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59(4): 735-785.

Examines the alliance between the themes of biological and cultural diversity in the provisions of the UNCED documents relating to biological resources. The article explores separately environmental and human rights perspectives on rights to biological resources, shows how the notion of sustainability has become inextricably linked to local community empowerment, and concludes that the alliance of global environmental goals and local community rights has important implications for the management and use of biological resources.


Brockway, L. H. (1979). Science and Colonial Expansion: The Role of the British Botanic Gardens. New York, Academic Press.

Explains the role of the botanic gardens, especially Kew Gardens in British colonial expansion from the late 18th century.


Brodnig, G. (1994). Kakadu and the Rest of Us: Towards a Concept of Cultural Heritage. Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology. Oxford, University of Oxford.

The first part of the thesis provides some background both to the protection of Aboriginal sacred sites and the concepts of national and world heritage. The main section discusses the limitations of ‘ownership’. It develops a number of criteria for an alternative model and suggests different perspectives with a view to broadening the conceptual base of cultural resource management. By way of summary, the conclusions put the key issues into the context of a research agenda.


Brokensha, D. and B. W. Riley (1989). Managing Natural Resources: The Local Level. Changing the Global Environment: Perspectives on Human Involvement. D. B. Botkin, H. Caswell, J. Estes and A. Orio. Boston & London, Academic Press: 341-366.

Describes effective resources management practices carried out by local communities in many parts of the world.


Bromley, D. (1991). On Rights, Property and Property Rights: Authority Systems for Managing Genetic Resources. June 10-15. B. a. G. R. I. f. I. a. C. International Symposium on: Property Rights. Nairobi, Kenya.

Discussion of such concepts as ‘rights’ and ‘property’ and their applicability to genetic resource management. It is argued that property regimes are needed that are embedded in authority systems which can provide for clear and consistent enforcement. Moreover, the continuing struggle to protect genetic resources must be grounded in the need to convince a large number of people that they have a duty to endow those to follow with a wealth of genetic resources.


Brown, M. and B. Wyckoff-Baird (1992). Designing Integrated Conservation-Development Projects. The Biodiversity Support Program. Washington DC, World Wildlife Fund Publications.

Integrated Conservation-Development Projects (ICDPs) are intended to achieve effective conservation while benefiting local communities. This paper explains how ICDPs should be designed and implemented. Several examples from around the world are presented.


Brown, M., R. Buckley, et al. (1992). Buffer Zone Management in Africa: Searching for Innovative Ways to Satisfy Human Needs and Conservation Objectives. A Workshop Organized by the PVO-NGO/NRMS Project, Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. October 5-11, 1990. Washington DC, PVO-NGO/NRMS.

Summary report of a workshop on buffer zone management in Africa.


Brown, K., D. Pearce, et al. (1993). Economics and the Conservation of Global Biological Diversity. Washington DC, Global Environment Facility.

Reviews concepts and measures of biodiversity, assesses what is currently known about extinction rates and species loss, and looks at efforts to place a value on biodiversity. It argues that the main economic causes of biodiversity erosion are the pressured exerted by population growth to convert available land, and under-investment in biodiversity. It recommends policies that reduce the returns on land conversion by eliminating subsidies and other economic policy distortions, and policies that aim to increase the returns on biodiversity conservation.


Brown, K. and D. Moran (1994). Valuing Biodiversity: The Scope and Limitations of Economic Analysis. Biodiplomacy. V. Sanchez and C. Juma. Nairobi, ACTS: 213-232.

State parties to the CBD have undertaken to evaluate the potential implications of sustainable resource use; this includes a broad identification of costs, benefits and unmet needs for conservation. The economic approach to valuation will be central to this exercise. This chapter reviews the merits of this contribution while highlighting its deficiencies. Reference is made to a number of existing valuation studies and the issue of valuing medicinal plants.


Brown, K. (1995). Medicinal Plants, Indigenous Medicine and Conservation of Biodiversity in Ghana. Intellectual Property Rights and Biodiversity Conservation: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of the Values of Medicinal Plants. T. Swanson. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press: 201-231.

