Relationship between prejudice and some personal variables among secondary schools students in state of kuwait

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MASARYK UNIVERSITY

School of Social Studies

Department of Psychology









RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PREJUDICE AND SOME PERSONAL VARIABLES AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOLS STUDENTS IN STATE OF KUWAIT


Author: Mgr. Majed Al-Ali

Supervisor: Prof. PhDr. Vladimir Smekal,Csc
Brno, 2008

I declare that i have elaborated this Ph.D thesis independently on the basis of consultations with my Ph.D thesis supervisor and using the quoted literature.



Brno, Sep 1st , 2008 Mgr. Majed Al-Ali

I would like to wish my deep sense of gratitude and indebtedness to my supervisor Prof. PhDr. Vladimir Smekal, CSc., my Ph.D supervisor, for his expert, inspiring guidance, and kind academic supervision throughout the course of my study that helped me to write this thesis, i also wish to thank my best friend and darling wife, Fatma Baqer, and my sweet heart parents Mustafa and Khadija for their patience, encouragement, supporting, separation pain and suffering in carrying out this research



Table of Contents

Preface.................................................................................................................................6

Abstract...............................................................................................................................9

An Overview......................................................................................................................16

Theoretical Part........................ .......................................................................................26

1. Psychological Perspective of the Variables............................... ..............................27

1.1 Prejudice.....................................................................................................................27

1.1.1 Psychological Perspective of Prejudice ………….......................…….……...…..27

1.1.2 Causes Prejudice.....................................................................................................30

1.1.3 Theories of Prejudice …….....................................................................................34

1.2 Creative Activities…………………………………………………………….….39

1.2.1 Psychological Perspective of Creative Activities…………………………….…39

1.2.2 Psychological Theories of Creative ………………………………………….….44

1.3 Emotional Intelligence…………………………………………….…...……….. 54

1.3.1 Psychological Perspective of Emotional Intelligence………………………..….54

1.3.2 Components of Emotional Intelligence……………………………………….....59

1.4 Linguistic Intelligence………………………………………………...………....61

1.4.1 Psychological Perspective of Linguistic Intelligence……………………...……61

1.4.2 Kinds of Intelligence……………………………………………………….….….67

1.4.3 The Metaphors of Intelligence Theories……………………………………..…70

1.4.4 The Approaches of Intelligence………………………………………..……..…73

2. Developing Thinking Styles as an Approach to Modify and Change Prejudice…..…….76

3. Review of Related Study………………………………………………………..…...78

Empirical Part...……………………………………………………….………...……..83

1. Statement of the Problem………………………………………….…..…..……..84

2. Objectives of Present Study…...…………………………….…….….…….....…84

3. Research Hypotheses……………………………………….……….…...….……85

4. Methodology…………………………………………………….………..……......86

4.1 The Sample…………………………………………….….…....................…....…86

4.2 Procedure…………………………………………..…...………...……………...90

4.3 Instruments Used and Techniques...…………….…………..…....………….….92

4.3.1 Prejudice Test………………………………..……………..…...…….....….…92

4.3.2 Torrance Test For Creative Activities……….…………..……..…..…...……94

4.3.3. Emotional Intelligence Test………………...…...……….….….……..……....98

4.3.4. Linguistic Intelligence Test………………..………………..……..…...….….99

5. Statistical Analysis and Results…………………….……….……..……………103

5.1 Discussion……………………………………….……………….…...………....111

5.2 Conclusion………………………………………….………………...…...….…117

References…………….…………………………………………......………....……120

Supplement…………….…………………………………………...........….....……140

Preface
As far back as the 1920s, prejudice has been a major topic of study in the social sciences. In fact, it is one of the most-studied areas in all of psychology and sociology. However, most of the research has been aimed at describing the nature of prejudice and understanding its causes, and also, to some extent, at documenting its consequences in people's lives. Probably almost all the researchers wanted to attack prejudice and destroy its pernicious effects, but few of them have concentrated their research energies on the key question of how to reduce prejudice and create a society where equality and social justice are the norm instead of the exception. Social psychology has long held that one major means of reducing inter-group prejudice is through contact between the groups under optimal conditions.

