Dan’s Course on Islam

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23. The Mooing 20:85-88 Pirke Rabbi Eleazar

Golden Calf Part 45
24. Saving Pharaoh 10:90-92 Pirke Rabbi Eleazar,

out of the Sea part 43;

and Midrash Yalkut,

part 238

25. King Solomon, the 27:15-44 II Targum of Esther

Hooppe Bird, and 2nd Cent. Jewish fable

the Queen of Sheba

  1. Both start out with Solomon gathering together armies of jinn (ie. genies) and men.

  2. Both have Solomon searching for a bird and saying that he will kill it for disobeying his orders.

  3. Both have the bird appearing and talking to Solomon about the Queen of Sheba.

  4. Both have the Queen of Sheba worshipping some part of nature (ie. idolatry).

  5. Both have Solomon sending a letter to the Queen of Sheba, and the Queen of Sheba asks for the advice of her nobles.

  6. Both have the Queen of Sheba entering into a palace made of glass, and thinking it to be water, she lifts up her dress a bit.

  7. Both have Solomon crying out to her that it is not water but glass when he sees the hair on her legs.

Neml 27:17-44.....And there were gathered together unto Solomon his armies of the jinn and humankind, and of the birds, and they were set in battle order...

What shall we say of this account filled with talking birds, talking ants, giants of the jinns, and the throne brought in the “twinkling of an eye”... The Qur’anic accounts before and after the story, seem to be presented as true history. However this story was repeated among the Jews and is recorded in the II. Targum of the book of Esther. The account in the Targum includes the fact that the queen’s legs had hair like a man. This fact, not found in the Qur’an, is however included in the Muslim traditions in the Araish al Majalis.2
2. T & T Clark, Old Testament Theology, 38 George St. Edinburgh, pp. 24-29.
Dr. William Campbell, The Qur’an and the Bible, p. 204.
Edgar Hennecke and Wilhelm Schneemelcher (ed.) New Testament Apocrypha, 2 Vols; Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1963.
Internet: The Sources of the Koran, The Light Shines in the Darkness..., 2 parts.
STOP Manual, A-10-11.

An Islamic Fable about Muhammad’s birth
A Jew, hearing that he had been born, asked to see the child. When he saw him, according to Ibn Sa’d, and “observed the mole on his back” – said to be a sign of the Prophet who was to come – he “fell into a swoon.” When he came to, he explained: “The prophethood has gone from the Israelites and the Scriptures out of their hands. It is written that he will fight with them and will kill their scholars” – a rather revealing statement as an early Muslim view of Muhammad.
İbn Sa’d, Vol 1, 177, quoted in Robert Spencer, The Truth About Muhammad, p. 37.

What Is and Is Not a Lie in Islam?
Sahih Muslim, p. 1374, #6303.....Humaid b. ‘ABD AL-Rahman b. ‘Auf reported that his mother Umm Kilthum... as saying that she heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: A liar is not one who tries to bring reconciliation amongst people and speaks good (in order to avert a dispute), or he conveys good. Ibn Shihab said he did not hear that exemption was granted in anything what the people speak as lie but in three cases: in battle, for bringing reconciliation amongst persons and the narration of the words of the husband to his wife, and the narration of the words of a wife to her husband (in a twisted form in order to bring reconciliation between them).”
Sahih Muslim, Vol. 2, p.523f.....“‘Ali said: Whenever I narrate to you anything from the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) believe it to be absolutely true as falling from the sky is dearer to me than that of attributing anything to him (the Holy Prophet) which he never said. When I talk to you of anything with is between me and you (there might creep in some error in it) for battle is an outwitting.”
Sahih Muslim, Vol 2, ft. #1452.....“Battle is an outwitting.” Hadrat ‘Ali took an oath in order to make it clear that this narration from the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) about the Khwarij is not a piece of outwitting but a genuine statement of fact as told by the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him).”
Sahih Muslim, Vol. 1, ft. #402.....These were not the type of lies which are counted as serious sin in religion. These may be called “tauriya” or “double-entendre” which means using a word, an expression or a phrase, which has an obvious meaning and intending thereby another meaning to which it applies, but which is contrary to the obvious one.”
W.L. Cati Married to Muhammad, pp. 54-55.

