Üds a can coal ever become a friend of the environment? Coal-fired power stations supply



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ÜDS A

Can coal ever become a friend of the environment? Coal-fired power stations supply half the electricity used in America, and a similar amount in many other Industrial countries, but are responsible for 10% of the power industry's emissions of carbon dioxide -the most worrisome of the so-called "greenhouse gases". Because of special exemptions, much of the country's coal-derived electricity comes from plants that are more than 30 years old. Many of these plants are approaching the end of their commercial lives, and the thought of having to replace a lot of dirty old power stations, with new ones that will have to comply with the Clean Air Act, is causing a nightmare in the power industry. Suddenly, energy engineers are talking about "clean coal" technology. That message has been heard before. There was similar excitement over clean coal in the mid-1980s and early 1990s. Large sums of taxpayers' money wore handed out to firms developing clean coal. The difference this time, say energy engineers, is that a number of electricity have actually started building facilities that use clean coal.





12

environment

çevre

1

comply with

uymak,bağdaşmak

4

supply

sağlamak

1

nightmare

kabus

4

responsible for

-den sorumlu

1

suddenly

Aniden

3

responsible

sorumlu, mesul

5

Hear

İşitmek

1

worrisome

endişe verici,kaygılandırıcı

2

Similar

Benzer

1

so-called

diye anılan

1

excitement

Heyecan

1

exemption

bağışıklık

1

Hand out

Dağıtmak

1

approach

yaklaşmak

3

developing

Gelişmekte olan

2

commercial

ticari

13

develop

geliştirmek

5

replace

yerine koymak, değiştirmek

1

difference

Fark

2

a number of

Birtakım birkaç

3

actually

Gerçekten,aslında

2

facilities

Araç gereç, olanak

1

end of

-ın sonu





















In terms of pure science, the discovery that the universe is in the grip of a strange "anti­ gravity" force that is making it expand ever faster, is the most significant of the last decade. The possibility that such a force might exist has been known for years, with theorists finding that it kept reappearing out of Einstein's theory of gravity. For years they tried to avoid it coming up with all sorts of arguments for why the force couldn't really exist. Now they're being forced to face it, and to face the embarrassing fact that they can't explain the single most important force in the universe.



1

In terms of

-e göre

2

strange

Tuhaf, acayip

6

discovery

Keşif,buluş

2

grip

Sıkı tutma, kavrama

7

universe

evren

2

significant

Anlamlı, önemli

7

gravity

yerçekimi

8

decade

On yıl

2

expand

genişletmek

2

possibility

İmkan,olanak

6

force

Güç,kuvvet

17

know

Bilmek

3

finding

Bulgu, bulunmuş

7

keep

Tutmak,saklamak

3

out of

-den yapılmış

1

reappear

Yeniden ortaya çıkmak görünmek

8

tried

denemek

3

avoid

Sakınmak,kaçınmak,

1

come up

Meydana cıkmak,görüşmek

1

argument

tartışma

3

really

gerçekten

11

exist

Var olmak

1

embarrassing

utandırıcı

3

explain

Açıklamak,anlatmak

3

single

tek

9

important

önemli

Air-starved soil could have been a key player in the largest extinction ever to strike Earth. The claim follows the discovery of a rare mineral in ancient soil collected from Antarctica. The extinction, at the end of the Permian period 250 million years ago, wiped out virtually all marine life and some 70 per cent of land animals. But the reason for the extinction, which preceded the rise of the dinosaurs, has been a longstanding puzzle. Now a team of geologists think they have found what could be a major factor in the extinction. They collected fossilized soil samples that formed in Antarctica just after the Permian period ended. The soil contained nodule-shaped minerals that have been identified as berthierine. This iron-rich mineral forms only in environments where oxygen is scarce. So, if the oxygen levels in the soil were low enough to allow berthierine to form, then it follows that the soil would not have been able to support plant life. Such intolerably low levels of oxygen would be enough to kill the plants off completely