Explicit attention to this phenomenon was triggered after World War II by an organized effort in North America to end prejudice. Though reducing prejudice has been the implicit goal of many researchers, relatively little research has been directed specifically at the crucial topic of how to reduce prejudice and discrimination in our societies. That is where the rubber hits the road where psychological theory and research findings must combine to create effective programs for improving social conditions.

Though they may have had a possible evolutionary advantage, prejudiced inter- group attitudes with their potential for periodic eruption in overt inter-group conflict have now become an extremely serious threat to the continued survival of human society and civilization. We are all aware of horrendous examples of nations that have erupted in open warfare between rival ethnic or religious groups, such as the former, Yugoslavia, Rwanda, and Northern Ireland.

Despite these appalling cases, we should keep in mind that remarkable positive changes have occurred in our society and others, in the direction of greater harmony and reduced prejudice. Examples of this kind of progress include the marked change in cultural values and norms affecting inter-group relations in the United States since World War II and the more recent transformation to a more equalitarian political system that has replaced apartheid in the Republic of South Africa. Empirical demonstrations of these favorable inter-group changes can be seen in the dramatic upward trend of responses to all the standard survey questions concerning tolerant racial attitudes and beliefs, as measured in national samples of the U.S White population since the 1940s.

As one example, note the sharp rise over 40 years in approval of even the most controversial interracial topic opposition to laws against racial intermarriage, and approval of intermarriage. To counterbalance this apparently rosy picture, research has also pointed out that attitudes and actions aimed at implementing these tolerant and equalitarian attitudes have not gained nearly the same degree of acceptance in the U.S., and that we clearly have a long way to go to reach a society where all groups experience equal opportunity and full social justice. Terms for the new, more subtle forms of prejudice and discrimination include modern racism, aversive racism, and symbolic racism. Recent research on implicit prejudice has demonstrated that consciously expressed attitudes do not capture the full extent of prejudice in modern societies. However, despite the indications of continuing prejudice and of backsliding or backlash against racial tolerance, the dramatic changes toward fuller social acceptance of all groups in our society are encouraging marks of progress. The very pervasiveness of prejudice may be one reason why it has been only in historically recent times that it has come to be seen as a seriously problematic phenomenon that merits scientific investigation. Previously, even social scientists had tended to view prejudice and discrimination as essentially natural and normal.

Many young people have high creative abilities and intelligence that show up in their school and social activities and hobbies. However, such individuals can easily deviate and get involved with intolerant groups. Thus, it is essential to set a psychological and educational plan to protect these individuals. Unless we do this, we are sure to lose large numbers of creative young people who have the potential to participate effectively in making progress for State of Kuwait.

Like other open Arabic societies, The Kuwaiti society is now open to the whole world. This openness to other cultures has positive and negative reflections on the way young people think and behave. For this reason, the Kuwaiti society has been affected by the religious and political disputes in adjacent countries. As a result of these foreign influences, many Kuwaiti young people have become religiously, politically or racially intolerant. This has been reflected on these young people’s school creative activities. Besides, many of these young people have become involved in intolerant religious and political activities inside and outside school, and even beyond the Kuwaiti borders. However, some researchers look at these extreme behaviors on the part of the Kuwaiti youth in terms of nationality away from extreme tribalism and religious prejudice. Some other researchers attribute the prevalence of prejudice among Kuwaiti youth to school curricula and activities. Curricula and activities, as those researchers suggest, do not include educational and psychological aims and strategies to alert youth against prejudice and violence. This is the reason why some researchers call for changing current school curricula and activities.

