1. proposal 452 improving food security in semi arid zones of bahia, brazil to be implemented by the Agency for Development and Relief (adra) Bahia. Project summary



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1. PROPOSAL 452

IMPROVING FOOD SECURITY IN SEMI ARID ZONES OF BAHIA, BRAZIL


To be implemented by the Agency for Development and Relief (ADRA) Bahia.
2. PROJECT SUMMARY

OBJECTIVE: Improve food security among 1,200 vulnerable households in semi-arid zones of Bahia, Brazil.
INTERMEDIATE RESULTS:

IR1: People are more knowledgeable about the high nutrition of select indigenous plants in the semi-arid region of Bahia.

IR2: People have a diversified diet with nutritious foods prepared appropriately.

IR3: Community capacity is built with creation/strengthening of food security committees.


RATIONALE: The people of the semi-arid region of Bahia state, Northeast Brazil have been suffering for years under extreme drought and scarcity of water, bringing both disease and poverty to millions habitants of the caatinga1. It is not possible to change the natural conditions of the semi-arid region, but it is possible to coexist with them, using some kinds of nutritionally rich indigenous food known as xerophyllic plants. Though local capacity building, we expect to involve the target population in the solution of it’s own problems.
INNOVATION/EFFECTIVENESS: ADRA will have a mobile unit (a truck with a kitchen installed) to provide cooking classes using the xerophyllic plants that are provided by nature all year in the semi arid region. The project is based on local capacity building, so the community can continue the results of the project after the finish of the funding from the World Bank. The project will reach 1200 families, and the program will be integrated with schools to educate children about the importance and the uses of the xerophyllic plants. The children will have opportunity to prepare different food, drinks and snacks with these important plants.
3. Problem Definition

The United Nations Member States have pledged to reduce by half the proportion of people in the world population living on less than a dollar a day until 2015. With a per capita income of around $3500, Brazil is seen as an upper middle-income country. However, despite its economic strength in GDP and its “prospering” large cities, the country only ranks 69 on the UNDP Human Development Index 2006 and social and territorial disparities are blatant. ”About half of undernourished people in development countries live in low-income farm households that depend on agriculture for food and income. Two-thirds of these households live in fragile marginal lands that are deteriorating due to soil erosion, soil-fertility decline and deforestation. As population increases and land productivity declines further, the prevalence of hunger and poverty among this group likely will increase.”2

The semi dry belt of Northeast Brazil (a region called Sertão, with an area of 900,000 square kilometers and growing) has a population of more than 10 million inhabitants who have been suffering of an extreme draught for years. The region once famous for extremely rich flora and fauna. It is not possible to change the natural conditions of the semi-arid region, but it is possible to coexist with them, using some kinds of nutritionally rich food, otherwise known as xerophyllic plants. The project will be implemented in 4 municipalities: Uauá, Monte Santo, Chorrochó and Curaçá. These cities represent a population of more than 126,000 persons.

The rainfall comes frequently two or three months a year and the scarcity of water has hampered the area’s development and brought both disease and poverty for much of the population. The inappropriate use of soil and others natural resources over centuries has resulted in the present severe crises.

According to a survey3, up to 50 % of the population of Bahia lives in devastating poverty and struggles with low income. The situation of most of the inhabitants of the Sertão is worsened due to a high dependency on external inputs. The poor people normally wait for the government to find the solutions for their problems. The lack of water for example, is something that happens for hundreds of years and will continue through other years ahead. The drought is a characteristic of the semi arid region. What these population need is to built their own solution for their own problems.
4. Idea

The problem addressed is the lack of food, improper use of food, and widespread poverty caused by the weather and land conditions. It is not possible to change the natural conditions of the semi-arid region, but it is possible to coexist with them using a special plant called xerophyllic, which has a high level of nutrients, as a source of food and production income. The processes include:


1- Introduce the use of 15 native species that have high nutritional value to the local population.

2- Identify other alternatives plants to guarantee a high level of nutrients for the target group’s alimentation.

3- Enable the population with 150 recipes, using the xerophyllic plants and other alternative plants available in the semi arid region.

4- Teach food conservation methods to guarantee food throughout the year.