11

soil

toprak

2

virtually

Hemen hemen,neredeyse

4

extinction

Söndürme,sönme

4

marine

Deniz hayatı

2

strike

Vurmak,çarpmak

19

land

Kara,toprak

4

claim

iddia

1

reason

Sebep,neden

3

follow

Takipetmek,izlemek

1

precede

-den önde gelmek olmak

2

rare

Seyrek,nadir

1

rise

yükselmek

2

ancient

Antik,eski

1

longstanding

Uzun süredir var olan

5

collect

toplamak

1

puzzle

Çözmek,bulmaca

4

wipe out

Silip süpürmek,yok etmek

1

sample

örnek

4

end

Son,sonuçlanmak

19

formed

Şekillendirmek,biçimlendirmek

1

scarce

Seyrek,nadir

11

level

Seviye

4

enough

yeterli

4

amount

Miktar

4

contain

Kapsamak,içermek

2

identify

Tanımak,teşhis etmek

5

allow

İzin vermek

1

support

Desteklemek

20

plant

bitki

8

kill

Öldürmek

1

completely

Tamamen,bütünüyle

1

intolerably




When it is completed late next year, a 39­ storey apartment building under construction in San Francisco will be the tallest precast concrete structure ever built in an area of high seismic activity. Its builders are using an innovative new structural connection that could revolutionize the way buildings are built in seismic zones. Conventional cast-in-place and precast systems survive earthquakes by dissipating the energy through the structure, often doing irreparable damage to themselves in the process. The new connection, developed with help from the University of Washington, consist of high strength steel reinforcing cables and "mild" steel bars that stretch slightly during an earthquake, then pull the building back into place. The steel components also considerably reduce seismic energy before it can attack the structure. This means less damage to beams, walls and ceilings.

5

complete

tamamlamak

4

survive

Yaşamak,hayatta kalmak

1

storey

kat

3

earthquake

deprem

3

construction

İnşa,yapı

1

irreparable

onarılmaz

4

concrete

Somut,beton

9

damage

Zarar,zarar vermek

11

structure

yapı

3

themselves

kendileri

1

innovative

Yenilikçi

6

process

İşlem,süreç

4

structural

yapısal

1

consist of

,den meydana gelmek

2

connection

Bağlantı

1

high strength

Yüksek mukavemetli

1

revolutionize

-de devrim yapmak

9

steel

çelik

3

Conventional

geleneksel

2

component

Bileşen

1

stretch

Germek,uzatmak

2

slightly

birazcık

2

pull

çekmek

2

considerably

Epeyce,oldukça

5

reduce

azaltmak










To understand topics such as the origin of the universe, the ultimate fate of black holes and the possibility of time travel, we need to understand how the universe works. We now have a good idea about what the basic building blocks of matter might be. Physics in the 20th century was built 1 on the twin revolutions of quantum mechanics (a theory of matter) and Einstein's theory of space, time and gravitation known as relativity. But it's extremely unsatisfying to find two ultimate descriptions of reality when you're looking for just one. Trying to unify the two theories presents formidable technical and conceptual obstacles that have challenged some of the finest theoretical physicists for decades.

2

topic

konu

4

relativity

Görelilik,izafiyet

3

origin

Köken,kaynak

1

extremely

Aşırı derecede

3

ultimate

Son,en son

1

unsatisfying

Tatmin etmeyici

2

hole

Delik, çukur

1

satisying

Tatmin edici

4

travel

Seyehat etmek

1

description

Tanımlama,acıklama

6

matter

madde

1

reality

gerçeklik

1

twin

ikiz

1

unify

birleştirmek

3

revolution

devrim,devir,dönme

7

present

Sunmak,şimdiki

9

space

uzay

1

formidable

Korkulur,heybetli

2

gravitation

Yercekimi,yer çekim gücü

1

conceptual

Kavramsal

1

obstacle

Engel,mani

1

challenge

Meydan okumak

2

theoretical

kuramsal









It seems that a programme designed to destroy Columbia's huge illegal drugs business could be poisoning farmers and damaging the environment. Backed by 1.3 billion of US government funds, drug enforcers routinely identify fields of coca plants and opium poppies, and spray them lrom the air with herbicide. Around 120,000 hectares have been sprayed with the herbicide "glyphosphate". But although glyphosphate is considered to be relatively safe for humans and the environment, the Colombian government has received over a thousand complaints from people who to have suffered ill effects after I'oming into contact with the chemical. symptoms range from skin and I've irritations to coughing and vomiting. Some critics suspect additives to the spray are responsible. Others on the ground complained that the spray had killed food crops when it drifted onto them from nearby fields.