A third team of researchers contend that creative and intelligent students are not affected by intolerant group. These conflicting views stimulated the need to conduct a study on the relationship between prejudice and some personal variables which are: creative activities,emotional intelligence, and linguistic intelligence among secondary schools students in State of Kuwait.



Abstract

Introduction
Howard (2007) asserted that prejudice is the prejudging of people on the basis of ascribed characteristic is ubiquitous modern societies differ from one another only in the degree to which certain groups are set apart from the social mainstream and consequently suffer equality of opportunity and inequity of condition, the behavioral dimension of attitudes refer to the extent to which one's beliefs are linked with intentions to behave in particular ways. Some beliefs only directly relate to behavior. The concept of prejudice as a subject of social psychological inquiry emerged around the 1920s (Samelson, 1978). Research on the topic grew slowly during the 1930s and early 1940s, and it was only after World War II that interest escalated dramatically (Fairchild & Gurin, 1978). There are several of thinking styles can plays different roles of prejudice. Regarding to the present study, creativity and emotional thinking in addition intelligence as kinds of thinking styles can plays a significant role in inducing intellectual and cultural progress, its skills, if acquired, make individuals overcome any obstacle, opinions, thinking methods and beliefs. This, in turn, contributes to the achievement of progress since the acknowledgement of the opinions of others, whoever they are, makes individuals lazy and prone to absolute beliefs, which is against criticism (Ryan, 2005). What humans need in today’s complicated world is the ability to distinguish between the right and the wrong, the valuable and the valueless (Deary, 2000). Hence, it has become important that everyone acquire the skills that enable them to examine and analyze the information they get, so they can make right decisions (AlKafafi, 1983). Brookfield (1987) believes that learning intelligence and creative thinking is one of the most important activities in adult’s lives. Like other open Arabic societies, the Kuwaiti society is now open to the whole world. This openness to other cultures has positive and negative reflections on the way young people think and behave. For this reason, the Kuwaiti society has been affected by the religious and political disputes in adjacent countries. As a result of these foreign influences, many Kuwaiti young people have become religiously, politically or racially intolerant. This has been reflected on those young persons during their scholastic activities. Besides, many of these young people have become involved in intolerant religious and political activities inside and outside school, and even beyond the Kuwaiti borders. However, some researchers as Ibrahim (2003) look at these extreme behaviors on the part of the Kuwaiti youth in terms of nationality away from extreme tribalism and religious prejudice. Some other researchers as Abo-Alam (1983) attribute the prevalence of prejudice among Kuwaiti youth to school curricula and activities. Curricula and activities, as those researchers suggest, do not include educational and psychological aims and strategies to alert youth against prejudice and violence. A third team of researchers as Al-Alosi (1985) contend that creative and intelligent students are not affected by intolerant group. These conflicting views aroused the need to conduct a study on the relationship between prejudice and some personal variables which are: creative activities, emotional intelligence, and linguistic intelligence among secondary schools students in State of Kuwait.

Statement of The Problem
The present research seeks to shed light on the various dimensions and aspects of prejudice and it relationship with the some variables which are creative activities, emotional intelligence, and linguistic intelligence.In doing so, the researcher will survey and discuss many of the definitions given to prejudice and the theories that analyzed and discussed prejudice from its different directions. More specifically, the research aims to exam correlational and predictive relationships between the target variables and prejudice based on the propositions and analyses of prejudice in different psychological theories and schools.We cannot understand and combat prejudice without studying the other relevant psychological variables. Thus, it is of paramount importance to explore the relationship between target variables of the study and prejudice.
Objectives of Present Study:
This study seeks to explore the different psychological aspects of prejudice and its various processes and directions. emergence of their creative abilities. More specifically, the study seeks to fulfil the following objectives:
1- TO investigate the directions of the correlation between the four variables of the present study which are prejudice, creative activities, emotional intelligence, and linguistic intelligence, and specially between the prejudice and other variables.