5- Increase the production of food based in xerophyllic plants by 25% among target farmers and improve diversity of diet through incorporation of nutritious, xerophyllic plants.
ADRA will have a truck with a kitchen installed to providing coking classes using the xerophyllic plants that are provided by nature year-round in the semi arid region. The truck will stay one week in each community, providing an opportunity for all the families to participate in the food security program. Activities will entail:

  • Working with the children in the elementary school using the xerophyllic plants as a multidiscipline theme (in subjects such as math, writing, geography, history) with the support of the teachers.

  • Introducing these plants in some local schools’ food programs in the municipality involved in the project.

  • Conducting training program in nutrition, cooking, health and crop processing. The program will involve 60 food security promoters (15 from each city) selected among the target group.

  • Conducting the classes in the truck involving all the communities in the new practices. The truck will stay one week in each community chosen from the 4 cities. Every 2 weeks the truck changes the city, so all the cities will have chance to have the classes every 2 months during 2 weeks.



METHODOLOGY


WAYS/MEANS/STRATEGIES

WAYS TO IMPLEMENT THE ACTIVITIES

Encourage constructive participation

(To create situations where people may participate in practical ways)



Promote meetings where discussions are conducted in order to obtain the greatest possible number of opinions and suggestions regarding the existing needs and possible solutions.

Host brainstorming sessions

Using group dynamics, storytelling, drama, and other means to explore the four communication channels of thought, feeling, sensations, and intuition. To use the various styles of learning, as well as thinking activities, in every action developed.

Find and prepare leaders

Promote leadership courses

Organize motivational meetings

Make use of the senses, conviction, and emotions in all of the activities conducted.

To ensure the project is sustainable, the farmers will be trained to conduct experiments in the food preparation, conducting analysis, observations, and creating and testing possibilities and hypotheses. They will be capable of collecting data, comparing, and finally of developing solidly tested methods in order to constantly develop and improve new food security technology.
5. INNOVATION

The project has an innovative yet very simple idea in the same way. It is not possible to change the natural conditions, but it is possible to coexist with them, using alternatives as source of food and income. In the region, many simple, inexpensive ideas have already been put into practice. The project will rescue the knowledge that the communities had in the past, but now they do not use anymore. Many elderly people made use of the xerophyllic plants in the past, but people have lost much of that indigenous knowledge and for the most part stopped the use of these plants. When there is no rain, these plants are the last hope the people of semi arid region have to feed their families. They are roots, seeds, strange fruits with exotic appearance, which the inhabitants of other areas of the country did not know were foods. These plants produce their crops independent of the quantity or quality of the rains. Hunger, besides being a problem in and of itself, is also a cause of poverty. By causing poor health, low levels of energy, and even mental impairment, hunger can lead to even greater poverty by reducing people’s ability to work. Special innovative activities include:

  • Teacher’s training will guarantee that the classes given for the children will have a continuation during the school program. The themes of xerophyllic plants will be used in the principal subjects of the elementary school.

  • The introduction of the xerophyllic plants in the menu of some local school’s food program will guarantee better meals for the children and more income to the farmers involved in the process of harvest and preparation of the food.


6. Project implementation

Detailed Descriptions of Project Activities

(a) Conduct the diagnosis of the communities, building group identity of each community

Before ADRA begins the actual work on the project, it is necessary to correctly diagnose the communities where the program will be undertaken and establish priorities, strategies, and guidelines for the development and implementation of food security solutions. In this first step, ADRA will be responsible for diagnosing the socio-economic situation of the communities in the towns where the project will be piloted. Each group, just as each individual, possesses unique characteristics that define its identity. In view of this, at each one of the meetings with the different communities, we will be using a file where all observations will be written down, starting with the objectives established for each of these meetings. The results will be analyzed considering whether or not goals were achieved, the positive and negative aspects, the strategies for any adjustments, and any improvement or change that may be necessary. Thus, it will be possible to adapt the project to each community in such a way that the end results are achieved by all. This is required due to the fact that a model that works for one community does not necessarily work for all of them.



  1. Identifying possible leaders

The objective is to identify and prepare food security promoters in the community, making it possible for them to develop skills and competence that will qualify them for effective leadership, which will guide their respective communities towards autonomy and sustainability.

These individuals will also be chosen for their enthusiasm, conviction regarding technology, and most importantly for showing the will to share this with others, as well as for being respected by the members of their communities and for having some skill in educating their peers. The plan is to provide training that will reinforce all of these aspects, thereby enabling these leaders to use their abilities skillfully so that they may become effective food security promoters. The process of identifying these individuals with leadership potential will be conducted together with the diagnosis of the communities. The selected individuals will then take part in a course prepared for developing and empowering leaders and will then begin the training process.



