If clause prezentare Tip zero



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IF Clause

  • prezentare


Tip zero



Tip I

  • Se refera la actiuni viitoare, posibil realizabile.

  • Ex.:

  • Daca va ploua, imi voi lua umbrela.

  • If it rains I’ll take my umbrella.

  • Observatie: Chiar daca in romana folosim viitor dupa “daca”, in engleza se foloseste doar prezentul!



Tip II

  • Se refera la actiuni prezente, teoretic posibile. Se traduce cu conditional-optativul prezent din romana.

  • Ex.:

  • Daca ar ploua, mi-as lua umbrela.

  • If it rained, I would take my umbrella.

  • ! Atentie la urmatoarea exprimare:

  • Daca as fi in locul tau, m-as duce acolo.

  • If I were you I would go there.

  • Observatie: in cazul conditionalei tip II se foloseste “were” la toate persoanele, inclusiv “he”,”she”,”it”!



Tip III

  • Se refera la actiuni trecute, imposibil de a se mai realiza. Se traduce cu conditional-optativul perfect (trecut) din romana.

  • Ex.:

  • Daca ar fi plouat, mi-as fi luat umbrela.

  • If it had rained I would have taken my umbrella.

  • Atentie!!! Se mai poate traduce si cu imperfectul din romana, insa exprima tot o conditie, nu o actiune in desfasurare:

  • Daca ploua, imi luam umbrela.

  • If it had rained I would have taken my umbrella.



recapitulare



would sau could sau should sau might ?

  • Could => cand vrem sa exprimam “a putea”

  • Might => cand vrem sa exprimam “s-ar putea”

  • Should => cand vrem sa exprimam “ar trebui”

  • Would => in restul situatiilor



would sau could sau should sau might ?

  • Ex.:

  • Daca ai fi vrut, ai fi putut merge acolo. (tip III)

  • If you had wanted, you could have gone there.

  • Daca ai fi vrut, s-ar fi putut sa reusesti. (tip III)

  • If you had wanted, you might have succeeded.

  • Daca ai fi vrut cartea, ar fi trebuit sa-mi spui. (tip III)

  • If you had wanted the book, you should have told me.

  • Daca ai fi vrut, te-ai fi dus acolo. (tip III)

  • If you had wanted, you would have gone there.



In cadrul frazei, propozitia principala se poate inversa cu propozitia conditionala (adica cea introdusa prin “daca”)

  • Atentie la ordinea de aplicare a coloanelor din tabelul anterior!

  • Ex:

  • Te duci daca doresti. (tip 0)

  • You go if you want. (present in princip.+present in “if”)

  • Te vei duce daca vei dori. (tip I)

  • You will go if you want. (future in princip.+present in “if”)

  • Te-ai duce daca ai dori (tip II).

  • You would go if you wanted. (condit.present in princip.+past in “if”)

  • Te-ai fi dus daca ai fi dorit. (tip III)

  • You would have gone if you had wanted. (condit.perfect in princip.+past perfect in “if”)



Conditionale mixte

  • Daca m-ai fi ascultat, nu ai fi acum aici. – mixta III cu II

  • If you had listened to me, you wouldn’t be here now.

  • Observatie:

  • propozitia conditionala se refera la trecut (daca m-ai fi ascultat).

  • propozitia principala se refera la prezent (nu ai fi acum aici).



“unless” in loc de “if”

  • “unless” inlocuieste doua negatii printr-o negatie si o afirmatie.

  • * Ex. de informatie care poate fi exprimata prin “if” sau prin “unless”, cu schimbare din negativ in afirmativ:

  • Nu mi-as lua palaria daca tie nu ti-ar placea (tip II).

  • I wouldn’t take the hat if you didn’t like it.

  • Sau

  • I wouldn’t take the hat unless you liked it.

  • Obs.: fraza cu “unless” mai poate fi tradusa “nu as lua palaria fara ca tie sa-ti placa” – in acest caz se vede clar la care verb avem afirmatia si la care negatia.



Conditionala cu “but for” in loc de “daca n-ar fi”/”daca n-ar fi fost

  • Daca n-ar fi scoala, am pleca in vacanta.(tip II)

  • If it weren’t for school, we would leave on holiday.

  • Sau:

  • But for school, we would leave on holiday.

  • Daca n-ar fi fost scoala, am fi plecat in vacanta.(tip III)

  • If it hadn’t been for school we would have gone on holiday.

  • Sau:

  • But for school, we would have gone on holiday.



Inversiuni

  • Daca el ar fi fost acolo, mi-ar fi adus ceva.(tip III)

  • If he had been there he would have brought me something.

  • Sau

  • Had he been there, he would have brought me something. (mai ales in limbaj formal)

  • Obs.: la conditionala tip III “had” trece in locul lui “if”, care dispare.

  • # Acelasi lucru se poate aplica si in cazul conditionalei de tip II, dar doar cand avem “were”dupa “daca”.

  • Daca as fi in locul tau, as invata mai mult.(tip II)

  • If I were you I would learn more.

  • Sau

  • Were I you, I would learn more. (mai ales in limbaj formal)




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