Human-centered design



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tarix07.04.2018
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human-centered design


lecture: overview

  • Focus on human commonalities - memory, perception, and attention

  • Introduce the Information Processing Model of cognition

  • Suggest some human-centered design strategies derived from these understandings and the information processing model



guiding assumptions

  • Human systems – memory, attention, perception – provide some unique constraints of which designers should be aware

  • Simple, commonsensical approaches to interface and information design can make a difference in using with online and offline multimedia environments

  • The more cognitive resources (attention, memory, etc.) that you can focus on the educational task, the better the learning outcomes – HUMAN-CENTERED DESIGN MATTERS



human factors: memory systems

  • Information Processing Model



memory: sensory



memory: working



memory: long-term



sensory memory: processing

  • Sensory memory facilitates feature analysis and pattern recognition which allows us to recognize friends and friendly user interface elements

  • Recognition involves both bottom-up processing and top-down processing

    • Perception is based upon bottom-up processing and helps us to distinguish between data elements.
    • Top-down procession provides interpretations of data. These are colored by our understandings of specific contexts and environments


processes of perception

  • The act of perception is a fast, but complex task.



sensory memory: processing & interpretation



feature analysis: design implications



special issues: icons

  • Advantages:

    • they are recognized as quickly as words
    • they support dual encoding
  • Disadvantages:

    • difficult to develop universally recognized icons
    • difficult to develop a series of clear, distinct icons to represent different content and functionality


rules of thumb: icons



visual search & detection

  • Understanding how humans search and detect visual information suggest strategies for interface and graphic design

    • Humans tend to search through elements on a screen in either a serial or parallel fashion looking for a targets
  • The time it takes to locate a target (the desired menu item, page content, etc. ) depends upon a few variables:

    • The number of items on a screen – serial search; Neisser: T=(NI)2
    • Element conspicuity – parallel; things that stand out are located faster and elements noticed in parallel
    • logical content organization and expectancies


visual search: design strategies



visual search: design strategies



working memory: model



working memory: capacity & duration

  • hgniy



working memory: capacity & duration

  • a f b z e g o y k t v p



working memory: capacity & duration

  • b a t p i g d o g a n t



working memory: considerations

  • The limits of working memory is an impediment to learning

    • educational content
    • navigational structures
    • computer environments and interfaces
  • Instructional and interface designs, content organization and site architecture should account for these limitations and potentials



focus on attention

  • Information processing relative to learning requires a great degree of attention and cognitive resources

  • Like working memory, human attention is limited

  • Multitasking or splitting attention often causes a drop in performance of all tasks involved

  • If the majority of participants’ attention is consumed by the mechanics of your screen environment or wading through poor design and information structures, there will be less cognitive resources for the actual learning objectives.



variables impacting attention

  • Automaticity

    • When a task becomes automatic it requires less in the way of conscious cognitive resources
    • Automaticity can increases our ability to multitask and attend to larger sets of information
  • Multiple modalities

    • It is easier to divide attention between two different modalities (one visual, one aural) than between two distinct information sources presented in same modality
    • Earliest Memories


working memory: design strategies

  • Minimize the load on working memory for learning activities

    • design user interfaces, interactive modules, and learning materials so that participants are not required to hold large numbers of discrete chunks of information in memory (remember the magic number 7 +- 2)
  • Organize information into meaningful chunks for working memory

    • The limits are working memory can be extended when the chunks of information are larger


working memory: design strategies



working memory: design strategies



long-term memory: conceptual structures

  • Information is organized into associative networks (schemas)

  • Schemas reflect central ideas or concepts

    • Ex. What a web site is, a college campus, etc.
  • Scripts are schemas describing sequences of actions

    • Ex. filling out & submitting a form on the web, navigating through a web site using hypertext links, driving a car to class, dining in a restaurant, etc.
  • Mental models are schemas of dynamic systems, objects & equipment

    • Ex. VCRs, interactive web environments, etc.


long-term memory: design strategies



long-term memory: design strategies

  • If information is to be remembered, make it meaningful.

    • organize into meaningful associations
    • present in multiple modes so that one can reinforce the other
    • design in a manner consistent with existing mental models or pre-existing knowledge
    • design information to highlight important connections and relationship
  • Embed knowledge in the world to support development of accurate mental models; use natural mappings



summary Human Factors implications

  • Human systems – memory, attention, perception – provide unique design constraints of which designers should be aware

  • Simple, commonsensical approaches to interface and information design

    • avoiding clutter
    • making things distinct and visible
    • reducing cognitive load from extraneous information
    • Designing interfaces to accommodate human expectations of the web
  • can make a difference in learning from web-based environments

  • The more cognitive resources (attention, memory, etc.) that you can focus on the educational task, the better the outcomes –

  • HUMAN-CENTERED DESIGN MATTERS



human-centered principles & interface design

  • Interface

    • Mediator between a user and the underlying system or environment
    • Can either facilitate or inhibit use depending upon how well they incorporate human-centered principles


design heuristics Jakob Nielsen

  • 10 Design Heuristics

    • Visibility of system status
    • Match between system and real world
    • User control and freedom
    • Consistency and standards
    • Error prevention
    • Recognition rather than recall
    • Flexibility and efficiency of use
    • Aesthetic and minimalist design
    • Help users recognize, diagnose and recover from errors
    • Help and documentation


design heuristics: visibility of system status



design heuristics: control & freedom



design heuristics: consistency & standards



design heuristics: error prevention



design heuristics: flexibility & efficiency of use





design heuristics: help & documentation



Каталог: DATA -> Insegnamenti -> 15 4044 -> materiale


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