2 - TO reach a sound framework concerning the dimensions of prejudice and relevant psychological and environmental variables by examining the variables under study and their correlational and predictive relationship with prejudice.

3 - TO present the newest theories, ideas and studies conducted in the area of the present study, so that researchers with relevant interests will benefit.

4 - TO examine the differences in variables of the present study between the boys and the girls scores.

5 - TO determine the best predictors of prejudice among the study variables under study that effect in the process of prejudice.
The Hypotheses of The Study

In the light of the objectives of the present study, empirical literature and the general directions of the findings of the related studies (as its mentioned in the main dissertation). The following hypotheses were formulated to be tested:
1- There will be differences between genders effect (males and females) in the variables of the present study.
2- There will be statistically significant correlation between prejudice and creative activities of (males and females).
3- There will be statistically significant correlation between prejudice and emotional intelligence of (males and females).
4- There will be statistically significant correlation between prejudice and linguistic intelligence of (males and females).
5- There will be statistically significant correlation between emotional intelligence and linguistic intelligence (males and females).
6- There will not be statistically significant correlation between creative activities and emotional intelligence of (males and females).
7- There will not be statistically significant correlation between creative activities and linguistic intelligence of (males and females).
8- Emotional intelligence then creative activities will be more important predictors of prejudice of (males and females).


The Sample
The smaple of present study was consisted of two categories as the following:
- Standardization Sample

The subjects of this category were N=100, whereas 50 boys and 50 girls (citizen students), participants were in the fourth year of the secondary school, the mean age of 16.6 yrs and SD 1.81 yrs, they were selected from governmental schools, five boy's schools, and five girl's schools, from each school they were selected from one class room only from the third provine which is Al-Farwanyah Province, the sample represented %2.5 of the total students in this province (N=4000), and it was the first administration for the variables of present study for making sure of its validity and reliability.
- The Main Sample

The main sample of this category was selected from among adolescents on the basis of stratified random sampling method with mean age of 16.4 yrs and SD 1.96 yrs, participants were in the fourth year of the secondary school, they represented the students of the Ministry of Education in the State of Kuwait , and all of them were citizen, they were selected from twelve schools (six boy's schools, and six girl's schools), from twelve classes from boy's schools, and ten classes from girl's schools, the sample represented %7.5 of the total students in the third province (there are six provinces in the State of Kuwait). The total number of the sample at the beginning of the assessment was 315, whereas 155 boys and 160 girls, but the actual number who completed all measures were 300 (150 boy, and 150 girls), and it was the second administration.
Instruments Used
- Prejudice Test: Prepared by Schwarzen and Mateus (2002) and it was translated into Arabic by Ibrahi (2003).

- Torrance Test For Creative Activities T.T.C.A: Prepared by Torrance (1969), and it was translated into arabic language by Habib (1999).

- Emotional Intelligence Test: Prepared by Welson (2001).

- Linguistic Intelligence Test: Prepared by Morsi and Mansour (1988 ).

Statistical Methods Used For Analysis the Data

1 - Descriptive Statistics. (M, SD).

2- Inferential Statistics: t-test.

3- Correlation Analysis. Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Method.
4- Multiple Regression Analysis .
The Results
- By using t-test, it's indicated that there are no differences between boy scores levels and girl's scores levels in the variables of prejudice, creative activities, and emotional intelligence, but in the variable of linguistic intelligence, the results mentioned that boy's scores are higher than girl's scores regarding to the value of t-test and boy's mean.

-By using Person's Coefficient of Correlation Techniques for determining the directions of relationships between the variables. The findings showed that there are a statistically significant negative correlation between prejudice and emotional intelligence, between prejudice and linguistic intelligence, and there is no statistically significant correlation between prejudice and creative activities among a sample of males and females. Also the results indicated that there is positive statistically significant correlation relationship between emotional intelligence and linguistic intelligence for both male and female samples, and there is no statistically significant correlation relationship between creative activities and emotional intelligence on one hand, and between creative activities and linguistic intelligence on the other hand for both male and female samples in this study.


