Trondheim Norway "Power Electronics for Sustainable Growth"



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Part 1 by A. Jaecklin

The field of high power applications has recently experienced a strong push

from advances in device development. On one hand, Insulated Gate Bipolar

Transistors (IGBT) in the form of hybrid modules are continuously

increasing their limits in current („ 1500 A) and voltage (up to 4500 V).

In the highly demanding market of traction applications, reliability has

become on of the crucial issues, however. On the other hand, based on the

classical Gate-Turn-Off thyristor (GTO), a new element has been conceived,

called the Integrated Gate Commutated Switch (IGCT). This device implies a

rigourously reduced leakage inductance combined with a gate drive unit

implemented into the structure. Applying a hard gate drive (hard driven

GTO) opens the way to high voltages (> 10 kV) by means of multiple series

connection as well as to reduced losses due to snubberless operation.

Essentially, these two approaches are complementary.


Part 2 by K. Rischmüller

This part was not available by the time of printing

Part 3 by L. Lorenz

Power semiconductor components, including their further development as

monolithic power ICs, and hybrid system integration are the driving forces

behind advances in power electronics systems, particularly with regard to

energy savings, improved control response, noise redustion, size and weight

reduction and cost minimization. The first attempt at hybrid integration

was the implementation of IPM's, ASIPM's and PIM's. The PIMs and ASIPMs

currently known consists of a package containing all the power switches

including brake chopper with drive/protection circuitry. However, today's

IPMs, ASIPMs have several advantages concerning interface, cost and system

requirements. As a result of all these disadvantages, these solutions have

no future and will be superseded by system integration in the medium term.

This paper highlights the new approaches to system integration based on

chip level.


The authors:
André A. Jaecklin is Head of Basic Development with ABB Semiconductors. He

is also Titular Professor at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

K. Rischmüller was head of application systems with Sescosem, after Thomson

Semiconductors and is currently with SGS-Thomson Microelectronics. He is

author of numerous application notes on power semiconductor devices.

Leo Lorenz is involved in the development of power semiconductors with

Siemens in Munich. For 10 years he is in a management position in several

areas of power semiconductors .


Tuesday 14:00 to 14:30

Needs for solutions and new areas of applications for power electronics


by Prof. Lars Gertmar, ABB Corporate Research and Lund Institute of Technology
The keynote speech will partly serve as a visitor',s guide for the

delegates. Based on available information on EPE'97 papers and some

previous ones, some of the achievements will highlighted as specific

examples and as an introduction to the two following sections of the

speech.

The second part will cover the trends in some societies and the potential



applications of the power electronics in Transmission & Distribution, T&D

and Adjustable-Speed Drives, ASDs. There are challenges to generate

electrical power from various sources to transmit & distribute power as

well as to save energy. The competition between electromechanics and power

electronics will also be a subject as well as hybrid solutions, especially

in T&D.


Finally, the author hope to challenge the audience to focus their future

work not only on incremental steps on existing and nearby technologies but

also on paradigm shifts towards compact, light-weight, easy-to-install,

low-emission, compatible and sustainable solutions based on power electronic

s.
The author:

Lars Gerttmar is:

Corporate Senior Scientist at ABB, in Electrical Machines and Drives

Professor at LTH, in Power Electronic Drives

D.Sc. at CTH, in Power Electronics, Ph.D. in Electrical Machines

He has:


17 years industrial experience from R&D and product development partly also

from practical troubleshooting on electric machines, power electronics,

drives and electric measurements.

15 years experience from university R&D as well as under- & post-graduate

education

Experiences as manager, project leader, senior scientist coordinator

(invited) lecturer, referee, etc.

and from ABB's visionary & strategic works, R&D program boards and

management, etc.
Wednesday 14:00 to 14:30

The electric vehicle, by Prof. Hans Kahlen, University of Kaiserslautern,

Germany and Prof. Gaston Maggetto, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium
The interest and importance of electric and hybrid vehicles is nowadays in

a very strong promising phase. The state of California has defined by law

an introduction programme imposing 10 % sales of electric vehicles by 2003

and 25% of hybrid vehicles i.e. a market of respectfully 300.000 electric

and 750.000 hybrid vehicles. Other states are following the same

regulations.