Addresses two issues concerning the use and conservation of medicinal plants. First, their utilisation in traditional medicine and the scope for integration in primary health care, and second, their role in the conservation of biodiversity through locally-based extraction and trade. This chapter examines the management, use and trade of medicinal plant resources in Ghana.


Brown, I. J. and P. Gannon (1996). Confidentiality and the Human Genome Project: A Prophecy for Conflict? Contemporary Issues in Law, Medicine and Ethics. S. A. M. McLean. Aldershot, Dartmouth Publishing.

The Human Genome Project, in increasing our knowledge about the nature of DNA, will augment current capacities for testing and eventually treating genetic diseases. This chapter demonstrates that the application of genetic knowledge will raise important issues in the area of confidentiality.


Brown, M. F. (1998). “Can Culture Be Copyrighted?” Current Anthropology 39(2): 193-222.

The digital revolution has dramatically increased the ability of individuals and corporations to appropriate and profit from the cultural knowledge of indigenous peoples, which is largely unprotected by IPR law. In response, legal scholars, anthropologists, and native activists now propose new legal regimes designed to defend indigenous cultures by radically expanding the notion of copyright. Unfortunately, these proposals are often informed by romantic assumptions that ignore the broader crisis of intellectual property and the already imperiled status of the public domain. This essay offers a sceptical assessment of legal schemes to control cultural appropriation -- in particular, proposals that indigenous peoples should be permitted to copyright ideas rather than tangible expressions and that such protection should exist in perpetuity. Also examined is the pronounced tendency of intellectual property debates to preemt urgently needed reflection on the political viability of special rights regimes in pluralist democracies and on using copyright law to enforce respect for other cultures.


Broydo, L. (1998). A Seedy Business: A New ‘Terminator’ Technology Will Make Crops Sterile and Force Farmers to Buy Seeds More Often - So Why Did the USDA Invent it?, Mother Jones Online. http://www.mojones.com/news_wire.

The US Department of Agriculture with Delta & Pine Land Company have invented a patent-protected technology that prevents seed saving by making harvested seeds sterile. The only beneficiaries of the technology will be private seed companies.


Brush, S. B. (1993). “Indigenous Knowledge of Biological Resources and Intellectual Property Rights: The Role of Anthropology.” American Anthropologist 95(3): 653-686.

IPRs for ethnobiological knowledge have been proposed as a way to compensate indigenous peoples. Four obstacles are critical: whether general and collective knowledge can be protected; whether certain indigenous groups can claim exclusive control over knowledge and resources; the uncertain status of indigenous peoples; and the lack of a well-developed market for biological resources or traditional knowledge. Anthropologists can play a critical role in the debate by providing analysis and ethnobiological information.


Brush, S. B. (1994). A Non-Market Approach to Protecting Biological Resources. Intellectual Property Rights for Indigenous Peoples: A Sourcebook. T. Greaves. Oklahoma City, SfAA: 131-143.

Argues that IPR are not promising avenues for protecting indigenous rights and advocates instead the concept of farmers’ rights.


Brush, S. B. (1994). Providing Farmers’ Rights through in Situ Conservation of Crop Genetic Resources. Rome, FAO.

Explains how the needs for conservation and equity can be joined and resolved through internationally sponsored programmes for in situ conservation of crop germplasm. The first major conclusion is that in situ conservation is a viable and necessary addition to the existing strategies to preserve plant genetic resources for agriculture. The second is that market financing, whether through IPRs or contracts is untenable for financing plant genetic resource conservation for agriculture. The author recommends financing farmers’ rights and in situ conservation through a multilateral trust fund.


Brush, S. B. and D. Stabinsky, Eds. (1996). Valuing Local Knowledge: Indigenous Peoples and Intellectual Property Rights. Covelo, CA, USA, Island Press.

Papers from the 1993 conference on IPR and Indigenous Knowledge, which took place in Lake Tahoe, California. Includes sections on equity and indigenous rights, conservation, knowledge, and policy options and alternatives.


Brush, S. B. (1996). Is Common Heritage Outmoded? Valuing Local Knowledge: Indigenous Peoples and Intellectual Property Rights. S. B. Brush and D. Stabinsky. Covelo, CA, Island Press: 143-164.