(c) Develop the key concepts of this Food security project

The concepts of the food security project will be taught in monthly meetings that will take place in the communities involved in the project. These classes/meetings will include theoretical and practical instruction. These meetings will also be an opportunity for the farmers to report how they could implement the project in their daily routine.


(d) Train and assist associations leaders and 60 selected food security promoters

The leadership training of promoters will be conducted by the project coordinator, and will take place directly in the communities. It will focus on the improvement of organizational skills of the food security promoters through improved teamwork, communication, integration and participation. Self-management in case of needs or problems will be part of the teachings. This will contribute to the strengthening of the local associations and ensure the viability of the project after the end of the project. Training of community committees will build capacity to maintain food security as a priority and help them to better manage resources.



(e) Conduct training programs in nutrition, cooking, health and crop processing.

To conduct this training program, experienced personnel will be recruited and oriented. The team will be responsible for producing and conducting an educational training program in nutrition, cooking, health and crop processing. This training will also be based on the student-centered learning method, which includes various appealing forms. This training will be based on the nutrition needs identified in the community. It will aim at the available food, eating habits, nutritional needs and easy cooking. This training will further take into account the health needs of the community and will show how to compensate preventatively through a healthy diet, hygiene, and simple cheap methods. Crop processing will show possibilities of how to process plants into products such as jam, juices, cakes, sweets or crackers.



(f) Involve school children in the education and awareness of the use of these plants.

ADRA will establish contact with the teachers of these schools by organizing workshops and lectures (for them and the children), presenting the project and arguing the key concepts. ADRA will introduce the theme of xerophyllic plants through histories, writing, math, Portuguese and other subjects.




SUMMARY OF ACTIVITIES

DESCRIPTION

1-Conduct the diagnosis of the communities.


A list of the primary needs of each community, with defined priorities and proposals with possible solutions.

Each community will have a follow-up file, with a list of its specific characteristics, its needs, weaknesses, and potentials. It will also contain the guidelines of the strategy to be implemented at the meetings.



2-Identify possible food security promoters.

The program will involve 60 agriculturist leaders (15 from each city) selected among the target group.

3-Develop the key concepts in this food security project.


A ratio of 50 % or more of the participating members in the meetings will apply the concepts learned in their work/daytime activities and share those concepts with other people.

4-Train and assist farmers’ association leaders and 60 selected food security promoters

Trained leaders could spread the concepts in a better way, because they are part of the community.

5-Conduct training programs in Nutrition, cooking, health, and crop processing.

A special training involving entire families will guarantee the sustainability of the project and will give tools to the target group to improve changes in life.

6-Involve the children in the food security project.

Spreading the ideas of the Food security project in the schools of the communities and develop a Pilot Project in the schools.


7. PROJECT BENEFICIARIES

The project will be implemented in 4 municipalities: Sítio do Mato, Bom Jesus da Lapa, Riacho de Santana and Uauá. These cities represent a population of more than 126,000 persons. The project will involve the whole families, with special consideration to women and especially children. More than 60% are children under 12 years of age. Some of the families are composed of 14 members living in the same house, including 12 children. The project aims to reach at least 1200 families, with the number of beneficiaries around 8,400 (average family size is 7 people). Yet due to expectable spillover effects of know-how and skills in food security techniques to non-participating families and villages, especially through the training of 60 food security promoters, half-open classes as well as through open seminars the number of indirect beneficiaries could be much higher, especially beyond the life of the project. Beneficiaries are involved in the implementation and management of the project. The establishment of committees at the village level will ensure community sense of ownership and responsibility in the management of the project. ADRA encourages active involvement of intended beneficiary community members in all the stages of the project. Building the capacity of food security committees, village food security promoters and district food security board will strengthen the local communities to be able to manage their local resources effectively.




MUNICIPALITY

POPULATION

ÁREA Km 2

UAUÁ

27.208

2.950

MONTE SANTO

56.962

3.285

CHORROCHÓ

10.589

2.648

CURAÇÁ

31.747

6.442

TOTAL

126.506

15.325



8. RESULTS

For a chart of indicators and anticipated measurable results, see attachment A.