In Europe, countries such as France, Switzerland, Sweden, Belgium, ... are

also demonstrating big interest through a number of programmes going from

pure market penetration up to R&D activities.

Japanese car manufacturers seems to engage a competitive action against the

american 'big three" colleagues. In such a contest, it is clear that

technology has reached a high grade of maturity but undergoes in the same

time a rapid evolution. The scope of this keynote is to describe and

discuss the state of the art in the field of motorisation, power

electronics, converters, charging infrastructure and surely batteries and

all types of energy sources for hybrid vehicles.

The authors are well-known experts in the field. They will provide basic

information, more specialised information and show the way for the

necessary R&D activities such as for demonstration activities
The authors:

Prof. H. Kahlen is Professor at the University of Kaiserslautern. He is

Past-President of AVERE, the European Association of Road Electric

Vehicles. Formerly, he was responsible of the Brown Boveri (presently ABB)

programme for drives for electric vehicles and the development fo the NaS

battery. He is involved in a number of EU programmes concerning electric

vehicles and batteries. He has more than 25 years experience in the field.
Prof. G. Maggetto is Professor at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel, President

of the Belgian Section of AVERE, Vice-president of AVERE, Secretary General

of CITELEC, Association of cities interested in electric vehiles. He is

also responsible for the world conference on electric and hybrid vehicles,

EVS-15 in 1998 and is involved in a number of EU programmes concerning

electric and hybrid vehicles. He has more than 20 years experience in the

field.
DISCUSSION SESSIONS
Some workshops will issue a written report of the discussions. The final

programme will be available on site


Application specific power modules
Animators: Denis R. Grafham, European Applications, Advanced Power

Technology Inc., Rixensart, Belgium and Serge Bontemps, Manager

Engineering, Advanced Power Technology Europe, Mérignac, France
Topic:
The fastest route to highly-integrated power management solutions.

Marries high performance to cost effectiveness, state-of-the-art packaging

with insurance against reverse engineering.
Issues for discussions:
- Where are ASPMs relevant?

- Are custom power modules really cost effectives?

- How do ASPMs relate to modern silicon technology?

- What are the most approrpiate substrate materials?

- Air or water cooling?

- How to optimize electronic circuit design.

- Driver, protection and supervisory accessories.

- Packaging flexibility.

- Input and out[ut bussing, power and signal.

- Noise immunity.

- Power circuit layout for minimum strays.

- Environmental considerations.

- Use of Surface Mount Components.

- Reliability.


The relationship between users and manufacturers in power electronics
Animator: Enrique J. Dede, Professor of Power Electronics at the University

of Valencia and R&D Director of GH-ELIN, Secretary: José A. Carrasco,

Assistant Professor of Power Electronics at the University of Valencia
Topic:
The aim of the discussion will be to explore the needs of the users of

power electronics related to active components, passive components as well

as the specification of the components and other requirements as

standardisation, regulations etc... in order to make a list of "wishes" and

to find out what manufacturers can provide from this list of wishes.
High power integration,
Animator: Prof. André A. Jaecklin, ABB Corporate Research, Secretary: Dr.