Writer argues that biological resources are and should remain common heritage of mankind. IPRs can be justified on utilitarian grounds but are inappropriate and impracticable for conservation and indigenous knowledge. Instead he advocates public subsidy approach.


Brush, S. B. (1998). “Bio-cooperation and the Benefits of Crop Genetic Resources: the Case of Mexican Maize.” World Development 26(5): 755-766.

Concern for equity and conservaton has prompted the creation of bioprospecting contracts for biological resources from developing countries. One potential type of contract is between farmers who provide crop genetic resources and seed companies or agencies that use these resources. Theoretically bio-contracts will reward peasant farmers for preserving genetic resources and balance equities between farmers and seed companies. Using maize from Mexico as a case study, this paper concludes that contracting is problematic on both efficiency and equity grounds. “Bio-cooperation” is presented as an alternative. Institutional support and licensing agreements that support human capital development are proposed as alternatives.


Buchi, S., C. Erni, et al. (1997). Indigenous Peoples, Environment and Development. Proceedings of the Conference. Indigenous Peoples, Environment and Development, Zurich, IWGIA.

Contains papers arranged under three headings: (i) Land rights, Self-determination and Resource Use; (ii) Biodiversity conservation and indigenous peoples: Competing approaches; (iii) Indigenous culture and development: the question of identity, equity and cooperation; and (iv) NGOs, the State and the ‘new partnership’: lobbying for indigenous rights.


Buckles, D. (1995). “Velvetbean: A ‘New’ Plant with a History.” Economic Botany 49(1): 13-25.

Velvetbean is prominent among plants being promoted for use as a green manure and crop cover in the humid tropics. What is less well known is that the development and diffusion of cropping systems using velvetbean is the result of experimentation by numerous farmers and scientists spanning four centuries and at least eight countries. The velvetbean story shows that agricultural innovation is neither static nor the purview of a privileged class of innovators.


Buffington, J. D. and D. E. MacLauchlan (1993). Sustaining the Diversity of Birds: Intercontinental Experiences. Nairobi & Maastricht, ACTS.

Explains the success of conserving the biodiversity of migratory bird species in North America. It provides lessons for those about to implement the CBD.


Bunning, S. and C. Hill (1996). Farmers’ Rights in the Conservation and Use of Plant Genetic Resources: A Gender Perspective, Food and Agriculture Organization, Women in Development Service, Sustainable Development Department.

As men and women farmers’ knowledge, skills and practices contribution to the conservation, development, improvement, and management of Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs), their different contributions should be recognised and respected by the IUPGR, particularly in terms of Farmers’ Rights. An analysis and understanding of men and women farmers’ differential roles and responsibilities in PGR conservation and management, as well as the intrinsic value of their knowledge, is crucial to sustainable, effective, and socio-economically appropraite PGR conservation initiatives, and to the provision of appropriate and targeted support. Efforts are required at all levels to develop and implement gender-responsive policies, programmes and actions for the conservation and sustainable use of PGRs.


Bunyard, P. (1989). “Guardians of the Amazon.” New Scientist(16 December): 38-41.

Article reporting that Colombia has handed over huge areas of rainforest to the local Indians, thereby providing the most effective form of conservation for both forest and traditional culture.


Bunyard, P. (1989). The Colombian Amazon: Policies for the Protection of its Indigenous Peoples and Their Environment. Bodmin, The Ecological Press.

Report on a fact-finding trip to Colombia during 1989. The country has instituted a far-reaching programme for returning indigenous lands to the communities. Colombia has also created National Parks. Indigenous peoples are allowed to use the land but not on a commercial basis. New policies grant the right to self management within the cultural framework of the people concerned.


Bunyard, P. (1990). Hail Columbia. BBC Wildlife.

President Barco of Colombia handed over more than six million hectares to the local Indian communities. Another 5.5 million ha have been put into national parks. Much of the credit should go to Martin Hildebrand. The government’s move is not entirely altruistic: ‘it makes sense to sandbag the border with Indians’, an observer remarked.