Attachment A with Measurable Results for Project: IMPROVING FOOD SECURITY IN SEMI-ARID ZONES OF BAHIA, BRAZIL


Intermediate Result (IR)

Activities

Major Milestone

(Year 1, Year 2)



Total Performance Targets

Person Responsible

Objective: Improve nutrition among vulnerable people in four municipalities (Uauá, Monte Santo, Chorrochó and Curaçá) in the semi-arid region of Bahia, Brazil.

IR1: People are more knowledgeable about the high nutrition of select indigenous plants in the semi-arid region of Bahia.

Do a baseline survey of nutritious indigenous plants and people’s attitudes and uses of such.

n/a

n/a

Project coordinator

# of village promoters trained
(source: attendance records)

Introduce the use of 15 native species that have high nutritional value to the local population.

30 village promoters

30 village promoters

60 village food security promoters trained to conduct an outreach campaign


Project coordinator

# of people trained
(source: attendance records)

Hold training for adults on the use of these plants to increase nutrition in their diet

600 families

600 families

1200 families will be educated on the use of these plants (1200 x 7 people average per family = 8,400 individuals)

Monitors, teacher

# children and teachers trained
(source: attendance records)

Hold training in schools for children on the use of such plants.

100 children and teachers

100 children and teachers

200 number of children and teachers will be educated about the use of these plants

Monitors, teacher

# of farmers trained
(source: attendance records)

Help farmers improve production of food-based in xerophyllic plants

600 people

600 people

Increase production of these foods by 25 %

Project coordinator

IR2: People have a diversified diet with nutritious foods prepared appropriately.

Hold cooking classes via a mobile unit to target communities.

600 people

600 people

1200 people (1 per target family) will attend cooking demonstrations
150 recipes will be shared

Monitors, teacher

# farmers who can name at least two methods of food conservation
(source: training surveys)

Farmer families will know how more about food conservation to have more diversity in off season.

600 people

600 people

1200 people (1 per target family)

Project coordinator

IR3: Community capacity is built with creation/strengthening of food security committees.
# of committees established
(source: progress reports)

Establish or strengthen community food security committees made up of 10 members, at least 3 of which are women.

4 municipality committees

(same 4)

Establish and/or strengthen committees in four areas

Project coordinator


9. MEASURABILITY

An internal evaluation of the training impact will be carried out by ADRA project staff at the project end. Households will be selected randomly and interviewed from villages where project activities have been conducted. Households will be visited and an equal number of male and female respondents interviewed at their homes. A final project evaluation will be carried out by an external consultant to review the activities accomplished at each site in terms of accomplishing desired objectives, the impact of the project, successes and lessons learned.


10. ORGANIZATIONAL SUSTAINABILITY

ADRA International is a mature organization, with much experience with a range of donors, including the U.S. Agency for International Development, SIDA, DANIDA, United Nations agencies, etc. It is currently one of the leading non-governmental relief organizations in the world. In 1997 the agency was granted General Consultative Status by the United Nations, a unique opportunity giving ADRA added voice in the international community. In 2004 it assisted nearly 24 million people with more than US$159 million in aid. More than 4,000 ADRA staff members currently work in 125 countries. As new challenges and needs arise, ADRA continues to strive to realize its mission of reflecting God's love through compassionate acts of humanitarian service.

The project will be unilaterally implemented by ADRA Bahia. ADRA Bahia is a relatively small ADRA branch in the poor northeast area of the country. Currently it runs projects in the fields of drug rehabilitation, AIDS/HIV prevention and Public Health. Since the end of 2002 ADRA Bahia has been involved in the rural semi-arid region. In December 2002 ADRA Bahia was reacted with an emergency response to the most severe drought in 20 years in this region. ADRA serves people with no regard to their ethnic, political, or religious association in 125 countries. ADRA’s development and relief work is divided among five core portfolio activities: Food Security, Economic Development, Primary Health, Disaster Preparedness and Response, and Basic Education. ADRA has been officially working in Brazil since 1984. Its initial work however goes back to the first decades of the 20th century. Nowadays, the organization is present in all the Brazilian regions. Most projects take place in the Central Region: the Federal District and the States of São Paulo, Goiás, Mato Grosso and Tocantins.
The project team responsibilities are described below.
Project Coordinator:

• This person has a very good knowledge of the plants of semi arid regions, and the ability to organize meetings, work groups.

