Title of the Topic “A STUDY TO ASSESS THE HEALTH STATUS AND FIND THE EFFECTIVENESS OF STRUCTURED TEACHING PROGRAMME ON KNOWLEDGE REGARDING EFFECTS OF PESTICIDE ON HEALTH AMONG FARMERS AT SELECTED VILLAGE OF BAGALKOT ”
Brief Resume of the Intended Work
“The ultimate goal of farming is not the growing of crops, but the cultivation and perfection of human beings”.
―Masanobu Fukuoka,The One-Straw Revolution “Jai Jawan Jai Kisan.”
-Lal bahaddur shastri.
A FARMER means the people who are working and raising field crops in the field of agriculture especially in villages. They work to grow different crops and might own or work as labourer on land owned by others.1
PESTICIDES are substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigation any pest. Pesticides are special kind of products for crop protection. These products in general protect plants from damaging influence such as weeds, disease or harm by insects. Generally the pesticides are chemical substances used to kill animals, insects, and pests in agriculture, domestic and institutional settings. The main group of commonly used pesticides includes: insecticides, fungicides, fumigants and rodenticides.1
The pesticides effects on the health of farmers may range from acute and delayed. It may be simple irritation of skin and eye to more sever effects such as affecting the nervous system. Disorders which are seen more commonly are Mild conditions like irritation of nose, throat, and eyes. Pesticides are used extensively throughout the world. 1
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) defines
pesticide as any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying or controlling any pest, including vectors of human or animal disease, unwanted species of plants or animals causing harm during or otherwise interfering with the production,
processing, storage or marketing of food, agricultural commodities, wood and wood products or animal food stuffs or which may be administered to animals for the control of insects, arachnids or other pests in or on their bodies (FAO, 1986).Pesticides are playing a pivotal role in meeting the food, cotton fiber and tobacco demand of escalating population and control of vector-borne diseases. However, most of the applied pesticides get dispersed in the environment and affects the health of un-protected agricultural and industrial workers. The three major routes of entry for pesticides include contamination of the skin, lungs and the gut. The skin of a human adult has a superficial surface area of approximately 1.73 m2, but it is undoubtedly the major focus of accidental acute exposure. Similarly the respiratory tract provides a very efficient surface for the absorption of substances, whether they are in the form of vapors, particles or droplets. They entail a number of risks and problems. The public health issue of pesticide exposure is further complicated by the presence of impurities in so-called, inert-ingredients such as solvents, wetting agents and emulsifiers. These chemicals are suspected of producing adverse health effects based on their structural similarity to proven toxicants. The unregulated and excessive use of pesticides has become a major bottleneck in human fight against insect pests. So the pesticides are very harmful for human health specially for farmers who are more in contact with them.2
6.1.Need for the Study
Exposure to pesticides is one of the most important occupational risks among farmers in developing countries. Occupational exposure to pesticides is of great interest in order to identify the hazards of pesticide use and the establishment of safe methods of pesticide handling. 156 pesticide misuses in various sectors of the agriculture often have been associated with health problems and environmental contamination worldwide. Misuse of highly toxic pesticides, coupled with a weak or a totally absent legislative framework in the use of pesticides is one of the major reasons for the high incidence of pesticide poisoning in developing countries. Low education levels of the rural population, lack of information and training on pesticide safety, poor spraying technology, and inadequate personal protection during pesticide use have been reported to play a major role in the intoxication scenario. In general knowledge of the main determinants of pesticide exposure in developing countries is often poor and also exposure situations may differ among countries. 3
A major factor of pesticide contamination or poisoning in developing countries is the unsafe use or misuse of pesticides. Elements of unsafe use of pesticides that have been identified by past research include erroneous beliefs of farmers about pesticide toxicity, lack of attention to safety precautions, environmental hazards, and information about first aid and antidotes given by the label, the use of faulty spraying equipment or lack of proper maintenance of spraying equipment, and lack of the use of protective gear and appropriate clothing during handling of pesticides.3
Extensive use of domestic utensils and broken equipment for measuring and dispensing pesticides in developing countries often continue unabated because farmers cannot afford equipment that is in good working condition. In view of the adverse health effects from the unsafe pesticide use, the latency of the effects, the reported lack of awareness of the adverse health effects of pesticides by some farmers, and the erroneous belief of invincibility by others, it becomes imperative that the potential hazards of unsafe pesticide use should be clearly communicated to the farmers. Fortunately, many farmers have expressed the need for information and training programs on pesticide safety, and therefore are likely to be responsive to such programs.4