Are Muslims permitted to lie?

Source = Qur’an & Hadith

Summary Answer:

Muslim scholars teach that Muslims should be truthful to each other. 

There are two forms of lying to non-believers that are permitted under certain circumstances, taqiyya and kitman.  One of those circumstances is to gain the trust of non-believers in order to draw out their vulnerability and defeat them.
The Qur'an:

Qur'an (16:106) - Establishes that there are circumstances that can "compel" a Muslim to tell a lie.

Qur'an (3:28) - This verse tells Muslims not to take those outside the faith as friends, unless it is to "guard themselves." 

Qur'an (9:3) - "...Allah and His Messenger are free from liability to the idolaters..."  The dissolution of oaths with the pagans who remained at Mecca following its capture.  They did nothing wrong, but were evicted anyway.

Qur'an (40:28) - A man is introduced as a believer, but one who must "hide his faith" among those who are not believers.

Qur'an (2:225) - "Allah will not call you to account for thoughtlessness in your oaths, but for the intention in your hearts"

Qur'an (66:2) - "Allah has already ordained for you, (O men), the dissolution of your oaths"

Qur'an (3:54) - "And they (the disbelievers) schemed, and Allah schemed (against them): and Allah is the best of schemers."  The Arabic word used here for scheme (or plot) is makara, which literally means deceit.  If Allah is deceitful toward unbelievers, then there is little basis for denying that Muslims are allowed to do the same.

Taken collectively these verses are interpreted to mean that there are circumstances when a Muslim may be "compelled" to deceive others for a greater purpose.

From the Hadith:

 Bukhari (52:269) - "The Prophet said, 'War is deceit.'"  The context of this is thought to be the murder of Usayr ibn Zarim and his thirty unarmed men by Muhammad's men after he "guaranteed" them safe passage (see Additional Notes below).

 Bukhari (49:857) - "He who makes peace between the people by inventing good information or saying good things, is not a liar."  Lying is permitted when the end justifies the means.

 Bukhari (84:64-65) - Speaking from a position of power at the time, Ali confirms that lying is permissible in order to deceive an "enemy."

 Bukhari (52:271) - Recounts the murder of a poet, Ka'b bin al-Ashraf, at Muhammad's insistence.  The men who volunteered for the assassination used dishonesty to gain Ka'b's trust, pretending that they had turned against Muhammad.  This drew the victim out of his fortress, whereupon he was brutally slaughtered despite putting up a ferocious struggle for his life.

 From Islamic Law:

 Reliance of the Traveler (p. 746) -  "[it is] obligatory to lie if the goal is obligatory... Whether the purpose is war, settling a disagreement, or gaining the sympathy of a victim legally entitled to retaliate... it is not unlawful to lie when any of these aims can only be attained through lying.  But is is religiously precautionary in all cases to employ words that give a misleading impression..."

 Additional Notes:

Muslims are allowed to lie to unbelievers in order to defeat them.  The two forms are:

Taqiyya - Saying something that isn't true.

Kitman - Lying by omission.  An example would be when Muslim apologists quote only a fragment of verse 5:32 (that if anyone kills "it shall be as if he had killed all mankind") while neglecting to mention that the rest of the verse (and the next) mandate murder in undefined cases of "corruption" and "mischief." 

Though not called Taqiyya by name, Muhammad clearly used deception when he signed a 10-year treaty with the Meccans that allowed him access to their city while he secretly prepared his own forces for a takeover.  The unsuspecting residents were conquered in easy fashion after he broke the treaty two years later, and some of the people in the city who had trusted him at his word were executed. 

Another example of lying is when Muhammad used deception to trick his personal enemies into letting down their guard and exposing themselves to slaughter by pretending to seek peace.  This happened in the case of Ka'b bin al-Ashraf (as previously noted) and again later against Usayr ibn Zarim, a surviving leader of the Banu Nadir tribe, which had been evicted from their home in Medina by the Muslims.