Stefan Linder, ABB Semiconductors


Topics:

a. IGBT: - module construction (e.g. high frequency design)

- high voltage devices

- high current devices (large scale parallel connection)

- reliability problems (partial discharge; testing methods)

b. IGCT - basic concept

- drive circuits

- optimum snubber

- applications.
Smart power in the automotive industry
Animator: K. Rischmuller, SGS Thomson

Topic description not available at time of printing


Smart power in dc-dc converters below 100 W
P. Lindman, Ericsson Components
- integration of passive components

- cost vs. integration level

- flexibility vs. integration level

- performance: integration vs. discrete

- encapsulation

Impact of integration on power electronic design


Animators: Jean Marie Peter, SEE and Consulting; Prof. Philippe Lataire,

Vrije Universiteit Brussel


The data processing job was completely transformed by the signal

integration. The power integration is coming slowly, because there are a

lot of specific problems in power (Thermal, current density, mutual

component interaction, cost, etcŠ), but will arrive in the market. What

could be the consequences in power electronics.
GTO or IGBT
Animators: Jean Marie Peter, SEE and Consulting; Prof. Philippe Lataire,

Vrije Universiteit Brussel


A lot of progresses have been done in the field of high power IGBT. This

component is now from 200 kW to several Megawatts a useful device. A big

progress has already been done with the hard driven GTO called GCT. What

are the main advantages and disadvantages of each components, what could be

the optimal application field?
Teaching
Animator: Dr. Richard Duke, University of Canterbury, New Zealand

The occasion of EPE brings the rare opportunity for international

comparisons of power electronics educational systems. Each country of

group of closely associated countries has developped its own unique

educational system and power electronics education has developed and

flourished in different ways to meet varying needs. What position does

(should) power electronics hold in the undergraduate (graduate) programme?

Should power electronics be a required course for all EE's, for all EE's

specialising in power or is an elective arrangement more appropriate?

There is a commonly held perception that power electronics education is

often inadequate, especially with respect to practical experience in

instructional laboratories. Should lectures and laboratories be an

integrated package or are separate laboratory courses more appropriate?

Are the traditional electrical machnies courses still appropriate or should

there be more effort to integrate power electronics into such courses?

To initiate discussion of these question, and others, some brief results

from international survey of power electronics education in Australasian

and North American Universities will be presented.


Software Packages and Experiences in Simulating Power Electronics and Motor

Drives
Animators: Prof. Ned Mohan, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Univ. of

Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA; Prof. Eisuke Masada, Tokyo University
In this discussion group, capabilities of various simulation packages will

be presented for modeling of power electronics and motor drives. Users of

these packages will describe their experiences.

FACTS
Animators: Prof. Hirofumi Akagi, Okayama University and Prof. Tore

Undeland, NTNU, Norway
This discussion session provides an informal discussion about the state of

the art of FACTS devices, and about future prospects and directions,

including the personal views and expectations of

participants.

EMC
Animator: Prof. Paolo Tenti, University of Padova
- CISPR and IEC standards regarding conducted and radiated noise emission

and immunity

- typical problems arising from their application

- mitigation guidelines


Sensorless ac drives
moderator to be chosen

Topic description not available at time of printing

Large industrial drives
Animators: Jacques Coureault, Directeur Technique and Henri Godfroid, Chef

de Service, Division Ensembles Industriels, CEGELEC


Machine/Converters arrangements commonly used and new trends.
POST CONFERENCE TRIPS
Post Conference Technical Trips
1. Visit at Hydroelectric power stations
In the river Nidelva, which runs through the city of Trondheim, the energy

company Trondheim Energiverk (TEV) operate seven of its hydroelectric power

stations. A technical tour to two of these stations will be arranged.

Although the river is regulated for hydroelectric power production it is

considered as one of Norway's best fishing sites of Salmon with a record of

catch-up of up to 1 ton per km/year along the stretch where fishing is

allowed.

Nedre Leirfoss is a power station which was put into operation in 1910. The

installed capacity is 12 MW and the average production is 67 GWh/year.

TEV has a small museum at Nedre Leirfossen which shows the evolution of the

technology at their power stations from 1910 until today. The Brattsberg

power station is a typical example of the new generation Norwegian power

stations and was put in operation in 1977. It is located inside the

mountain and water is led through tunnels (not pipe-lines) to the turbines.

The installed capacity is 120 MW and the average production is 600

GWh/year.