Research has often emphasized the need to increase the awareness of farmers about the consequences of unsafe pesticide use and the importance of communication and education programs aiming to reduction of risk. Incorrect beliefs about pesticides and hazards often associated with pesticide use can reduce the capacity of farmers to protect themselves against these hazards. However, the first step in developing pesticide hazard reduction programs is to identify the extent of the problem by investigating farmers’ knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions about pesticide handling and pesticide safety. Agricultural extension is a major channel of communication between farmers and research experts which can improve crop production from many points of view as it provides a good link between farmers and research institutes where several agricultural technologies, including pesticides and the relative technology, are developed, tested, and modified accordingly. Training programs can play a crucial role in pest control decisions, providing farmers with the technical knowledge that is necessary for the selection of appropriate pest management methods and also for safe and effective pesticide use. Despite the appearance of homogeneity, often small farmers have different production practices, needs, and constraints. A successful agricultural extension program, therefore, should not consider all individuals in a target group based on several variables such as age, gender, income, and types of crops.5
In USA, more than 18,000 products are licensed for use and each year more than 2 billion pounds of pesticides are applied to crops, gardens, in homes etc.The major economic and environmental losses due to the application of pesticides in public health were 1.1 billion dollars per year in USA. Such wide spread use results in pervasive human exposure. Evidence continues to accumulate that pesticide exposure is associated with impaired health. Occupational exposure is known to result in an annual incidence of 18 cases of pesticides related illness for every 100,000 workers in U.S.6
Pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in many developing countries .In developing world, pesticide poisoning causes more deaths than infectious diseases. Pesticide poisoning among farmers and occupational workers in developing countries is alarming. WHO estimated approximately 20,000 workers die from exposure every year, the majority in developing countries. The number of intoxications with organophosphates is estimated at some 3000,000 per year and the number of deaths and casualties are 3,00,000 per year .A study revealed that 64 percent of fatal cases of acute pesticides poisoning in Multan, Pakistan occurred due to Organophosphate pesticide spraying. However another study revealed 21 percent of occupational pesticides poisoning in hospitalized patient.7
Developing countries use only 20% of the world's agrochemicals, yet they suffer 99% of deaths from pesticide poisoning. Pesticide poisoning is a significant problem in developing countries primarily because of unsafe pesticide application and handling practices. Safety is further exacerbated by the illiteracy and poverty that prevails in most farming communities of developing countries. Pesticides classified as being extremely or highly hazardous by FAO and WHO, including those banned by other countries, continue to be used in developing countries. Many farmers in developing countries continue to be exposed to pesticides from either storing them in or near their residences, or from inadequate or unsafe application or handling practices. Farming populations exposed to pesticides suffer from several health problems, primarily neurological abnormalities, respiratory ailments, and reproductive, endocrinological, and dermal problems. In spite of the economic and social importance of agriculture the health protection of agricultural workforce has been over looked for too many years, causing a heavy tribute paid in terms of avoidable disease, human sufferance and economic losses, particularly in the developing countries.8
Where agricultural work is one of the predominant job, a sustainable mode of development calls for more attention to occupational risks in agriculture. The experience of many countries shows that prevention of health risk caused by pesticide in technically feasible and economically rewarding for the individuals and, whole community. A proper use is an essential component of this preventative.9
From the above mentioned facts it is very clear that pesticide very harmful for farmers. So that the famer should be aware of using pesticides in agriculture and their adverse effects on health. Hence the investigator has made an attempt to assess the knowledge and adverse effects of pesticides on health of farmers.
6.2. Review of Literature
Review of Literature is a key step in research process. Nursing research may be considered as a continuing process in which knowledge gained from earlier studies is an integral part of research in general. In review of literature a researcher analyse existing knowledge before delving into a new study and when making judgement about application of new knowledge in nursing practice. The literature review is an extensive, systematic, and critical review of the most important published scholarly literature on a particular topic.
