims)



South African cardiologist Wouter Basson (aka “Dr. Death”) – ran “Project Coast” in 1980s (clandestine military program linked to chemical and germ warfare, assassinations, poisonings, kidnapping, and plots to sterilize the country’s black population)

  • South African cardiologist Wouter Basson (aka “Dr. Death”) – ran “Project Coast” in 1980s (clandestine military program linked to chemical and germ warfare, assassinations, poisonings, kidnapping, and plots to sterilize the country’s black population)

    • Aquited of 67 criminal charges in 2002
    • Still practicing, Health Professions Council of SA considering revocation of medical license
  • Others



Violent crimes, including rapes of patients

  • Violent crimes, including rapes of patients

  • Performance of unnecessary, dangerous procedures

  • Medicare fraud, kickback scams

  • Ethical violations through participation in executions



Long history

  • Long history

  • Common slave era diagnosis = drapetomania

    • The tendency to run away
  • More recent: Ophthalmologist John Taunton – anti-immigrant, white supremacist



Doctors involved in torture, extraordinary renditions

  • Doctors involved in torture, extraordinary renditions

  • Investigations, outcry, but no real consequences



Capture of Osama bin Laden involved (unsuccessful) sham CIA hepatitis B vaccination project to collect DNA (violation of public trust, has harmed international efforts to eliminate polio and put health care workers lives at risk)

  • Capture of Osama bin Laden involved (unsuccessful) sham CIA hepatitis B vaccination project to collect DNA (violation of public trust, has harmed international efforts to eliminate polio and put health care workers lives at risk)

  • USAID social media program designed to overthrow Cuban government



“A country is considered the more civilized the more the wisdom and efficiency of its laws hinder a weak man from becoming too weak or a powerful one too powerful.”

  • “A country is considered the more civilized the more the wisdom and efficiency of its laws hinder a weak man from becoming too weak or a powerful one too powerful.”

  • (U.S. – largest maldistribution of wealth of any industrialized country)



Public health versus individual health

  • Public health versus individual health

  • Roles, responsibilities, and obligations

    • patients
    • society
    • institutions
    • families
    • government
    • world


Theodore Billroth:

  • Theodore Billroth:

    • “If the whole of Social Medicine needs to be part of the curriculum of the medical student, it must not take more than two hours per semester … during the last two semesters; otherwise, it will surely be detrimental to his other studies”


Rudolph Virchow:

  • Rudolph Virchow:

    • “Doctors are natural attorneys for the poor … If medicine is to really accomplish its great task, it must intervene in political and social life…”


World Health Organization:

  • World Health Organization:

    • “The role of the physician … in the preservation and promotion of peace is the most significant factor for the attainment of health for all.”


  • Triage and return to combat

  • Confidentiality

  • Communication

  • Loyalties/Command

  • Experimentation

  • “The Sea and Poison”



2007 survey: 5,000 medical students at 8 medical schools, 35% response rate (Int J Hlth Serv 2007;37(4):643-50)

  • 2007 survey: 5,000 medical students at 8 medical schools, 35% response rate (Int J Hlth Serv 2007;37(4):643-50)

  • 94% received < 1 hr. instruction on military medical ethics

  • 3.5% aware of legislation already passed making a “doctors’ draft” possible

  • 34% did not know Geneva Conventions require physicians to treat the sickest first, regardless of nationality



34% not aware Geneva Conventions prohibit ever threatening or demeaning prisoners or depriving them of food or water

  • 34% not aware Geneva Conventions prohibit ever threatening or demeaning prisoners or depriving them of food or water

  • 34% could not state when they would be required to disobey an unethical order (answer = always)



AMA, APHA, ANA, and ABA (anesthesiologists) oppose participation of health professionals in executions

  • AMA, APHA, ANA, and ABA (anesthesiologists) oppose participation of health professionals in executions

  • Only 7/35 death penalty states incorporate AMA ethics policy, including barring doctors from taking an active role in the death chamber



2001:

  • 2001:

    • 3% of physicians aware of AMA guidelines prohibiting physician participation
    • 41% would perform at least one action in the process of lethal injection disallowed by AMA


Physician participation in torture and executions

  • Physician participation in torture and executions

    • Most torturers never identified/held accountable
    • 2008 study at University of Illinois at Chicago
      • 35% of medical students said torture could be condoned under some circumstances
  • Pharmaceutical company provision of agents used in lethal injection executions



Public Health and Social Justice Website

  • Public Health and Social Justice Website

  • http://www.phsj.org

  • martindonohoe@phsj.org




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