• Establishes collaborative relationships within ADRA with all pertinent parties that relate to the field office in order to facilitate the development of the project.

• Develops capacity building strategies in the successful acquisition of resources.


• Provides technical assistance to the field as needed through workshops, seminars, and capacity building so that field staff can meet proposal, performance, quality assurance, and customer service standards for various sectors of the project.

• Takes the lead in building capacity of field office staff.


• One or more years of intercultural experience in an academic, professional, or volunteer environment.
• Participates in ongoing professional development through continuing education courses, seminars and workshops, attendance at professional meetings and technical reading.
Teacher:

• This person must have the ability to work in group.

• Organize the cooking classes, and in the training activities.

• Participates in ongoing professional development through continuing education courses, seminars and workshops, attendance at professional meetings and technical reading.


Monitors (Two):

• Support the teacher in the development of the classes, and in the training activities.

• Support the food security promoters in the development of the trainings
11. CV for Team leader/PROJECT COORDINATOR

The team leader/project coordinator is Landerson Serpa Santana. Since 2003 he has worked in the semi arid region, implementing projects in agriculture and food security areas. He has worked directly with community development in semi arid region of Bahia state. Employment experience also includes:



  • Since August 02/2003, Executive Director of ADRA Bahia, Brazil

  • 1995-1998, Vice President of Santana (Shoe company with more than 140 stores in northeast Brazil)

  • 1993-1995, Director of franchising and quality management of Santana Company, Salvador, Brazil

  • 1990-1993, Owner of a small vegetarian restaurants chain, Salvador, Brazil

Education and other qualifications include:



  • 2006 APLI Chile Emergence Response and Crisis Communication

  • 2002/2005, Adventist University of Sao Paolo: Course of studies “MBA” (Specialization in Development Economics), conducted by ADRA Brazil

  • 1999-2002, Adventist University of Bahia: Bachelor degree in theology

  • 1991-1992, University of Economics and Science of Bahia: Course of studies “Economics”

  • 2002-2003, FETEB Federation: Course in Chemical Dependencies (96h)

  • 1994, SENAC Federation of Business: Course in Business Administration (evening school)

  • 1994, Juran Institute: Strategic Quality Planning

  • 1991, English course, California, USA

  • Computer Literacy: MS Word, MS Windows, Interne

  • 2002-Continue ADRA Bahia Director Northeast Brazil

  • 1999-2003, Foundation and management of Pró-Vida (Center of Life Promotion), Drug Rehabilitation Center in Bahia

  • July 2003, Annual Businessmen Conference on Development Economics, São Paulo, Brazil


12. Risk Evaluation

Risks and assumptions include:



  • Continued access to regions by air transport service

  • Community participation and contribution remain at high levels

  • Security situation is stable allowing personnel, supplies and equipment to project locations

  • Local leaders remain motivated and committed to the proper management principles and sustainability of rehabilitated water points

  • Timely availability of funds

Expected level of sustainability: The food security project is designed and will be implemented using a developmental approach that is meant to be self-sustainable, thereby requiring no external financial support after the project implementation phase. Through the capacity building of the communities they will increasingly gain responsibility in carrying out proper management of the project implementation. Thus, beneficiaries are involved in the implementation and management of the project and will increase their capacity to carry on results beyond the life of the project.

The establishment of committees at the village level will ensure community sense of ownership and responsibility in the management of the project. ADRA encourages active involvement of intended beneficiary community members in all the stages of the project. Building the capacity of food security committees, village food security promoters and district food security board will strengthen the local communities to be able to manage their local resources effectively.



13. Growth Potential

There is much potential for growth beyond the life of the project, both in the region, in other areas of Brazil and even in countries with similar challenges. Throughout the project, ADRA will collaborate with local authorities, including community elders, to clarify expectations, verify targeted communities, and agree on a general plan of action. The food security committee (FSC) plays an important role in the improvement the classes as all decisions regarding the with the project implementation with consultations with the community. Each community will be responsible for identifying a food security committee that consists of 10 members, of which at least three must be women. The members selected to join the FSC committees are those willing to serve their community on voluntary basis. Throughout the process, ADRA will monitor and provide technical advice.