Reviews of literature related to knowledge of farmers regarding effects of pesticides on health
A study was conducted to look at adverse health effects associated with pesticide exposure among cut-flower farmers in LaTrinidad, Philippines. Survey questionnaires and detailed physical and laboratory examinations were administered to 114 and 102 respondents, respectively, to determine pesticide exposure, work and safety practices, individual and family illnesses, and cholinesterase levels. Results showed that pesticide application was the activity most frequently associated with pesticide exposure, and entry was mostly ocular and dermal. Involvement of the skin was noted, with 21 percent of farmers having integumentary abnormalities. Upon physical examination, 90 respondents, or 88.2 percent of those examined, were found to have abnormal peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). Abnormal temperature was found in 81.3 percent, and the next most frequent finding was abnormal general-survey results, at 75.5 percent. In 51 percent, cholinesterase levels were below the mean value of 0.7 delta pH/hour. Certain haematological parameters were also abnormal, namely haemoglobin, hematocrit, and eosinophil count. Using Pearson's r, the author found that factors strongly associated with illness due to pesticides include use of a contaminated piece of fabric to wipe off sweat (p = .01) and reuse of pesticide containers to store water (p = .01), Recycling of containers poses great health hazards and risks of contamination, and the current recommendation is that used containers should be buried. There was a moderate relationship between illness and average number of years of pesticide use (p = .05), and between illness and re-entering a recently sprayed area (p = .05). Those with motor scale scores of < or = 15--normal values--were less likely to be sick. The greatest adverse effect in those exposed was an abnormal cholinesterase level.10
A study was conducted and showed that Developing countries use only 20% of the world's agrochemicals, yet they suffer 99% of deaths from pesticide poisoning. Pesticide poisoning is a significant problem in developing countries primarily because of unsafe pesticide application and handling practices. Safety is further exacerbated by the illiteracy and poverty that prevails in most farming communities of developing countries. Pesticides classified as being extremely or highly hazardous by FAO and WHO, including those banned by other countries, continue to be used in developing countries. Many farmers in developing countries continue to be exposed to pesticides from either storing them in or near their residences, or from inadequate or unsafe application or handling practices. Farming populations exposed to pesticides suffer from several health problems, primarily neurological abnormalities, respiratory ailments, and reproductive, endocrinological, and dermal problems. In developing countries, the scientific literature (including the Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, India) has taken the initiative to monitor health problems resulting from pesticide exposure in agrarian communities. The welfare fund for agricultural labourers could institute a special program for pesticide applicators in developing countries. The primary need, currently, in such countries is creation and implementation of sound national policies to effectively articulate appropriate guidelines for managing farm pest control activities. Such policies should be aimed at both limiting pesticide exposure and usage, but doing so without damaging the yields of food production. If such steps are taken, it is fully expected that the incidence of adverse health consequences for agrarian populations from pesticide toxicity will decrease.11
A cross sectional study was conducted on a 631 farmers (537 men and 94
women) in South India to know the relationship between extent of pesticide use and signs and symptoms of illnesses due to exposure. Responses to questionnaires showed that 433 farmers (68.6%) sprayed pesticides themselves and were thus directly exposed. More than 75% used moderately or highly hazardous pesticides; 88% used no protection while handling pesticides. About 50% of sprayers mixed different brands. Retailers were the source of information about pesticides for 56%. The farmers reported excessive sweating (36.5%), burning/stinging/itching of eyes (35.7%), dry/sore throat (25.5%), and excessive salivation (14.1%), all more prevalent among sprayers. Among men, excessive sweating and eye and throat problems were significantly associated with exposure. There is a need to raise farmers' and authorities' awareness of the need to use protective gear when handling pesticides.12
