Abnormal Psychology, Canadian Ed. (Nevid) Chapter 14: Abnormal Psychology and Society



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Abnormal Psychology, Canadian Ed. (Nevid)

Chapter 14: Abnormal Psychology and Society


MULTIPLE CHOICE

1)



The case of Edmond Yu touches on ________.

A)



the difficulties in trying to predict dangerousness

B)



the political problems involved in the "duty to warn"

C)



how to balance the rights of the individual with the rights of society

D)



how to evaluate one's competency to stand trial

Answer:



C

Diff: 2



Page Ref: 463

Skill: Factual




2)



People who are placed in psychiatric institutions because they show abnormal behaviours and are deemed to be a threat to themselves or others are committed through a process of ________ commitment.

A)



social

B)



institutional

C)



legal

D)



civil

Answer:



D

Diff: 2



Page Ref: 464

Skill: Factual




3)



Psychiatric commitment is the same as ________ commitment.

A)



social

B)



institutional

C)



legal

D)



civil

Answer:



D

Diff: 2



Page Ref: 464

Skill: Conceptual




4)



People who are placed in psychiatric institutions because they were acquitted of a crime by reason of insanity are committed through a process of ________ commitment.

A)



social

B)



institutional

C)



legal

D)



civil

Answer:



C

Diff: 1



Page Ref: 464

Skill: Conceptual




5)



People must be judged ________ to be psychiatrically committed.

A)



unable to care for their own needs

B)



mentally ill, but not necessarily dangerous

C)



dangerous but not necessarily mentally ill

D)



mentally ill and dangerous

Answer:



D

Diff: 1



Page Ref: 464

Skill: Factual




6)



One of the most vocal critics of civil commitment statutes has been ________.

A)



Hans Eysenk

B)



Fritz Perls

C)



Egas Moniz

D)



Thomas Szasz

Answer:



D

Diff: 1



Page Ref: 464

Skill: Factual




7)



Mental health professionals tend to ________ dangerousness in mental health patients.

A)



refuse to predict

B)



underpredict

C)



accurately predict

D)



overpredict

Answer:



D

Diff: 1



Page Ref: 465

Skill: Factual




8)



Professionals tend to show a consistent ________.

A)



inability to recognize dangerous behaviour

B)



bias in favor of underpredicting dangerousness

C)



ability to accurately recognize dangerousness

D)



bias in favor of overpredicting dangerousness

Answer:



D

Diff: 2



Page Ref: 465

Skill: Factual




9)



Predictions of dangerousness based on clinical judgments of psychologists and psychiatrists ________.

A)



are less accurate than predictions based on chance alone

B)



are no more accurate than predictions based on chance alone

C)



are more accurate than predictions based on chance alone, but less accurate than evidence based on evidence of past violent behaviour

D)



are more accurate than predictions based on chance alone or evidence of past violent behaviour

Answer:



C

Diff: 2



Page Ref: 465

Skill: Factual




10)



Each of the following statements is true EXCEPT ________.

A)



past violent behaviour may be the best predictor of future violent behaviour

B)



clinicians, because of their specialized training, possess a special knowledge and ability for predicting violence that goes beyond that of the average person

C)



hospital staff are not always permitted access to criminal records that would reveal past violent behaviour

D)



some critics believe that "dangerousness" should be dropped as a criterion for civil commitment

Answer:



B

Diff: 2



Page Ref: 465

Skill: Factual




11)



Which of the following is NOT a factor cited to account for the inability of professionals to predict dangerousness?

A)



Recognizing violent tendencies after a violent incident is easier than predicting it beforehand.

B)



Violent acts like murder and assault are so common that it is difficult to sort out who will and won't commit such acts.

C)



There is a lack of agreement among experts for defining the criteria for violent or dangerous behaviour.

D)



Generalized perceptions of violent tendencies may not predict specific acts of violence.