This project has great potential to be developed for more than two years and be expanded to other cities, to become a public policy in the others municipalities of Bahia (417 total). The project could be easily replicated in other regions given similar climate conditions and species in the flora. Because the key concept is easy, one must only observe the uses and options of food in the nature and adapt to the human use of the existent resources. Brazil has a great variety of flora and rich and diverse plant environment. The number of indigenous species of plants is innumerable, which makes the job of finding different kinds of food much easier once techniques are learned. Since Brazilian people are a mix of many different countries and nations, the cross cultural values are very eclectic, and the diversity of kinds of food is also present in the normal life of this incredible nation. Most African countries, could adapt the project proposal to their reality, since the semi arid regions have many things common. The project could easily go to others countries, because with semi arid region, because some characteristics are the same. The xerophyllic plants exist in all semi arid regions and the concept of the project could be replicated in many different countries.
14. FINANCIAL VIABILITY

For a detailed budget, please see Attachment B.


After the DM funding, ADRA expects results to continue with local government funding, and small donations from local companies. The project is based in capacity building, so after the two years of the project implementation, there will be 60 leaders very well trained and involved in the development of others leaders.
The cost of personnel is more than 30%, because the project is based on training people to be food security promoters in the communities. The personnel must be well prepared and they are going to be continually traveling and visiting the communities.

The costs of personnel included all the taxes and rights according to Brazilian work laws.

Capacity building in food security is the key expression that defines this project. We are going to have training and classes all the time, so that’s why the costs of personnel are more than 30% of the total of the project.
We have been discussing with the Bahia government, about the possibility of getting funds to increase this proposal. There is a good possibility that we could get additional funds that could increase the number of beneficiaries. The INSA (Semi arid Institute, from Brazil government) will make a partnership with ADRA to training our personal in some skills and new technologies.

INSA also could be a partner to support ADRA with funds, since the Institute has interest in the development of sustainable strategies such as those that this proposal works with.



ANNEX 1 Caatinga:

The word is derived from the Tupi dialect: “caa” meaning forest and “tinga” meaning white. The structure of these forests can vary considerably from forests composed of often spiny trees, 6 to 10 m tall, deciduous to semi-deciduous, and often with a ground-layer of small deciduous shrubs and annual herbs, with a predominance of Leguminosae, to deciduous woodland of lower stature, with a high proportion of shrubs and subshrubs and characterized by the presence of many cacti, bromeliads and Euphorbiaceae. With the coming of the first rains, there is a miraculous transformation from bare, bleached branches and the dusty, brown, scorched and lifeless earth, which characterizes the dry season. Almost suddenly, there is an exuberance of green foliage clothing the trees, the ground is moist and hazy green with annual herbs, or with small pools of water filled with myriad life-forms, and the sounds of insects fill the air. Soon, the green is accompanied by a tapestry of colours as the caatinga trees and shrubs burst into flower. If we consider only the flowering plants of the Semi-arid, we now know that there are more than 5,000 species present, of which over 300 species and 23 genera are found to be uniquely growing there.


ANNEX 2 : BACKGROUND ON THE SEMI ARID AREA IN NORTHEAST BRAZIL

The Brazilian semi-arid zone is located almost exclusively in the Northeast of the country. This is one of the five geopolitical regions into which the country is divided, and which includes nine States. Only eight of these, at least in part, fall within the semi-arid zone, together with the northern sector of Minas Gerais State (Southeast Region) which borders its southern boundary. These eight States are Piauí, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe e Bahia. Only Maranhão State, bordering the Northern Region, which includes the Amazon basin, falls outside the Semi-arid zone. This large expanse of drylands, which stretches between 3–17° S and 35–45° W and covers almost 8% of the territory of Brazil, occupies an area of about 900.000 km²: that is larger than Texas or the entire Iberian Peninsula , including Spain and Portugal.

The climate of Northeast Brazil is one of the most complex systems in the world. This is due not only to the size of the huge landmass involved, and its diverse physiography, but also to the conjunction of two major weather systems, provided by the NE and SE trade winds, which create an enormous diversity and instability in rainfall patterns.

The precipitation within the region varies from being extremely wet, with an annual rainfall of up to around 2,000 mm along the coast, to only 300–500 mm in the semi-arid zone, where the rainfall is usually restricted to a few months during the year. It is indeed this factor of water availability, which is the controlling influence over the vegetation and fauna, as well as, to a great extent, human exploitation of natural resources, throughout the region.



1 See Annex II

2 HUNGER REPORT 2004 Bread for the World


3 Bahian newspaper “A Tarde”, 29.5.2003



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