A study was conducted in Chandigarh on 30 farmers with contact dermatitis and 20 controls were patch tested with a series of locally used pesticides. Allergic reactions to 1 or more pesticides were seen in 11 patients but none of the controls. Carbamates (maneb, carbofuran, carbaryl) were the most frequent sensitizers (7 patients), followed by organophosphorus compounds like: malathion and oxydemton methyl (4 patients); 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and fenvalerate (3 patients each); streptocycline (2 patients). Irritant reactions to captaf were seen in 4 patients, thiobencarb weedicide in 3, and organophosphorus compound in 3 pesticides should be
patch tested in all farmers with contact dermatitis.13
A study was conducted to assess the knowledge and practices of Ethiopian farmers about pesticide management: implications for human health. A pretested standardized questionnaire was administered. The results revealed that the great majority 174 (99.4%) farmers had ample awareness about pesticide impact on human health. However, various hazardous practices have also been documented. One hundred thirty-five (77.2%) farmers make use of the empty pesticide containers for various household purposes. The most frequent self-reported toxicity symptoms associated with pesticide use were headache (58.8%), salivation and vomiting (38.2%), nausea (36.5%), and sneezing (12.5%). Chi-square analysis revealed a strong association between the farmer's educational status and reported toxicity symptoms (p = .0001; χ(2) = 498.2; df = 30). Creating awareness about safe usage of pesticide is extremely vital by special orientation programs. Besides, promoting alternative pest control strategies such as use of biopesticides and integrated pest management (IPM) could productive.14
A crossectional study was conducted to analyze data on rhinitis in the past year and pesticide use from 21,958 Iowa and North Carolina farmers in the Agricultural Health Study, enrolled 1993-1997, to evaluate pesticide predictors of rhinitis. Polytomous and logistic regression models were used to assess association between pesticide use and rhinitis while controlling for demographics and farm-related exposures. Sixty-seven percent of farmers reported current rhinitis and 39% reported 3 or more rhinitis episodes. The herbicides glyphosate [odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.05-1.13] and petroleum oil (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.05-1.19) were associated with current rhinitis and increased rhinitis episodes. Of the insecticides, four organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, and malathion), carbaryl, and use of permethrin on animals were predictors of current rhinitis. Diazinon was significant in the overall polytomous model and was associated with an elevated OR of 13+ rhinitis episodes (13+ episodes OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.09-1.38). The fungicide captan was also a significant predictor of rhinitis. Use of petroleum oil, use of malathion, use of permethrin, and use of the herbicide metolachlor were significant in exposure-response polytomous models. Specific pesticides may contribute to rhinitis in farmers; agricultural activities did not explain these findings. The study concluded that Farmers commonly experience rhinitis but the risk factors are not well characterized.15
A Cross-Sectional Study Was Conducted to assess the knowledge and practices association with pesticide use among Farm Workers, at Nablus District, Palestine. 381 Farm Workers were interviewed. Comparisons Of knowledge and Practices Of Pesticide Use Between Various Groups Were Performed Using The Mann–Whitney U-Test Or The Kruskal–Wallis Rank Test Of Variance. The Program Of The Statistical Package For Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 15 Was Used For Data Analysis. Results show that the Mean Age ± SD Of The Participants Was 38.8 ± 11.8 Years. The Majority (97.9%) Of The Participants Were Male. The Mean Participant Scores For Knowledge And Safety Procedures Were 2.8 ± 3.2 Out Of 8 And 9.8 ± 2.4 Out Of 15, Respectively. There Was A Significant Positive Correlation (R =0.323; P < 0.001) Between The Knowledge And Safety Procedure Scores. Unsafe Behaviours Were Identified As The Storage Of Pesticide Products At Home, The Preparation Of Pesticides In The Kitchen, Inadequate Disposal Of Empty Pesticide Containers, Eating And Drinking During Pesticide Application, And Using Inadequate Protective Clothing. The Most Frequent Self-Reported Toxicity Symptoms Associated With Pesticide Use Were Skin Rash (37.5%), Headache (37%), Excessive Sweating (24.9%), And Diarrhoea (21.3%). There Was A Strong Significant Negative Correlation (R = −0.83; P < 0.001) Between Self-Reported Toxicity Symptoms And Scores For Protective Measures. The conclusion was, Most Farm Workers Need More Educational Programs Regarding The Safety And Use Of Pesticides. Legislation Promoting The Use Of Safer Pesticides Is Also Needed.16
Reviews of literature related to effects of education program on effects of pesticides on health of farmers.
