Human-centered design

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human-centered design

lecture: overview

  • Focus on human commonalities - memory, perception, and attention

  • Introduce the Information Processing Model of cognition

  • Suggest some human-centered design strategies derived from these understandings and the information processing model

guiding assumptions

  • Human systems – memory, attention, perception – provide some unique constraints of which designers should be aware

  • Simple, commonsensical approaches to interface and information design can make a difference in using with online and offline multimedia environments

  • The more cognitive resources (attention, memory, etc.) that you can focus on the educational task, the better the learning outcomes – HUMAN-CENTERED DESIGN MATTERS

human factors: memory systems

  • Information Processing Model

memory: sensory

memory: working

memory: long-term

sensory memory: processing

  • Sensory memory facilitates feature analysis and pattern recognition which allows us to recognize friends and friendly user interface elements

  • Recognition involves both bottom-up processing and top-down processing

    • Perception is based upon bottom-up processing and helps us to distinguish between data elements.
    • Top-down procession provides interpretations of data. These are colored by our understandings of specific contexts and environments

processes of perception

  • The act of perception is a fast, but complex task.

sensory memory: processing & interpretation

feature analysis: design implications

special issues: icons

  • Advantages:

    • they are recognized as quickly as words
    • they support dual encoding
  • Disadvantages:

    • difficult to develop universally recognized icons
    • difficult to develop a series of clear, distinct icons to represent different content and functionality

rules of thumb: icons

visual search & detection

  • Understanding how humans search and detect visual information suggest strategies for interface and graphic design

    • Humans tend to search through elements on a screen in either a serial or parallel fashion looking for a targets
  • The time it takes to locate a target (the desired menu item, page content, etc. ) depends upon a few variables:

    • The number of items on a screen – serial search; Neisser: T=(NI)2
    • Element conspicuity – parallel; things that stand out are located faster and elements noticed in parallel
    • logical content organization and expectancies

visual search: design strategies

visual search: design strategies

working memory: model

working memory: capacity & duration

  • hgniy

working memory: capacity & duration

  • a f b z e g o y k t v p

working memory: capacity & duration

  • b a t p i g d o g a n t

working memory: considerations

  • The limits of working memory is an impediment to learning

    • educational content
    • navigational structures
    • computer environments and interfaces
  • Instructional and interface designs, content organization and site architecture should account for these limitations and potentials

focus on attention

  • Information processing relative to learning requires a great degree of attention and cognitive resources

  • Like working memory, human attention is limited

  • Multitasking or splitting attention often causes a drop in performance of all tasks involved

  • If the majority of participants’ attention is consumed by the mechanics of your screen environment or wading through poor design and information structures, there will be less cognitive resources for the actual learning objectives.

variables impacting attention

  • Automaticity

    • When a task becomes automatic it requires less in the way of conscious cognitive resources
    • Automaticity can increases our ability to multitask and attend to larger sets of information
  • Multiple modalities

    • It is easier to divide attention between two different modalities (one visual, one aural) than between two distinct information sources presented in same modality
    • Earliest Memories

working memory: design strategies

  • Minimize the load on working memory for learning activities

    • design user interfaces, interactive modules, and learning materials so that participants are not required to hold large numbers of discrete chunks of information in memory (remember the magic number 7 +- 2)
  • Organize information into meaningful chunks for working memory

    • The limits are working memory can be extended when the chunks of information are larger

working memory: design strategies

working memory: design strategies

long-term memory: conceptual structures

  • Information is organized into associative networks (schemas)

  • Schemas reflect central ideas or concepts

    • Ex. What a web site is, a college campus, etc.
  • Scripts are schemas describing sequences of actions

    • Ex. filling out & submitting a form on the web, navigating through a web site using hypertext links, driving a car to class, dining in a restaurant, etc.
  • Mental models are schemas of dynamic systems, objects & equipment

    • Ex. VCRs, interactive web environments, etc.

long-term memory: design strategies

long-term memory: design strategies

  • If information is to be remembered, make it meaningful.

    • organize into meaningful associations
    • present in multiple modes so that one can reinforce the other
    • design in a manner consistent with existing mental models or pre-existing knowledge
    • design information to highlight important connections and relationship
  • Embed knowledge in the world to support development of accurate mental models; use natural mappings

summary Human Factors implications

  • Human systems – memory, attention, perception – provide unique design constraints of which designers should be aware

  • Simple, commonsensical approaches to interface and information design

    • avoiding clutter
    • making things distinct and visible
    • reducing cognitive load from extraneous information
    • Designing interfaces to accommodate human expectations of the web
  • can make a difference in learning from web-based environments

  • The more cognitive resources (attention, memory, etc.) that you can focus on the educational task, the better the outcomes –


human-centered principles & interface design

  • Interface

    • Mediator between a user and the underlying system or environment
    • Can either facilitate or inhibit use depending upon how well they incorporate human-centered principles

design heuristics Jakob Nielsen

  • 10 Design Heuristics

    • Visibility of system status
    • Match between system and real world
    • User control and freedom
    • Consistency and standards
    • Error prevention
    • Recognition rather than recall
    • Flexibility and efficiency of use
    • Aesthetic and minimalist design
    • Help users recognize, diagnose and recover from errors
    • Help and documentation

design heuristics: visibility of system status

design heuristics: control & freedom

design heuristics: consistency & standards

design heuristics: error prevention

design heuristics: flexibility & efficiency of use

design heuristics: help & documentation

Каталог: DATA -> Insegnamenti -> 15 4044 -> materiale

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