-By using Stepwise Regression, the findings pointed out that linguistic intelligence is the only variable which contributes to predicting prejudice with both the male and female samples.
Implications

On the basis of the findings of the present study, it is felt that an attempt could be made to promote creative activities, emotional intelligence, and linguistic intelligence in children and among school environments to be convenient and suitable factors for confrontation all the styles of prejudice. The researcher suggests that the school environment should have the following characteristics:

- The general atmosphere in the schools should be aware of pejudice, conflictions and anxiety situations.

- In and out of the scholastic environments, the scholastic administration must follow many educational techniques, and styles to promote kinds of thinking styles to get high quality and out comes of creative scholastic activities, emotional, linguistic intelligence and activities, with cooperation with all teachers.

- Since linguistic intelligence is the only predictor of prejudice in this study, so the scholastic curriculums must focus in their contents on the techniques and activities that supports the variable of linguistic intelligence, to help students to confront and face all kinds of prejudice on the various levels whether in the schools or in their outside.

-The teacher’s questions and discussion must provoke higher thinking skills as (how…? Why..?And what…? If....?) that can develop the mental, emotional, intelligent and personal abilities of students.

-The teacher’s feedback to students’ answers should be though provoking. All the individuals involved in the educational processed should work cooperatively.

- Acceptance of constructive criticism and respect for others’ opinions should be encouraged, to support and enhance the self confidence of the students.

- Freedom of expression and the spirit of participation should be secured.

Conclusion

Prejudice is negative manifestations of integrative power. Instead of bringing or holding people together, prejudice push them apart. Ironically, if there is no relationship people would be completely unaware of another person's or group's existence. When there is any relationship at all even a negative one there is some integration. Some researchers as Mosten referred to this as "disintegrative power" "the integration that is achieved through hatred, fear, and the threat of a common enemy." (Mosten, 2004, p. 62). This is seen in military patriotism, in nationalism, and in any situation of "negative identity" in which one group defines itself in terms of what it is not. This tends to lead into a pathological situation of internal violence, often perpetuated through the family itself. While this is especially obvious and destructive when it occurs on a large scale as it did in the Balkans, Somalia, Sri Lanka, or the Middle East it also occurs on smaller scales as well, when one group holds negative stereotypes of another group and discriminates against members of that group based on those stereotypes. The centuries of unequal relationships between dominant and minority groups have, of themselves, compounded the difficulty of eradicating prejudice and discrimination. What can be said of the nature of such relationships among whites and blacks in the United States seems to also apply to other groups around the world. In the Baha'i view, as example the dominant groups are unable or unwilling to see discrimination "as a chronic social, psychological, and spiritual illness," (Schank, 2005, p.125) while subjugated groups have a deep-seated mistrust, suspicion, and bitterness. Without the recognition of the spiritual nature of the problem, long-term transformation will not occur and social progress of both dominant and subjected groups will be retarded. If you have ever observed two or three year-olds playing together you will see much interaction, some bossiness, a little possessiveness with toys, but absolutely no prejudice.



Prejudice is a learned reaction that is passed down to children from their parents. In today’s classroom there still exist some prejudicial attitudes that usually rear their heads by the second grade. Children are great listeners and imitators of adults (Ryan, 2005). What they hear and absorb in the first seven years of life has an enormous impact on how they see the world and the people who inhabit it (Howard, 2005). By the time they get to school they have learned their parents’ and relatives’ take on society and it becomes part of how they see the world.

AN Overview

The aims of the educational document in the State of Kuwait was based on four main principles that were considered the main sources for deriving educational aims (Ahmad,2005). These principles are:

- The dimensions, philosophy and conditions of the Kuwaiti society.

- The dimensions of the sample age.

- The requirements of learner's growth and their characteristics.

- The recent educational trends.