A cross-sectional randomized study was conductedin Mahmoudiya region, Egypt. On effects of education and health locus of control on safe use of pesticides by using an interview questionnaire. Results were analyzed using Pearson Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Student t-test and ANOVA, from 335 farmers, of average age 34 years 61% of them didn't receive school education. Study aimed to investigate knowledge and behaviours of farmers related to pesticide use and their relation to educational level and health locus of control. Health locus of control is the degree to which individuals believe that their health is controlled by internal or external factors, School education was related to higher levels of knowledge and behaviours. Farmers who received school education had more knowledge about the negative effects of pesticides on health and routes of contamination with pesticides. They also had higher scores on reading labels of pesticides containers and taking precautions after coming in contact with pesticides. Regarding health locus of control, higher internal beliefs were significantly related to higher knowledge and behaviours scores, while there was no significant relation between chance and powerful others beliefs with knowledge or behaviours they concluded that higher level of education and lower level of internal beliefs were related to better knowledge and safer use of pesticides among Egyptian farmers. recommend that strategies for raising internal beliefs must be included, in health education programs that aim to ameliorate pesticides use among farmers.17
A cross-section analytical study was conducted to evaluate the risk of pesticide exposure to those applying the Class II pesticides 2,4-D and paraquat in the paddy-growing areas of Kerian, Perak, Malaysia. It investigated the influence of weather on exposure as well as documented health problems commonly related to pesticide exposure. Potential inhalation and dermal exposure for 140 paddy farmers (handlers of pesticides) were assessed. Results showed that while temperature and humidity affected exposure, windspeed had the strongest impact on pesticide exposure via inhalation. However, the degree of exposure to both herbicides via inhalation was below the permissible exposure limits set by United States National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Dermal Exposure Assessment Method (DREAM) readings showed that dermal exposure with manual spraying ranged from moderate to high. With motorized sprayers, however, the level of dermal exposure ranged from low to moderate. Dermal exposure was significantly negatively correlated with the usage of protective clothing. Various types of deleterious health effects were detected among users of manual knapsack sprayers. Long-term spraying activities were positively correlated with increasing levels of the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) liver enzyme. The type of spraying equipment, usage of proper protective clothing and adherence to correct spraying practices were found to be the most important factors influencing the degree of pesticides exposure among those applying pesticides.18
A Phytoner study was conducted on 929 workers affiliated to the health insurance system for farmers in the Bordeaux area of south-western France were enrolled in the study in 1997-1998. They were contacted for a first follow-up in 2001-2003. Participants completed a questionnaire and nine neurobehavioral tests. They were classified according to their life-long pesticide exposure, as directly exposed, indirectly exposed or non-exposed. Educational level, age, sex, alcohol consumption, smoking, psychotropic drug use and depressive symptoms were taken into account in the analysis. The result found 614 subjects were available for investigation at follow-up. Follow-up analysis confirmed that the risk of obtaining a low performance on the tests was higher in exposed subjects, with ORs ranging from 1.35 to 5.60. Evolution of performances over the follow-up period demonstrated that exposed subjects had the worst decreases in performance. The risk of having a two-point lower score on the Mini-Mental State Examination was 2.15 (95% CI 1.18 to 3.94) in exposed subjects .The concluded that long-term cognitive effects of chronic exposure to pesticides and raise the issue of the risk of evolution towards dementia. The PHYTONER study is the first to provide prospective data on the natural history of neurological disorders associated with pesticide.19
A Crossectional study conducted to compare patterns of pesticide use in Beit-U'mmar village, West Bank, between 1998 and 2006. Two populations in Beit-U'mmar village comprised of: 1) 61 male farmers and their wives in 1998 and 2) 250 male farmers in 2006. Both populations completed a structured interview, which included questions about socio-demographic factors, types of farming tasks, as well as compounds, quantities, and handling of pesticides. Using the 1998 population as a reference was applied generalized linear regression models (GLM) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) in order to estimate prevalence differences (PD) between the two populations. The result In 1998, farmers used 47 formulated pesticides on their crops. In 2006, 16 of these pesticides were still in use, including five internationally banned compounds. There were positive changes with less use of large quantities of pesticides (>40 units/year) (PD -51; CI -0.60, -0.43), in applying the