The participants will be picked up by bus in the centre of Trondheim at

10.00 on Thursday 11 Sept. A light lunch will be provided at Brattsberg

Power station. After the visit, at 13.00, the participants will be

transported directly to Trondheim Airport, Værnes, by bus.


Fee for the tour: 100 NOK
2. Visiting Siemens A/S, Trondheim,
Siemens A/S is a worldwide company with sites in 181 countries. Siemens A/S

was established in Trondheim since 1908. For the time being Siemens has

2750 employees in Norway and 830 out of these are in Trondheim. Siemens A/S

in Trondheim has two factories. One produces electric heaters and the

other produces middle voltage equipment, motor control cubicles and power

electronic circuits.

Siemens A/S power electronics department is in Trondheim. This department

is a competence centre for power electronics in Siemens A/S. The Power

Electronics department is specialised in UPS, rectifiers for aluminium

industry and converters for railway power supply.

On this visit to Siemens A/S here in Trondheim you will get the opportunity

to get a presentation of Siemens A/S in Trondheim especially the Power

Electronics Department and to visit the factory. After lunch there will be

a guided tour to Stavne converter station which as 2 MVA, 16 2/3 Hz

converter for railway power supply. Siemens A/S was the contractor to this

converter station.

The bus will collect you at Trondheim centre at 09:00 and return at 14:00

to Trondheim Airport, Værnes.


Fee for the tour: 100 NOK

3. Train trip to Adtranz near Oslo


Adtranz is organizing transportation from Trondheim to Oslo by train. We

start in Trondheim about 8.00 in the morning, then we will pass the

mountain plateaus and see the glaciers in full daylight. There will be a

draw, one of our guests will be invited to stay in the locomotive from

Oppdal to Dombås. This is over the largest mountain plateau, where also the

speed is fastest.

We will present our locomotives in the train as we go along with emphasis

on the EL 18 locomotive of our train. Of couse we will tell a lot about the

tilting trains. We just got one order of16 (!) trains to the Norwegians

State Railways of one Billion NOK. In Norway straight rails are rare, 80%

of the distance is a curve. So tilting trains is the only way to increase

the speed. There is not enough trafic to allow for new railways.

We will serve coffee and later on lunch in the train.

The first EL 18 locomotive was delivered from the Strømmen factory of

Adtranz Norway in the Summer of 1996. It is the first of a series of 22

locomotives, all will be made before 1998. Both passengers and goods will

be pulled by these new locomotives, and a lot of more than 30 years old

locomotives will be replaced. EL 18 is a Norwegian modified version of the

Loc 2000 family. The specifications of the Norwegian State Railways are

among the strictest in the world due to rough weather, temperature

extreemes and blowing snow particles. In addition there are problems with

condensation in the long tunnels.

The locomotive is made with welded steel and some copper to avoid rust. The

cabin for the engineer is made with a low weight glasfibre sandwich design.

The boggies are radial controlled and follow the rails with low friction,

better utilization of the traction power and less wear of the wheels and

the rails than the older locomotives. Robust induction motors controlled by

GTO voltage source inverters are Adtranz standard technology.

Also the rectifier converters are like this, providing four quadrant

sinusoidal 16 2/3 Hz input current. The maximum power at the wheels is 5.88

MW and the maximum speed is 200 km/hour.

The train will stop close to the Strømmen factory just outside Oslo, at

about 14:40. There we will invite you to a special press conference where

we will disclose a new train! Our international EPE '97 guests will improve

the atmosphere of the presentation, so we will both benefit from this.

We will provide buses for you that will drive you from Strømmen through

Oslo downtown to the airport. You will arrive at the Oslo airport Fornebu

at about 17:00.


Fee for the tour including train ticket and bus in Oslo: 420 NOK
LECTURE SESSIONS
The papers listed hereunder are those provisionally accepted for lecture

sessions. Those papers will be submitted to further reviewing by the

session chairmen and topic chairmen and the final programme of the lecture

sessions will be chosen among the papers listed hereunder.


