The literature identifies more positive than negative outcomes arising from the TNH model. However, there are challenges associated with the model and there is a need to address these in both the planning and implementation phases of a TNH.
There are a number of ethicalandlegalissues associated with a TNH.A key challenge for TNHs is balancing the rights of patients with the research and publishing requirements associated with teaching and education. There are also a range of ethical issues associated with undertaking research with residents of RACFs, particularly those with high level care needs and/or those not able to provide informed consent. In addition, the duty of care requirements of aged care providers and their legal liabilities mean that relatively untrained students can present a risk to fulfilling those requirements without specific supervision, orientation and other measures. Such issues require clarification in developing a teaching nursing home and underscore the importance of a formalised agreement between affiliation partners.
A number of disincentives to participating in a TNH exist for aged careproviders. Participating in a TNH involves four major challenges, the first three of which require dedicated resourcing in order to be managed. The fourth involves a tension that will impact differently depending on the individual.
The workload involved leads to reluctance by aged care providers to accept placements (in the absence of resources to enable them to do so).
There can be insufficient available aged care facility staff to mentor and supervise students.
It cannot be assumed that aged care providers will have the supervisory skills required, and hence resourcing is needed to provide access to training and associated costs (such as backfilling). Inappropriate physical infrastructure can also constrain the capacity for supervision.
An ongoing challenge has been found in pursuing two very different roles (clinical care and education/training) simultaneously.
Disincentives also exist for educationandtrainingproviders. Four main challenges have been identified that relate specifically to clinical placement.
There is an ongoing trade off between the learning requirements of students and the need to find sufficient clinical places to meet the accreditation requirements of different professions.
The matching of students to placements requires significant individualised attention that education providers are increasingly unable to provide, and there is considerable potential for mismatch.
The complexity of the health and education and training sectors brings administrative and financial challenges in negotiating clinical placements.
Education and training providers have found that their clinical responsibilities at the affiliated RACFs conflict with their teaching and research responsibilities and the need to pursue these for tenure purposes.
Managingdifferent cultures, capacityandexpectations is another challenge that faces any collaboration, including a TNH. Aged care providers and education and training providers operate in different environments, with different cultures and different sets of skills and experience. Combining these differences can bring significant benefits arising from the diversity of capacity involved, but the literature has also identified that those differences can cause difficulties if they are not addressed. In particular, there is a need to ensure that partners understand each other’s goals, operational issues, expectations, career goals and experience in working with older people. Without a process to address gaps in this knowledge, difficulties will be faced as partners attempt to reconcile divergent roles. The issue of communication becomes extremely important in ensuring that different organisations with differing cultures, modes of operating and experience can work effectively together. The need for organisational stability and continuity of personnel has been identified by several other studies reviewed.