recommended dosage of pesticides (PD +0.57; CI +0.48, +0.68) and complying with the safety period (PD +0.89; CI+0.83, +0.95). Changes also included farmers' habits while applying pesticides, such as less smoking (PD -0.20; CI-0.34, -0.07) and eating at the work place (PD -0.33; CI-0.47, -0.19). No significant changes were found from 1998 to 2006 regarding use of personal protective equipment, pesticide storage, and farmers’ habits after applying pesticides, and in using some highly hazardous pesticides. They concluded that The results were based on two cross-sectional surveys and should be interpreted with caution due to potential validity problems. The results of the study suggest some positive changes in the handling of pesticides amongst participants in 2006, which could be due to different policy interventions and regulations that were implemented after 1998. However, farm workers in Beit -U'mmar village are still at risk of health effects because of ongoing exposure to pesticides.20
A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate potential respiratory function abnormalities following long-term pesticide exposure by means of a complete pulmonary function testing, including spirometry, lung volumes, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. The study population was comprised by workers from a prominent intensive agriculture area of southern Spain that relied on pesticides for the control of plagues. Eighty-nine pesticide sprayers of plastic greenhouse farming and a control group of 25 nonspraying control farmers from the same area were interviewed by a general practitioner asking about sociodemographic factors, occupational exposure, and clinical symptoms by using a structured questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses showed a relationship of short-term exposure to pesticides (as indicated by a drop in serum cholinesterase > 25% of baseline levels) with reduced forced expired volume in 1 s, and of long-term exposure (as indicated by a cumulative pesticide exposure index) with reduced forced expiratory flow rate. Exposure to bipyridilium-class herbicides was a determinant of a fall in the diffusing capacity of the lungs, and neonicotinoid insecticides showed a relationship with lower pulmonary volumes (total lung capacity, residual volume, and functional residual capacity), suggestive of restrictive lung disease, and with an increased risk of reporting irritative symptoms.21
“A Study To Assess The Health Status And Find The Effectiveness Of Structured Teaching Programme On Knowledge Regarding Effects Of Pesticides On Health Among Farmers At Selected Village Of Bagalkot ”. 6.4 Objectives of the Study
1. To assess the health status of farmers.
To assess the knowledge of farmers regarding adverse effects of Pesticides on health.
To find the association between health status of farmers and their selected socio-demographic variables.
To find the Effectiveness of structured teaching programme on effects of
Pesticides on health among farmers.
To find out the association between knowledge scores of farmers regarding effects of pesticides on health with their selected socio-demographic variables
6.5 Operational definitions:
1. ASSESS: It is the systematic and continuous process of collecting data from farmers to measure their levels of health status.
2. HEALTH STATUS: It refers to the mental, physical, social, spiritual and physiological aspects of health of farmers. The exposure to pesticides can bring deviation in these aspects. Thus the health status in this study includes the general health and the conditions vulnerable to be deviated because of exposure to pesticides.
3. FIND: It is systematic and continuous process to determine the extent to which the structured teaching program will be able to bring change in knowledge of farmers regarding the effects of pesticides on health.
3.EFFECTIVENESS: In this study effectiveness refers to the extent to which the structured teaching programme prepared by the researcher will be successful in manipulating the knowledge of farmers regarding the effects of pesticide on health.
4. STRUCTURED TEACHING PROGRAMME: It refers to systematically organised teaching and learning activities between investigator and farmer, intended to improve the knowledge of farmers regarding effects of pesticide on health.
5. EFFECTS OF PESTICIDE ON HEALTH: In this study it refers to the changes in health condition of farmers because of pesticide use for agriculture like headache, loss of appetite, irritation of nose, nausea, thirst, diarrhoea, sweating, weakness or fatigue, weight loss, vomiting, coughing, abdominal cramps, blurring of vision, profound weakness and mental confusion, severe conditions like small or pinpoint pupils, chemical burns on the skin, increased rate of breathing, loss of reflexes, uncontrolled muscular twitching, any liver diseases, reproductive disorders, breast cancer, retinal degeneration and myopia and neurologic deficits.
6. FARMERS: In this study farmers refer to the people who are working and raising field crops in the field of agriculture with the use of pesticides at the selected village of Bagalkot.
7. SELECTED VILLAGE: In this study it refers to a village which will be selected from various villages of Bagalkot district, where the farmers are residing.
6.6 Assumptions: The investigator assumes that
The farmers will cooperate with investigator during data collection.
The farmers are the backbone of our country and their health is of at most importance.