7

design

tasarlamak

11

consider

Düşünmek,göz önünde tutmak

1

destroy

yıkmak

1

relatively

Göreceli olarak

5

huge

büyük

6

safe

güvenli

1

illegal

yasadışı

3

receive

Almak, kabul etmek

3

drug

ilaç

2

complaint

Şikayet

2

poisoning

Zehirlenme

2

suffer

Acı cekmek

1

poison

Zehir,zehirlemek

10

effect

Etki,sonuç

2

damaging

Zararlı,zarar görmüş

3

contact

Bağlantı kurmak

8

government

hükümet

8

range

Aralık,alan

3

fund

Fon,para

1

irritation

Kızgınlık,öfke,tahriş

2

routinely

Düzenli olarak

1

coughing

öksürme

10

field

alan

2

vomiting

kusarak

3

critic

Eleştirici,eleştirmen

4

suspect

Kuşku duymak,süphelenmek

2

symptom

Belirti,işaret,alamet

1

complain

Şikayet etmek

8

crop

ekin

2

drift

Sürüklenmek,birikinti

3

nearby

Yakın,yakında











ÜDS B

In a biography of Bardeen, recently published, he does not fit the popular stereotype of scientific genius, for he is surprisingly sane and ordinary. As far as character goes, he had several assets. To start with he was a notable team builder. Tenacious when it came to attacking problems, he had the gift of breaking a large problem down into smaller, more soluble parts and then reassembling the whole. As a teacher, his habit of stopping to think allowed his students to do so too. Government and industry valued his advice according to one commentator, he helped Xerox to build one of the finest industrial laboratories in the world in the fields of organic and disordered solids during the late 1970s. but, perhaps, the most telling aspect of Bardeen's character was his willingness to share the credit with others. For example, he deliberately staled away from the meeting of the American Physical Society in March 1957 at which' his theory of superconductivity was first presented, so that the contribution of his young co-researchers would be recognized.




4

recently

Son zamanlarda

1

gift

Hediye,armağan

1

published

yayınlanmış

1

soluble

Çözünür,çözünebilir

1

stereotype

şablon

1

reassemble

Yeniden toplamak

1

genius

dahi

4

habit

alışkanlık

1

surprisingly

Şaşırtıcı şekilde

2

advice

Tavsiye vermek,tavsiye

1

ordinary

sıradan

4

according to

-e göre

1

As far as

Kadarıyla,-e göre

1

valued

değerlendirilmiş

1

sane

Akıl başında

7

value

değer

1

asset

Mal,kıymetli şey

1

commentator

Yorumcu,eleştirmen

1

notable

Tanınmış,göze carpan

1

disordered

Düzensiz,karışık

1

Tenacious

İnatcı,vazgeçmez

1

disorder

düzensizlik

5

attack

saldırmak

1

aspect

Görüş,bakış açısı

1

willingness

isteklilik

2

share

paylaşmak

6

For example

örneğin

1

credit

İtimat etmek,kredi

1

deliberately

Kasten,mahsus

1

conductivity

İletkenlik

1

contribution

Bağış,yardım

1

recognized

Tanınımış

2

researcher

araştırıcı

1

recognize

Tanımak

Transport represents 22 per cent of total energy consumption in industrialized countries, mainly in the form of automobiles. Although this is the fastest growth sector in such countries, the rate of increase in road Transport energy demand has slowed in most developed countries Since the late 1960s. This has reflected both improved vehicle efficiency and a slowing down in the level of acquisition of automobiles by households. These developments have encouraged hopes that saturation levels may operate at lower levels than sometimes projected. In developing countries, Transport represents 14 per cent of total energy consumption but the number of automobiles is approximately 20/1000 people, compared to 600/1000 people in industrialized countries. In addition to strictly technical improvements that can be made to automobiles and trucks, there is another important area of action which could help in the solution of the problems, namely, system operation. In this category, there is a variety of actions that could be performed more efficiently such as Transporting passengers and freight by other means, such as bus and rail, that would result in lower energy consumption and therefore, lower emissions.

4

consumption

tüketim

1

saturation

Doyma,doygunluk

2

industrialize

sanayileştirmek

5

operate

İşletmek,işlemek

1

mainly

başlıca

7

project

Hedeflemek,proje

10

grow

büyümek

1

approximately

Aşağı yukarı

11

increase

artırmak

5

compare

karşılaştırmak

10

demand

istemek

1

İn addition to

-e ilave olarak

5

reflect

yansıtmak

16

area

alan

5

improve

geliştirmek

9

action

Eylem,işlem

4

vehicle

araç

2

solution

çözelti

5

efficiency

Verimlilik, etkinlik

1

namely

Yani,şöyle ki

2

acquisition

Elde etmek,yakalamak

3

operation

İşlem,operasyon




encourage

Teşvik etmek,cesaret vermek

1

efficiently

Verimli

9

result

sonuç

5

therefore

Bu yüzden

Civil engineering offers a
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