Answer:



B

Diff: 3



Page Ref: 466

Skill: Factual




12)



The "base-rate problem" refers to ________.

A)



the large number of people with potentially dangerous mental health problems

B)



the shortage of trained professionals to thoroughly evaluate people with serious mental health problems

C)



the shortage or properly equipped facilities to treat people with serious mental health problems

D)



the relative difficulty of making predictions of infrequent or rare events

Answer:



D

Diff: 2



Page Ref: 466

Skill: Conceptual




13)



Incorrectly failing to predict the occurrence of a problematic behaviour is known as a ________.

A)



inherent negative bias

B)



inherent positive bias

C)



false negative

D)



false positive

Answer:



C

Diff: 2



Page Ref: 467

Skill: Conceptual




14)



Incorrectly predicting the occurrence of a problematic behaviour is known as a ________.

A)



inherent negative bias

B)



inherent positive bias

C)



false negative

D)



false positive

Answer:



D

Diff: 2



Page Ref: 467

Skill: Conceptual




15)



Which of the following types of threats is the MOST reliable indicator of dangerousness?

A)



a vague, indirect threat

B)



a specific, indirect threat

C)



a vague, direct threat

D)



a specific, direct threat

Answer:



D

Diff: 1



Page Ref: 467

Skill: Factual




16)



It is only in the past ________ decades that Canada has adequately extended civil rights to people in psychiatric hospitals.

A)



2

B)



3

C)



4

D)



5

Answer:



A

Diff: 3



Page Ref: 469

Skill: Factual




17)



About ________ percent of patients persistently refuse treatment.

A)



10

B)



20

C)



30

D)



40

Answer:



A

Diff: 2



Page Ref: 471

Skill: Factual




18)



Andre Dallaire, who attempted to murder former Prime Minister Jean Chretien, was found ________.

A)



innocent but insane

B)



guilt by not insane

C)



innocent but not criminally responsible on account of a mental disorder

D)



guilty but not criminally responsible on account of a mental disorder

Answer:



D

Diff: 2



Page Ref: 473

Skill: Factual




19)



The insanity defense is _____ used and when it is used, it _____ usually successful.

A)



rarely; is

B)



frequently; is

C)



rarely; is not

D)



frequently; is not

Answer:



C

Diff: 3



Page Ref: 474

Skill: Factual




20)



The M'Naghten rule holds that a person does not bear criminal responsibility for an act when ________.

A)



the act was driven by impulses the person was unable to resist

B)



the act was the product of mental disease or mental defect

C)



under the influence of alcohol or drugs at the time of the offense

D)



the person was unable to tell right from wrong

Answer:



D

Diff: 3



Page Ref: 474

Skill: Factual




21)



The court case in Canada that led to the amendment of the Canadian Criminal Code to give the accused person greater procedural and civil rights was ________.

A)



Youngberg v. Romeo

B)



O'Connor v. Donaldson

C)



R. v. Swain

D)



Addington v. Texas

Answer:



C

Diff: 2



Page Ref: 474

Skill: Factual




22)



Not guilty by reason of insanity was changed to not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder to reflect the fact that ________.

A)



a person can be insane and guilty at the same time

B)



a person cannot be guilty and insane at the same time

C)



a person can be aware of his or her actions yet not be held criminally responsible

D)



a person can be guilty of a crime but not be held criminally responsible

Answer:



D

Diff: 2



Page Ref: 475

Skill: Conceptual




23)



Which is NOT one of the possible outcomes under NCRMD?

A)



absolute discharge

B)



conditional discharge

C)



imprisonment

D)



detention in hospital, with periodic assessment

Answer:



C

Diff: 2



Page Ref: 475

Skill: Factual




24)



Andre Dallaire was given a(n) ________ after finding him NCRMD.

A)



absolute discharge

B)



conditional discharge

C)



indeterminate confinement in a psychiatric facility

D)



a life sentence in prison

Answer:



B

Diff: 2



Page Ref: 475

Skill: Factual




25)



Which of the following is NOT an argument of Thomas Szasz in relationship to the insanity defense?