Bunyard, P., S. Maresch, et al. (1993). New Responsibilities: The Indigenous Peoples of the Colombian Amazon. Amsterdam and Bodmin, AIDEnvironment,

The Ecological Foundation.

In 1989, the Colombian government conferred legal ownership over large tracts of land in the Amazon to the indigenous population. The indigenous lands have the status of ‘resguardos’, which makes them inalienable. The New Constitution of 1991 gave final recognition of indigenous rights. This report of a field visit to the Colombian Amazon assesses the current situation and concludes with recommendations for outside organisations supporting indigenous communities.
Burenhult, G., Ed. (1994). Traditional Peoples Today: The Illustrated History of Humankind. McMahon’s Point, Australia & Hoganas, Sweden, Weldon Owen & Bra Bocker.

Through the living voices of Australian Aborigines, Arctic survivors, North American Indians, and others, an international, interdisciplinary team of scholars and scientists explores the fate of traditional cultures in the era of global communication and reveals history in the making in the modern world.


Burger, J. (1994). The Economic Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Voices of the Earth. L. v. d. Vlist. Amsterdam, NCIV & International Books: 194-196.

Global overview of the situation of indigenous peoples with respect to their economic rights. Critical to the process of advancing such rights is recognition of indigenous peoples’ rights to land and resources.


Burley, J. (1987). “Applications of Biotechnology in Forestry and Rural Development.” Commonwealth Forestry Review 66(4): 357-367.

This article outlines the expected effects of biotechnological developments in the fields of forestry and rural development.


Burnie, D. (1994). Ecotourists to Paradise. New Scientist: 23-27.

Ecotourism could help developing countries preserve their natural riches instead of destroying them in a dash for economic growth. Costa Rica has embraced ecotourism as a means to support the conservation of its protected areas.


Burton, T. M. (1994). Magic Bullets: Drug Company Looks to ‘Witch Doctors’ to Conjure Products. The Wall Street Journal. New York.

Describes the bioprospecting activities of US drug companies such as Shaman Pharmaceuticals.


Busch, L. (1995). “Eight Reasons Why Patents Should Not Be Extended to Plants and Animals.” Biotechnology and Development Monitor(24): 24.

Biotechnology industry interests normally call for an extension of patents to plants and animals as a requirement to stimulate investments in biotechnological research, and to insure the wide distribution of the benefits from such research. The author, on the other hand questions whether such an extension will serve this purpose. If IPRs must be extended to living organisms, he argues, another legal form would be needed.


Butler, B. and R. Pistorius (1996). How Farmers’ Rights Can Be Used to Adapt Plant Breeders’ Rights. Biotechnology and Development Monitor: 7-11.

To curb the negative effects of UPOV 1991, the authors propose a remuneration system that would compensate breeders without recognising intellectual property rights as such.


Buttel, F. H. and J. Belsky (1987). “Biotechnology, Plant Breeding, and Intellectual Property: Social and Ethical Dimensions.” Science, Technology, & Human Values 12(1): 31-49.

Provides an overview of the development of the seed industry in the US, particularly in relation to public plant breeding institutions that have both supported and competed with private sector efforts. Also discusses major types of IPR arrangements pertaining to private plant breeding and identifies several crucial issues in proprietary protection of plant breeding inventions.


Byrne, N. (1993). “Plant Breeding and the UPOV.” Review of European Community and International Environmental Law 2(2): 136-140.

Contests view that breeders’ rights is a licence to ‘pillage’ resources of Third World countries and denies that the Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) system is to blame for erosion of genetic diversity of crop plants. Furthermore, he argues that if UPOV breeders’ rights are not allowed to prevail over farmers’ rights, the industrial system will replace UPOV with a stronger system of protection.


Caldecott, J. (1996). Designing Conservation Projects. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

The book provides a first-hand account of conservation in action across tropical Asia, Africa and Latin America. It also analyses where modern conservation has come from, where it is going, and what to do next, taking into account ecosystems, species and human welfare.


Calderon, J. (1994). Who Can Own Life? Harvesting Genes for US Drug Firms. Philippine News & Features (International Edition). II.