Each of the aforementioned principles includes several elements that translate into principles and bases. Undoubtedly, education in the State of Kuwait comes at the top of the government’s priorities in terms of funding, and material and human resources that are necessary for the achievement of the desired educational outcomes through the various educational institutes. It is right that the Kuwaiti government has allotted sufficient funding for education. It is also true that several national and international conferences are held annually in the State of Kuwait for facing various trends of prejudice, especially after the gulf war, the politics and religion confliction in our area.

However, several criticisms and recommendations have been directed to the Kuwaiti educational system. These criticisms and recommendations focus on the need to care for creative production in same time to learn our students the plans and strategies to facing prejudice (Alhambaly, 1996). The researchers quote these recommendation from two recent studies. The first is the study conducted by the Educational Research Administration by Randi (2000) to evaluate scholastic creative activities and other educational system in the Kuwaiti schools. This study presented a number of recommendations for the improvement of scholastic activities in general and creative activities in specific that are will reflect in the students personality and mind then build back ground to facing many situations. These recommendations are:

- Scholastic activities should include various of ideas, concepts, and values for facing kinds of prejudice and it dimensions.

- Holding more periodical meetings among the people responsible for scholastic creative activities and school supervisors to examine the current conditions and promote creative activities.

- Preparing flexible and up-to-date programs of scholastic creative activities.



- Organizing annual exhibitions where students’ creative products are exhibited for the benefit of the creative students themselves.

- The present researcher according to his work in the educational field found that education system in his country must follow these practical steps to get high quality of educational out comes, in same time to facing prejudice in-out of the schools which are as the followings:

- There should be coordination among the various media in spreading awareness of scholastic creative activities.

- Holding training courses for new supervisors and teachers who will be in charge with scholastic creative activities.

- The influential role of parents should not be overlooked since parents can encourage their children to participate in scholastic creative activities. It is recommended that activity supervisors hold illuminating meetings with parents at the beginning of the school year in which they are to clarify to them the significance of the activities and convince them that they do not interfere with their children’s scholastic achievement.

- The technical supervision of scholastic activities should be supportive and the number of technical supervisors should be increased, so sufficient visits to school to monitor the performance of activities can be made.

- Social and psychological workers, who are members of the scholastic activity board, should be involved in evening and summer student clubs since they are scientifically prepared to detect and enhance students’ dispositions and abilities.

- The technical supervisor of scholastic activities should participate in the evaluation of scholastic creative activities and its reflections on the students.

-Approving the score the student gets for scholastic activities as part of the total score he/she gets at the end of the school year.

- Scholastic activities should be of the bases against which the efficiency of schools is judged.

- The teachers and supervisors should put general plan during the scholastic academic year that can observe by many methods the levels of prejudice among their school.

The second study was conducted by Al-Barak (2001) to examine scholastic creative activities and some scholastic curriculums as a part of the scholastic curriculum that helps with the development of the learner’s personality. The study offered a number of recommendations for the development of creativity and other educational values in students and to be useful person in his society, these include:

- Scholastic creative activities should be practiced to a deliberately studied plan that aims at the development of students’ dispositions and attitudes, and use scientific thinking techniques that aim at making the learner productive, creative and able to deal with the requirements of the twenty first century.

- Scholastic creative activities should be focused on as a means, not an end, and it's suppose consist of many strategies to develop kinds of intelligence as emotional, and linguistic intelligence. They help with the development of the psychological, social, ethical, aesthetic, and kinetic aspects in students. They also secure the atmosphere conducive to the development of creativity.

- Scholastic creative activities should be practiced throughout the school year and in summer, devoting the middle of the school day for their performance.

- The scholastic activity administration should prepare a manual for creative activities where activities convenient for every age group are proposed with consideration to the abilities and potentials of the students within every age group.

- These activities should be presented within a clear plan which is lacking at present, as confirmed by activity supervisors.