Monday 8 September 1997, 9h30 10h30
Session L1a: Passive components (Prof. J. Uceda, University of Madrid,

Spain; t.b.d.)


Super-capacitors for peak load shaving of batteries

R. Bonert, University of Toronto, Canada, S. Reichert, University of

Karlsruhe, Germany
Impedance adapter transformer - 300 kHz/2MVA for induction heating generators

M. Gillot, Ecole des Hautes Etudes Industrielles, J. Nuns, EDF, France


Session L1b: Renewable Energy Systems (Prof. H. Stemmler, ETH Zürich,

Switzerland;T. Toftevaag, EFI, Norway)


Modelling and Experimental Investigation of Energy Conversion Systems

Employing Wind-Driven Induction Generators with Electronically Controlled

Self-Excitation

Antonio Di Gerlando, F. Castelli Dezza, R. Perini, Politecnico di Milano, Italy


Power electronic interface for unconventional small size stand alone wind

energy conversion system

G. Lo Bianco, F. Caricchi, F. Crescimbini, O. Honorati, University of Rome

"La Sapienza", Italy


An Efficient Photovoltaic Pump System using a Permanent Magnet Sychnronous

Motor Drive

S. Van Haute, St. Henneberger, K. Hameyer, R. Belmans, Katholieke

Universiteit Leuven, L. De Gheselle, W. Coppye, IMEC, Belgium


Single Cell Module Integrated Converter System for Photovoltaic Energy

Generation

J. Riatsch, H. Stemmler, R. Schmidt, Swiss Federal Inst. of Techn. -

ETH-Zentrum, Switzerland


Session L1c: Electronic power supplies systems (Prof. J. L. Van Eck, ULB,

Belgium; O. Boe, Siemens Norway)


Ni-Cd and Ni-MH battery fast-charger for portable applications based upon

an intelligent IC

M. Gonzalez, Miguel A. Perez, J. Diaz, F.F. Linera, P. Martinez, Iberdrola,

Spain
Large-Signal Modeling Subharmonics and Bifurcation Behavior of PWM

Switching Converters

Henry Chung, K. K. Tse, S. Y. R. Hui, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong


Session L1d: Control methods (Prof. W. Leonhard, University of

Braunschweig, Germany; Prof. J. P. Louis, LESIR, France)


Fuzzy Logic Control Optimization of Electrical Systems using Experimental

Designs


D. Hissel, P Maussion, Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, France
Neuro-Fuzzy Controller in a Field Oriented Control for Induction Motors

L. Baghli, H. Razik, A. Rezzoug, GREEN, France


Fuzzy Control for Electrical Drives?

Kai Michels, Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany


This session includes a panel discussion

Monday 8 September 1997, 11h00 to 13h00


Session L2a: Special session IGBT/GTO (J. M. Peter, SEE, France; P. Aloïsi,

Motorola, France)


IGBT based integrated power module for high power traction converter

Gerald Hilpert, Thomas Züllig, ABB Daimler-Benz Transportation Ltd, Switzerland


Multichip High Power IGBT - Modules for Traction and Industrial Application

K. H. Sommer, R. Spanke, eupec GmbH & Co KG, Lefranc, Siemens AG, Germany


A New Range of Reverse Conducting Gate-CommutatedThyristors for

High-Voltage Medium-Power Applications

Stefan Linder, Sven Klaka, Mark Frecker, ABB Semiconductors AG, Switzerland
Including a panel discussion
Session L2b: EMC (Prof. L. Pierrat, EDF, France; Mari Haugen Jensen,

Unitech, Norway)


Behaviour of three-phase convertors during voltage sags

M H J Bollen, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, D B Patel, P Wang,

N Jenkins, Manchester Centre for Electrical Energy, United Kingdom
Reduction of Conducted Line Emissions in voltage-fed pulsed inverters by

using suppressor capacitors in the intermediate circuit

S. Guttowski, H. Jörgensen, K. Heumann, Technische Universität Berlin, Germany
Predictive Correction Method for fast Control Tasks with respect to the



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