H1: There will be significant difference between the pre-test and post-test knowledge
Scores of farmers using pesticides in agriculture.
H2: There will be significant association between health status of farmers and their selected socio-demographic variable.
H3: There will be a significant relationship between knowledge scores of farmers regarding effects of pesticide on health with their selected socio-demographic variable.
6.8 Delimitation: The study is delimited to assessment of health status and finding the effectiveness of STP on knowledge regarding effects of pesticides on health among farmers who are using pesticides in field agriculture and residing at the selected village of Bagalkot.
7. Materials and Methods
7.1 Source of Data:
The source of data are farmers who are using pesticides at their field for agriculture
And residing at selected village of Bagalkot.
In this study a descriptive design will be used for description of health status of farmers and a pre experimental one group pretest post test design will be used to find the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on effects of pesticides among farmers.
7.1.2 Setting: The present study will be conducted in selected village of Bagalkot.
7.1.3 Population: In this study the population includes the farmers residing at village of Bagalkot.
Sample: In the present study sample includes 100 farmers residing at selected areas of Bagalkot.
Methods of Data Collection
Simple random sampling technique will be used to select the sample.
In this study the sample size will be total of 100 farmers residing at selected village of Bagalkot.
Who are not co-operative throughout the period of study.
7.2.5 Selected Variables: Variables selected in the present study are
Study variable 1: is the health status of farmers.
Independent Variable: In this study the researcher is going to implement the intervention in the form of structured teaching programme and find its effect on knowledge regarding effects of pesticide use among farmers. Thus structured teaching programme is considered as independent variable.
Dependent Variable: In this study the outcome or response is means of knowledge of farmers regarding the effects of pesticides on health. Thus the knowledge regarding effects of pesticides on health is dependent variable.
Socio demographic variables: these are the baseline characteristics of population that depict a general picture of population and some of them secure the ability to influence the dependent variable Like age, type of family, educational status, family monthly income, occupation, educational status, marital status, type of crops.
7.2.6 DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS:
The health status will be assessed by using the standard instruments like sphygmomanometer, thermometer, weighing machine, audiometer, inch tape, etc.
The knowledge level will be assessed using structured questionnaire with closed ended multiple choice questions.
7.2.7 DATA COLLECTION METHOD: The investigator has planned to assess the health status of farmers by using biophysiological methods and their knowledge regarding effects of pesticides on health by structured interview schedule.
The data collection will be carried out with following steps
Step 1- Formal permission will be taken from Principal, Sajjalashree institute of nursing sciences Bagalkot
Step 2- Written consent will be obtained from participants (farmers).
Step 3- Health status will be assessed through biophysiological method and Pre-test will be given through interview method using structured closed ended questions
Step 4 - structured teaching programme will be administered.
Step 5 –post-test will be administered.
7.2.8 Plan for data analysis
The data will be analysed by using descriptive statistics like frequency distribution, percentage, mean, and ,standard deviation and inferential statistics like paired t-test to find the effectiveness of STP and chi-square test to find the relationship between knowledge regarding effects of pesticides on health and their socio demographic factors.
7.3Projected outcome :
The present study will help the farmers to know regarding common effects of pesticides on health and how to maintain good health, and what precaution should be taken to prevent pesticide poising.
7.4 Does the study require any investigations or interventions to be conducted on patients or other humans or animals? If so please describe briefly.
7.5 Has ethical clearance been obtained from your institution in case of 7.3?
Permission will be obtained from the principal of Sajjalashree Institute of Nursing Sciences, navanagar, Bagalkot.
Permission will be obtained from the institutional ethical and research committee of Sajjalashree Institute of Nursing Sciences, Navanagar. Bagalkot.
Permission will be obtained from the concerned head of the village of Bagalkot.
Written consent will be obtained from participants.
8.List of References (Vancouver Format )
D. R. Sharma MSc1, R. B. Thapa PhD2, H. K. Manandhar PhD3, S. M. Shrestha PhD2 and S. B. Pradhan PhD3. Use Of Pesticides In Nepal And Impacts On Human Health And Environment, The Journal of Agriculture and Environment Vol:13, Jun.2012 Review paper 67.
Seok-Joon SOHN and Jin-Su CHOI. Pesticide Poisoning among Farmers in a Rural Province of Korea, Journal of Occupational Health, Occupy Health 2001; 43: 101–105.