At the time, Usayr ibn Zarim was attempting to gather an armed force against the Muslims from among a tribe allied with the Quraish (against which Muhammad had already declared war).  Muhammad's "emissaries" went to ibn Zarim and persuaded him to leave his safe haven on the pretext of meeting with the prophet of Islam in Medina to discuss peace.  Once vulnerable, the leader and his thirty companions were massacred by the Muslims with ease, belying the probability that they were mostly unarmed, having been given a guarantee of safe haven (Ibn Ishaq 981).

Such was the reputation of Muslims for lying and then killing that even those who "accepted Islam" did not feel entirely safe.  The fate of the Jadhima is tragic evidence for this.  When Muslim "missionaries" approached their tribe one of the members insisted that they would be slaughtered even though they had already "converted" to Islam to avoid just such a demise.  However, the others were convinced that they could trust the Muslim leader's promise that they would not be harmed if they simply offered no resistance.  (After convincing the skeptic to lay down his arms, the unarmed men of the tribe were quickly tied up and beheaded - Ibn Ishaq 834 & 837).

Today's Muslims often try to justify Muhammad's murder of poets and others who criticized him at Medina by saying that they broke a treaty by their actions.  Yet, these same apologists place little value on treaties broken by Muslims.  From Muhammad to Saddam Hussein, promises made to non-Muslim are distinctly non-binding in the Muslim mindset.

The 9/11 hijackers practiced deception by going into bars and drinking alcohol, thus throwing off potential suspicion that they were fundamentalists plotting jihad.  This effort worked so well, in fact, that even weeks after 9/11, John Walsh, the host of a popular American television show, said that their bar trips were evidence of 'hypocrisy.'

The transmission from Flight 93 records the hijackers telling their doomed passengers that there is "a bomb on board" but that everyone will "be safe" as long as "their demands are met."  Obviously none of these things were true, but these men, who were so intensely devoted to Islam that they were willing to "slay and be slain for the cause of Allah" (as the Qur'an puts it) saw nothing wrong with employing Taqiyya in order to facilitate their mission of mass murder.

The near absence of Qur'anic verse and reliable Hadith that encourage truthfulness is somewhat surprising, given that many Muslims are convinced that their religion teaches honesty.  In fact, it is because of this ingrained belief that most Muslims are quite honest.

Finally, the circumstances by which Muhammad allowed a believer to lie are limited to those that either advance the cause of Islam or enable a Muslim to avoid harm to his well-being (and presumably that of other Muslims as well).  Although this should be kept very much in mind when dealing with matters of global security, such as Iran's nuclear intentions, it is not grounds for assuming that the Muslim one might personally encounter on the street or in the workplace is any less honest than anyone else.

TheReligionofPeace.com Home Page


Hadith & Sunna*

(Traditions*, Hadith*, Sunnah*,

Tradition*, Sayings* of Muhammad)

The Hadith are Necessary to Islam
In Tunisia, a Mu’addib... a person who helps the families of the dead in their mourning by reciting the Qur’an over the graves of the dead relatives... when he spoke about Islam he made the following statement: “Our religion is based on the Qur’an and the Hadith, 50-50.” One friend explained it this way, “The Qur’an gives basic doctrine. The Hadith shows the things which are not clear in the Qur’an and makes plain the decrees of the Qur’an.” One İslamic writer says: “The Qur’an, the word of God revealed to Muhammad; and the Hadith, the teachings of the Prophet, are the two sources of Islam. The knowledge of this religion would be impossible apart from these two texts.” Fazlur Rahman, in his book entitled Islam, makes the following statement about the Hadith: “If the Hadith as a whole is cast away, the basis for the historicity of the Qur’an is removed at one stroke.” The logical conclusion is that the Qur’an, believed by every Muslim to be pure revelation, can only be proved and justified as pure revelation, by using the human (“human” in the sense that a human decision is involved as to whether it is a “weak” or a “strong” Hadith), less certain material from the Hadith. Dr. Bucaille recognizes this and discusses the subject in a short chapter on page 242 of his book (The Bible, The Qur’an and Science) and finds that even some strong Hadiths have severe scientific errors in them.
Dr. William Campbell, The Qur’an and the Bible, pp. 54-55 & 60-62.

