Commitment like a note placed in a combination safe

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Commitment like a note placed in a combination safe

  • Commitment like a note placed in a combination safe

  • Two properties: hiding and binding

  • Electronic equivalent of such a safe













Introduced in the seminal work of Dolev, Dwork and Naor [DDN91]

  • Introduced in the seminal work of Dolev, Dwork and Naor [DDN91]





























  • A central concept in the formal analysis of crypto protocols

  • To prove adversary knows a string s

    • just run the adversary many times from different points (called rewinding the adversary machine)
    • observe protocol messages
    • compute string s and output










This construction

  • This construction

    • Only works for identities coming from a logarithmic domain (need to find a collision)
    • Assumes that the adversary always gives correct answers
  • The ideas presented here don’t directly extend to the general case

  • Final construction:

    • Gives constant round non-malleable commitments for general adversaries
    • relies on a fair bit of probability/combinatorial analysis


Long line of prior works on non-malleable commitments [Dolev-Dwork-Naor’91, Barak’02, Pass-Rosen’05,…., Wee’10]

  • Long line of prior works on non-malleable commitments [Dolev-Dwork-Naor’91, Barak’02, Pass-Rosen’05,…., Wee’10]

  • All previous constructions either:

    • very inefficient (used heavy PCP machinery), or,
    • Non-standard assumptions
  • This work: avoids PCP machinery + uses only OWF



Techniques in this work allow us to solve several other connected open problems

  • Techniques in this work allow us to solve several other connected open problems

  • Follow up works using / improving our construction in various direction [Jain-Pandey’12, Goyal-Lee-Ostrovsky-Visconti’12, Garg-Goyal-Jain-Sahai’12]






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