Unfortunately, our culture is saturated with television
7. to confine ограничивать
The speaker should confine himself to the subject.
Ex. 5. Read the text and 1)find the international words;
2)find the construction “Complex Object with the Infinitive”
Petroleum geologists have written more on the origin of petroleum than on any other subject. Speculation in this field was initiated in the 1860-s, but the problem of oil origin is still with us. Even extraordinary theories on the origin of hydrocarbons have surfaced over years. Some geologists believe petroleum to be of inorganic origin.
But most geoscientists consider petroleum to result from the breakdown of organic matter (plants and animals), which has been deposited and buried over hundreds of millions of years. Petroleum forms in marine sedimentary rocks that contain abundant organic remains. This material lithifies into a source rock that is buried by overlying sediments, and the resulting increased pressure, high temperature, bacteria, chemical reactions convert the organic material into hydrocarbons.
Petroleum is an organic substance consisting of a mixture of hydrocarbons, that is, it is made up of the two chemical elements carbon and hydrogen in rather complex and variable combinations. In addition to these principal elements oxygen, sulphur, and nitrogen are usually found in petroleum composition.
So, the chemical composition itself, the kinds of rocks with which petroleum is associated, and certain optical tests all point to the organic origin of petroleum.
Petroleum is not necessarily found where it was created, but instead may have migrated from its source rock over large distance. Under the pressure differential petroleum moves outward and upward along zones of increased permeability to a reservoir rock and accumulates there. Although the term “oil pool” is commonly used, there is really no actual pool or underground lake, but rather there is a porous rock saturated with oil and covered with an impermeable layer.
The general term “petroleum” includes both crude oil and natural gas, the former being a liquid. Crude oil nearly always has more or less natural gas associated with it, but in some places considerable quantities of gas may exist alone.
Investigation in petroleum genesis is not purely academic exercise. When we can determine exactly under what conditions commercial deposits of oil are formed and the date of their formation, we can confine our exploration for oil to 1) places that meet these conditions, and 2) to traps of oil that were in existence at the proper time.
Ex.6. Match synonyms in A and B.
1. speculation 1. indicate
2. composition 2. parent rock
3. point to 3.theory
4.migrate 4.make –up (n)
7.oil pool 7.transform
8.in addition to 8.decomposition
9.actual 9.oil accumulation
15.source rock 15.define
18.quantity 18.limit (v.)
Ex.7. Match antonyms in A and B.
1. more 1.outward
2.result from 2.high
5.expose 5.result in
11.the latter 11.accumulate
12.solid 12.the former
Ex.7. Find in the text the related words to the following words given before the text. State the part of speech of the found words.
To mix, nature, occur, gas, to transmute(изменяться), to apply, to change, to constitute, to solidify, to heat, convertor, to vary, chemistry, to form.
Petroleum is a mixture of naturally occurring hydrocarbons which may take either the solid, liquid or gaseous state. These three phases of petroleum are transmutable, one into the other, by the application of changes in temperature and pressure. Some of the constituents of petroleum are solids at ordinary earth temperatures, but the application of heat will cause them to take a liquid form, and further heating may convert them into gases and vapors. The solid and gaseous forms are soluble in the liquid forms. Various chemical changes may also cause solidification.
Ex.8. Translate the following word combinations. Pay attention to the different meanings of the words in bold type.
School subjects- the subject of the research-the subject of the sentence-rocks subject to weathering; organic matter- a matter of great importance-what’s the matter; organic remains-to remain stable-to remain friends; source rock –source material –a source of energy; a pool on the ground-an oil pool-to swim in a pool; natural phenomena-natural resource-natural gas-natural selection; near the surface- the near fields-in the near future-nearly 30 miles; to consider a problem- to take into consideration-a considerable amount-to a considerable extent-financial considerations-to be under consideration; formation of water- a water formation-sedimentary formation; a rather complex mineral-to occur in liquid rather than solid state-I would rather watch TV than do my homework.
Ex.9.Translate the following word combinations, paying attention to the prepositions.
Ex.10. Translate the following sentences into English. Use proper prepositions.
В условиях высокого давления и температуры органическое вещество превращается в углеводороды.
Нефтяная залежь – это пористая формация, насыщенная нефтью, и которая перекрыта непроницаемым слоем породы.
Все знают, что нефть состоит из нескольких компонентов; помимо углерода и водорода в ней присутствуют и другие составляющие.
Данные исследований генезиса нефти указывают на ее органическое происхождение.
Существуют разные теории происхождения нефти.
Нефть может мигрировать на большие расстояния.
Ex.11. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words given in brackets. Translate the sentences into Russian.
Under pressure oil and gas … into … strata below or beneath them, then … further into … that we now call... . (reservoirs, permeable, migrated (2), traps).
Oil is seldom found in … amounts in the … rock where it was formed. Rather, it will be found nearby, in … rock. These are normally … rocks – layered rock bodies formed in ancient, … seas. Sandstone is the most … of the … rock types. (shallow, common, source, sedimentary(2), commercial, reservoir).
When … are interconnected, the rock is … and fluids can flow by … or gravity … the rock body. (permeable, through, pressure, pores).
If the reservoir rock is … and … enough, then the petroleum will … . But if it is to accumulate, something must stop the … . (migrate, migration, permeable, porous).