Four Classification of Hadith
Bukhari categorized his hadith in 4 groups.
sahih = “sound”: There are no weak links in the chain of authorities, and the content is not inconsisitent with accepted Muslim belief.

hasan = “fair”: The links in the chain of reporters are incomplete, or there is incomplete agreement about the reliability of the authorities.
da’if = “weak”: Some of the transmitters of the tradition are not regrarded as reliable, or there are doubts about the content of the report.

maudu’ = “forged or fabricated”: Not trustworthy at all.
Dr. Ergun & Emir Caner, Unveiling Islam p. 97.

Colin Chapman, Cross and Crescent, p. 105.

Robert Spencer, The Truth about Muhammad, pp. 25-26.

Keith Swartley, Ed., Encountering the World of Islam, p. 85.

Dr. William Campbell, The Qur’an and the Bible, p 55.
Two hundred years after hijra (Muhammad’s exodus from Mecca to Medina), Bukhari collected a total of 600,000 hadiths. Out of these, he only verified 7,000 and rejected about 593,000 which he believed were false and not genuine. Other hadith scholars such as Muslim and Taarmizi accepted even less than 7,000. There were hadiths accepted by Bukhari but rejected by other scholars who also studied them, and vice versa. This happened only 200 years after hijra. After this a lot of hadiths were created by other people...
Dr. John Ankerberg, Fast Facts on Islam, p. 50.
Muhammad allegedly told Fatima, “You... work that which will gain you acceptance with the Lord; for verily I have no power to save you.”
Dr. Ergun & Emir Caner, Voices Behind the Veil, p. 50.

Strong (authentic) Hadiths


Sahih Bukhari (810-870) = Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin İsmail bin

al-Mughira al Ja’fai, was a collector of the Hadith who spent 16 years collecting 600,000 hadith. Bukhari said initially that probably half of what he collected was not trustworthy. Ended up keeping only 7,397 hadith divided into 97 chapters. The same tradition is often repeated more than once under different chapters. Disregarding these repetitions, the number of distinct Hadith is reduced to 2,762. This means that 99.6% of what Bukhari collected from faithful Muslims was disgarded as being unreliable. Only 0.4% of what he collected was regarded as being sound or “sahih.”

Sahih Muslim (817-875) Abul Husain Muslim bin al-Hajjaj al-Nisapuri, was a student of Bukhari. “Out of 300,000 Hadiths which were evaluated by Muslim, only 4,000 approximately – divided in 42 books – were extracted for inclusion into his collection based upon stringent acceptance criteria.”
Robert Spencer, The Truth About Muhammad, p. 26.

Cf. “Hadith & Sunna” www.islamonline.net


Secondary reliable sources

(Sahih Sitta)

Sunan Abu-Dawud:
“My community will never agree uppn an error.” Book 35, no. 4240.
Abu Dawud as-Sijistani: (d. 888)
Sunan İbn Majah: (d. 896) Muhammad ibn Majah
Sunan At-Tirmidhi: (824-893) Abi‘Eesaa Muhammad At-Tirmidhi
Sunan An-Nasai: (d. 915) Ahmad ibn Shu’ayb an-Nasai
Robert Spencer, The Truth About Muhammad, pp. 24-27.

Classifications of Hadith by the Ulema
Qudsi = supposedly the exact words of Muhammad in which God

Himself speaks

Maruf = reports from a direct witness to Muhammads words,

such as, “I heard the Prophet say...”

Mauquf = a statement by a companion who heard Muhammad make a


Maqtu’ = a narration from a successor
Nabawi = the words, and the custom or practice (Sunna) of

Muhammad are recorded.

Dr. Ergun & Emir Caner, Unveiling Islam, p. 97.

Dr. William Campbell, The Qur’an and the Bible, p. 54.

Al-Hijr 15:9.....We have, without doubt, sent down the Reminder, and We preserve it.
STOP A-46-47 The Hadith and Sunna

Fazlur Rahman on the Hadith
“With the growing inner rupture between Sufi practice... on the one hand and the emerging orthodox system on the other, a new body of Hadith also came into existance. The Sufis, in order to justify their stand, formulated (ie. verbally invented) statements, sometimes quite fanciful and historically completely fictious, which they attributed to the Prophet.”
Dr. William Campbell, The Qur’an and the Bible, p. 55.