Mancini F,Jaggins J L,O’malley M .Reducing the incidence of acute pesticide poisoning by educating farmers on integrated pest management in South India.2009 Apr-Jun;15(2):143-57.
Sam KG , Andrade HH ,Pradhan A, Sones SJ, Sudhakar C, Effectiveness of on Educational program to promote pesticide safety among pesticide handlers of South India.2008 may;81(6):787-95.Epub 2007 0ct 26.
Hashmi, Imran,Khan A. Dilshad .“Adverse Health Effects of Pesticide Exposure in Agricultural and Industrial Workers of Developing Country”.
Kagan Owens, Jay Feldman and John Kepner. Wide Range of Diseases Linked to PesticidesDatabase supports policy shift from risk to alternatives assessment, Vol. 30, No. 2, summer 2010.
. Rajendran, Dr. S. “Environment and Health Aspects of Pesticides Use in Indian Agriculture” inMartin J. Bunch, V. Madha Suresh and T. Vasantha Kumaran, Pages 353 – 373.
Nur-Hamir S. Ajijul. Paper Presentation On “The Effect Of Health Education On Farmers On Use Of Pesticides”April 2011.
Rodriguez T , Van Wendel de Joode B , Lindh CH , Rojas M,
Lundberg I ,Wesseling C.Assessment of long- term and recent pesticide
exposure among rural school children in Nicaragua .2012Feb ,69(2):119-25.Epub
2011 Jul 1.
Lu JL - J Environ Health - 01-SEP-2007; 70(2): 38-43 (MEDLINE® is the source for the citation and abstract of this record ). Acute pesticide poisoning among cut-flower farmers.
Kesavachandran CN, Fareed M, Pathak MK, Bihari V, Mathur N, Srivastava AK. Adverse health effects of pesticides in agrarian populations of developing countries.
Chitra G A,Muraleedharan VR,Swaminathan T,Veeraaghavan D.Use of pesticide and it’s impact on health of farmer in south India.2006-jul-sep;12(3):228-33.
Sharma VK,Kaur S.contact sensitization by pesticides in farmers :1990Aug;23(2):7780.
Karunmoorthi K, Mohammed M, Wassic F .Knowledge and practice of farmers with reference to pesticide management; Implication on human health.
Slager RE - Rhinitis associated with pesticide use among private pesticide applicators in the agricultural health study J Toxicol Environ Health A - 01-JAN-2010; 73(20): 1382-93.
Sa’ed Zyoud, Ansam Sawalha, Waleed Sweileh, Rahmat Awang, Suleiman Al-Khalil, Samah Al-Jabi, Nihaia Bsharat. Knowledge And Practices Of Pesticide Use Among Farm Workers In The West Bank, Palestine: Safety Implications. Environmental Health And Preventive Medicine (10 March 2010).
Gaber S, Abdel-Latif SH.Effects of education and health locus of control on safe use of pesticides across sectional random study.2012 Feb 25;7:3. doi:10.1186/1745-6673-7-3.
Baharudin MR ,Sahid IB,Noor MA , Sulaiman N,Othman F.Pesticide risk assessment : A study on inhalation and dermal exposure to 2,4-D and paraquat among Malaysian paddy farmers.2011;46(7):600-7.doi 10.1080/03601234.2011.589309.
Baldi I, Gruber A, Rondeau V, Lebailly P, Brochard P, Fabrigoule C. Neurobehavioral effects of long-term exposure to pesticides: results from the 4-year follow-up of the PHYTONER study. Occup Environ Med. 2011 Feb;68(2):108-15. Epub 2010 Nov
Issa Y. Journal Article - . Pesticide use and opportunities of exposure among farmers and their families: cross-sectional studies 1998-2006 from Hebron governorate, occupied Palestinian territory; from - Environ Health: a global access science source.
Hernandez AF . Low level of exposure to pesticides leads to lung dysfunction in occupationally exposed subjects. - Journal Article from-Inhal Toxicol - 01-JUL-2008; 20(9): 839-49.
Signature of Candidate
Remarks of the Guide
The proposed study is ethically acceptable and socially beneficent. It is feasible for the student researcher to be carried out.