Explains that the Philippines is being used as a source of biogenetic resources for US biotechnology companies.


Calle, R. (1996). “Juridical and Sociocultural Problems on the Definition of a Law Concerning Property, Usage and Access to Genetic Resources in Colombia.” Journal of Ethnopharmacology 51: 127-46.

The property, usage, and access to genetic resources, is today one of the primary topics in international business, as a result of the strategic importance of the resources for the biotechnology industry. This paper describes some of the technical, juridical, and sociocultural difficulties that Colombia has to confront in order to set appropriate guidelines on patenting living organisms, and on the access and usage of genetic resources.


Camacho, R. and F. Giaquinto (1997). “Bioprospecting and the Convention on Biological Diversity: An Ecuadorian Experience.” Biopolicy (Online Journal - URL: http://www.bdt.org.br/bioline/py) 2(1).

BG is a small bioprospecting group in Ecuador, first established in 1992. Its work to date has been commercial but its aim is to become self-sufficient and to make a contribution to the sustainable use and conservation of Ecuador’s genetic resources in the spirit of the CBD. An account is given of BG’s experience of working with industry and the challenges of working within the remit of the CBD.


Cameron, J. and H. Ward (1992). The Multilateral Trade Organization: A Legal and Environmental Assessment. Gland, World Wide Fund for Nature.

Critiques Annex IV of the Dunkel Draft on the basis of its establishment of a new organisation, the Multilateral Trade Organization that fails to address the necessity for sustainable development.


Cameron, J. and Z. Makuch (1995). The UN Biodiversity Convention and the WTO TRIPS Agreement: Recommendations to Avoid Conflict and Promote Sustainable Development. Gland, World Wide Fund For Nature.

Negotiation of the CBD took place with little discussion of linkages to GATT-TRIPS. The authors analyse the relationship and potential conflicts between these two agreements and make recommendations to defuse any such conflicts and ensure that the objectives of the CBD are not undermined by TRIPS.


Canal-Forgues, E. (1993). “Code of Conduct for Plant Germplasm Collecting and Transfer.” Review of European Community and International Environmental Law 2(2): 167-171.

The author, a lawyer with the FAO, describes the FAO’s Global System, the Commission on Plant Genetic Resources’ Code of Conduct for Plant Germplasm Collecting and Transfer, and the relation of the code with the CBD.


Canhos, V., D. Lange, et al., Eds. (1992). Needs and Specifications for a Biodiversity Information Network: Proceedings of an International Workshop held at the Tropical Database, Campinas, Brazil, 26-31 July 1992. Nairobi, United Nations Environment Programme.

Recommends initiative to be known as Biodiversity Information Network 21. The purpose is to create an electronic network to facilitate access to all levels of information and combine the knowledge so as to further the understanding of biodiversity of living systems. It should identify and seek to fill the gaps, leading to new research and more informed policy decisions.


Capera, A. P. (1994). From Centuries of Patience towards Becoming National Protagonists. Voices of the Earth. L. v. d. Vlist. Amsterdam, NCIV & International Books: 127-140.

President of the National Indigenous Organization of Colombian presents the views of Colombian indigenous peoples concerning the Indigenous Territorial Regulation and the 1991 Constitution and discusses the implication of these legal developments.


Caporale, L. H. (1996). The Merck/INBio Agreement: A Pharmaceutical Company Perspective. Medicinal Resources of the Tropical Forest: Biodiversity and Its Importance to Human Health. M. J. Balick, E. Elisabetsky and S. A. Laird. New York, Columbia University Press: 137-141.

A scientist from the US pharmaceutical giant Merck, explains why the company decided to collaborate with INBio.


Carew-Reid, J., R. Prescott-Allen, et al. (1994). Strategies for National Sustainable Development: A Handbook for their Planning and Implementation. London & Gland, Earthscan, in association with IUCN and IIED.

At UNCED, the governments of the world agreed to plan for a sustainable future. National sustainable development strategies should be based on participation, building on good existing plans and processes, with clear attention to environment and development priorities. The book contains principles and practical ideas for national strategies.


Carling, B. (1993). “Rustling in the Rainforest.” Third Way

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