One Hadith which points to Corruption

of the Text of the Bible
A tradition from Bukhari which supports the frequent claim of Muslims that the People of the Book corrupt the actual text of their Scriptures is attributed to Abdallah Ibn Abbas who was 14 when Muhammad died and was appointed Governor of Al-Basrah by Ali. According to Obaidullah ben Abdallah ben Otba, Abdallah Ibn Abbas said:
“O Congregation of Muslims, how can you ask questions of the People of the Book, when your book which God revealed to his prophet brings the best tidings about God: Ye read it unfalsified and God has told you that the People of the Book have altered (baddalu) what God wrote, and have falsified (ghaiyaru) the book with their hands, and said, “This is from God,” in order to get some paltry reward for it. Has he not forbidden you to ask those people about what you have received in the way of knowledge? By God, we have never seen any one of them asking you about what has been revealed to you.”
Bukhari, Sahih, Kitab al-Shahada, No 29, as noted in J.W. Sweetman. Islam and Christian Theology, Part One, Bol. II, Lutterworth Press, London, 1947, p. 139.
Dr. William Campbell, The Qur’an and the Bible, p. 68.

Interesting Topics in the Hadith
Paradise Associated with the Sword

Bukhari, vol. 4, book 56, no: 2818.....Know that Paradise is under the shades of swords (Jihad in Allah’s cause).
Robert Spencer, The Politically Incorrect Guide to Islam (And the Crusades), p. 111.
Paradise Promised to Martyrs

Bukhari vol. 1, book 2, no. 36.....Allah assigns for a person who participates in (holy battles) in Allah’s Cause and nothing causes him to do so except belief in Allah and His messengers, that he will be recompensed by Allah either with a reward, or booty (if he survives) or will be admitted to Paradise (if he is killed in the battle as a martyr.)
Robert Spencer, The Politically Incorrect Guide to Islam (And the Crusades), p. 122.
The Golden Rule?

Bukhari vol. 1, book 2, no: 13.....None of you will have faith till he likes for his (Muslim) brother what he likes for himself. P. 227.
(The Muslim version of the Golden Rule extends only to fellow Muslims, not to unbelievers).
Robert Spencer, The Politically Incorrect Guide to Islam (And the Crusades), p. 217.
Housefly Curative?

Bukhari 4:537.....If a housefly falls in the drink of anyone of you, he should dip it (in the drink), for one of its wings has a disease and the other has the cure for the disease.
Muhammad Needed Constant Forgiveness

Bukhari 8:319.....Narrated Abu Huraira: I heard Allah’s Apostle saying: “By Allah! I ask for Allah’s forgiveness and turn to Him in repentance more than seventy times a day.”
Muhammad Asks for Forgiveness on His Deathbed

Bukhari 5:715.....Narrated Aisha: I heard the Prophet and listened to him before his death while he was lying on his back, and he was saying, “O Allah! Forgive me, and bestow Your Mercy on me, and let me meet the (hightest) companions (of the hearafter).”
Muhammad Uncertain About his Fate

Bukhari 5:266.....The Prophet said... “By Allah, though I am the Apostle of Allah, yet I do not know what Allah will do with me.”
Angels Ask Allah’s Forgiveness

Bukhari 1:436.....Allah’s apostle said, “The Angles keep on asking Allah’s forgiveness for anyone of you, as long as he is at his Musalla (praying place) and he does not Hadath (expell gas).”
Men’s & Women’s Orgasm?

Bukhari 5:275.....Muhammad said, ‘As for the child, if the man’s discharge preceedes the woman’s discharge, the child attracts the similarity of the man, and if the woman’s discharge preceedes the man’s, then the child attracts the similarity of the woman’.
Drink camel urine?

Bukhari 7:590.....The prophet ordered them to follow his camels, and drink their milk and urine, so they followed the camels and drank their milk and urine, till their bodies became healthy.
Fever = The Heat of Hell?

Bukhari 7:619.....fever is from the heat of hell, so put it out (cool it) with water.
The Evil Eye

Bukhari 7:636.....the effect of an evil eye is a fact.
Right Shoe First

Bukhari 7:747.....If you want to put on your shoes, put on the right shoe first, and if you want them off, take the left one first.

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