A)



It should be abolished because there is no such thing as mental illness.

B)



The insanity defense allows real criminals to fake their way into mental hospitals where they are not effectively punished for their actions.

C)



All people who break criminal laws should be prosecuted and punished accordingly.

D)



The insanity defense is degrading because it strips people of responsibility for their behaviour.

Answer:



B

Diff: 2



Page Ref: 476

Skill: Factual




26)



Thomas Szasz argues that the insanity defense has historically been invoked to ________.

A)



highlight crimes committed by the poor against those of high social rank

B)



protect those of high social rank from prosecution for the crimes they have committed

C)



provide a platform for politicians to "grandstand" over issues that have previously been ignored by the public

D)



confirm stereotypes that the rich and famous are eccentrics who are not like the rest of us

Answer:



A

Diff: 3



Page Ref: 476

Skill: Factual




27)



A defendant who is unable to understand the charges and proceedings brought against him or her in a criminal action is said to be ________.

A)



incoherent

B)



incompetent to stand trial

C)



guilty but mentally ill

D)



not guilty by reason of insanity

Answer:



B

Diff: 2



Page Ref: 476

Skill: Conceptual




28)



A defendant is held unfit to stand trial when he or she meets all of the following EXCEPT:

A)



is not capable of conducting his or her defence

B)



can distinguish between available pleas

C)



is unable to take the stand to testify

D)



doesn't understand the nature and purpose of the proceedings

Answer:



B

Diff: 2



Page Ref: 476-477

Skill: Factual




29)



An accused found unfit to stand trial can ________.

A)



be committed to compulsory treatment in a psychiatric hospital

B)



be given an absolute discharge even if the person poses a danger to him or herself

C)



still be tried and convicted without the person's involvement.

D)



never be tried for the same conviction again in the future even if that person does become competent

Answer:



A

Diff: 2



Page Ref: 477

Skill: Factual




30)



A relatively large part of the population in psychiatric hospitals is made up of _____.

A)



criminals

B)



mentally ill offenders who were fit to stand trial

C)



mentally ill offenders who were not fit to stand trial

D)



offenders who lost the not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder defence

Answer:



A

Diff: 2



Page Ref: 481

Skill: Conceptual




31)



The case that established the legal basis for a therapist's duty to warn was the ________.

A)



Jones case

B)



Tarasoff case

C)



Durham case

D)



M'Naghten case

Answer:



B

Diff: 2



Page Ref: 468

Skill: Factual




32)



In the Tarasoff case, the court ruled that a therapist ________.

A)



has a duty to warn an intended victim if during therapy a client makes statements indicating that he or she poses a serious risk to the health or safety of a potential victim

B)



has a duty to contact police if during therapy a client makes statements indicating that he or she is a threat to the health and safety of others

C)



cannot disclose confidential statements made during therapy sessions, even to warn someone of a threat against them, unless the client has a previous history of violence towards others

D)



cannot disclose confidential statements made during therapy sessions, even to warn someone of a threat against them

Answer:



A

Diff: 2



Page Ref: 468

Skill: Factual




33)



The Tarasoff ruling places the therapist's duty to warn in direct conflict with ________.

A)



the duty to heal

B)



principles of confidentiality

C)



principles of competency to stand trial

D)



judgments of legal sanity or insanity

Answer:



B

Diff: 1



Page Ref: 469

Skill: Conceptual




34)



Each of the following is a reason why the Tarasoff decision may actually increase the risk of violence EXCEPT ________.

A)



clients may be less willing to confide in their therapists

B)



clients may be more likely to act out their violent impulses on therapists rather than on the original intended victims

C)



potentially violent people may be less likely to enter therapy

D)



therapists may be less likely to probe violent tendencies for fear of legal implications

Answer:



B

Diff: 2



Page Ref: 469

Skill: Factual





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