A … is an arrangement of rock layers that contains an … of hydrocarbons, yet … them from rising to the surface. The … consists of an … layer above a …, … layer containing the … . (impermeable, permeable, trap (2), porous, prevents, accumulation, hydrocarbons).
A rock is … when its … are connected – that is, oil, gas, and water can … through it by moving from one … to another. The unit of … permeability is the darcy. (pores, pore, permeable, flow, measurement).
Oil and gas tend to seek shallower levels. Unless they are … underground by geological …, they will continue to move … until they escape at the surface. In fact, … they do exactly this. Since ancient times people have … oil in places known as … .(upward, sometimes, seeps, formations, trapped, found).
Ex.12. Read the following sentences and find the construction “Complex Object with the Infinitive”. Translate the sentences into Russian.
One should not expect the irreducible water saturation to exist in every reservoir.
The pressure differential makes oil migrate outward and upward.
Geologists consider the second phase in the burial of the organic sediment to be the deposition of a non-organic overlying rock.
Scientists showed aerobic bacteria to be abundant in stagnant waters.
We believe the research into oil genesis to be continued.
The researchers proved oil to have been generated under certain conditions.
Some 50 years ago nobody expected considerable quantities of natural gas to exist alone.
Everybody knows an impermeable layer to stop hydrocarbon migration from a reservoir rock.
Geoscientists suppose the speculation on the genesis of petroleum to have been initiated in the 1860-s.
Oil men found the oil pool in this region to contain oil of high quality in commercial quantities.
Ex.13. Render the following text in English.
Ученых давно интересует вопрос о происхождении нефти. Некоторые полагают, что нефть имеет неорганическое происхождение, хотя приверженцев теории органического генезиса углеводородов, несомненно, больше. Они считают, что нефть и природный газ образовались в результате распада органического вещества, захороненного в древних осадках. Под действием бактерий, химических реакций в условиях высокого давления и температуры это органическое вещество преобразовалось в углеводороды.
Нефть и газ представляют собой сложную смесь различных углеводородных соединений. При перепаде давления жидкие и газообразные углеводороды сравнительно легко мигрируют по пористым и проницаемым породам и собираются в природных ловушках, которые могут располагаться на значительном расстоянии от места их генерации. Углеводороды нефтяных и газовых залежей образовались по большей части в мелкозернистых нефтегазоматеринских осадках. Породы, способные аккумулировать значительные количества мигрирующих в них нефти и газа, получили название природных резервуаров или коллекторов. Наиболее распространенные коллекторы представлены главным образом песчаниками и карбонатами.
Ex.14. Answer the following questions.
What theories on the origin of hydrocarbons do you know?
Where and how is oil formed according to the theory of organic origin of petroleum?
What conditions are necessary for hydrocarbon generation?
What causes hydrocarbons to migrate from a source rock to a reservoir rock?
What does the term “oil pool” imply?
What is petroleum composed of?
Why is it important to investigate petroleum genesis?
Ex.15. Read the text, arrange the paragraphs logically and give a heading to the text.
Subsequent deposition caused the earlier sediments to become buried and to start to compact into sedimentary formations. Increasing depth of burial with resultant pressure and temperature changes created the conditions for the formation of oil and gas. The hydrocarbons thus formed migrated upward and sideward into other sedimentary basin rocks, such as sandstones and fractural limestones, which provide the necessary reservoirs.
It is generally believed that the greater part of the world’s hydrocarbons originated in the deposition of dead organisms on the sea floor millions of years ago. These organisms which include plankton, bacteria, and simple plants accumulated with large quantities of inorganic particles deposited by rivers or through chemical precipitation.
The organic theory of the origin of petroleum is now generally accepted by most scientists but there remain many problems which are yet unsolved.
The word “petroleum” is derived from two Latin words: “petra” meaning rock, and “oleum” meaning oil. Petroleum is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, but in addition to hydrocarbons small amounts of oxygen, nitrogen and suphur are also present.
Ex.16. Translate the text in writing. Use a dictionary.
Oil is very apt to migrate from its place of formation. Oil is of less density than water, and tends to move up the dip of the rocks until it either reaches the surface or is trapped beneath an impermeable layer.
The task of the geologist searching for accumulations of oil is first to decide whether oil is likely to have been formed in the area, and secondly to find structures in which the oil may have accumulated. He must consider the palegeograhpy of the area and its geological structure, both of which depend on as complete knowledge as possible of the succession and lithology, i.e. the statigraphy of the region.
Reservoir rocks in which oil may accumulate must be either strongly fissured or of high porosity, conditions most common met with either in massive limestones or sands and sandstones, while the migration of oil will be stopped by a fine-textured stratum such as clay or shale.
Oil is particularly likely to accumulate in domes beneath an impermeable layer.
In any of the structures in which oil may be trapped it is usual to find a gas zone immediately below the cover rock overlying the oil bearing zone beneath which the reservoir rock is usually saturated with water, often brackish.
Ex.17. Agree or disagree with the following statements.
Petroleum is of organic origin.
Hydrocarbons are generated in reservoir rocks.
Petroleum is found in a source rock.
Petroleum is a complex mixture of hydrogen and carbon.
The knowledge of petroleum genesis is of great importance for geologists.