- Activity groups should be supported and students should be encouraged to participate in scholastic activities, especially in the elementary stage since it is the stage where dispositions and attitudes are formed. And it is the stage where students are active by nature. In the intermediate stage, students should be directed to the activities that suit them. Students in the secondary stage should be given the freedom of choosing among activities.

- The supervisors of scholastic activities should be given the priority of being hired to work in the evening and summer clubs which are now spread throughout the educational territories by the Ministry of Education in the State of Kuwait.

- Sanctioning supervision of scholastic activity as an approved job, so supervisors will be officially questionable about scholastic activities.

- The places and the other resources that is necessary for scholastic

activities should be provided and periodically maintained

- Giving the students, especially in the intermediate and secondary stages the freedom to choose the activities that meet their dispositions and interests, and help with the development of their creative potentials. Distinguished students should be honored in celebrations attended by educational and public leaders, and parents.

The present researcher believes that there are several other technical obstacles that impede the realization of the educational aims that include the development of creativity, personality and cognitive abilities as emotional and linguistic intelligence in same time facing the prejudice in the State of Kuwait. These obstacles are:

- The absence of an educational system that permits the practice of creative activities after the school day as a compensation for the shortness of the time allotted to activities in the school day.

- The widespread use of traditional teaching that emphasizes memorization and indoctrination in the schools.

- Many scholastic activities supervisors lack technical and educational preparation, which makes their supervision of creative activities of less effective quality, in the same time they doesn’t believes for the educational effects of scholastic activities to decrease prejudice .

- The scholastic activities supervisors being overwhelmed with many duties (i.e., teaching and proctoring exams), which affects their supervision of activities negatively. They should be made responsible only for the supervision of the school activities.

- Some parents of the students not cooperating with the school's administration and they can't be honest about some their negative students activities out of the school.

In spite of these technical, educational and administrative obstacles, there are efforts that attempt to address creativity and creative students those can realize the side effect of prejudice and can exploit their time to develop their personal and mind ability. Furthermore, with the aforementioned obstacles, there are many Kuwaiti creative students who achieved highly in creative activities locally and internationally.

Al-ghenem (1998) wrote a book entitled “A future strategy for improving education in the state of Kuwait up to 2025” which suggests some proposals whose application would promote the educational system, especially in regard to creativity. Here are some of the most important of these proposals:

- Inculcating commitment to work and practice in the students.

- Deepening the sense of belongingness and loyalty to the homeland.

- Making education varied and linking it to the requirements of development and workplace.

- Facing various of prejudice by scholastic activities, and supporting the students to affiliation in these activities.

- Providing education for all and urging lifelong learning in Kuwaiti citizens.

- Attaining the highest level of quality in performance.

- Shifting the emphasis of the traditional educational from quantitative judgment and indoctrination to self-learning and using recent information resources.

- Spreading technical knowledge and scientific literacy in the Kuwaiti society.

- Providing the due care to the topper, the talented and the creative individuals.

- Developing school administration, curricula and technical supervision.

- Making educational planning and evaluation conducive to the realization of the State’s developmental plans.

- Reducing student's density in the classrooms to secure effective education.

Each of the aforementioned recommendations includes several aspects. For instance, under providing the due care to the topper, the talented and the creative individuals is a recommendation to develop a more comprehensive and detailed plan that can achieve the following:

- Making available information resources that relate to creativity and talent (journals, research papers, references, etc).

- Getting more international educational experiences and plans to facing various kinds of prejudice.

- Establishing an administration in the ministry of education to be in charge with providing the required facilities to creative students.

- Forming committees in schools whose mission is to gather information about creative students and providing them with the support they need.

- Cooperation with the parents of students in cases any students his out activities are unusual and irregular.

- Developing enrichment programs that take into consideration the unique characteristics of creative students in cooperation with the UNESCO and other international bodies.

- Providing professional development programs to teachers to enhance their ability to attend to creative students.

The educational system in Kuwait is mainly concerned with memorization, the traditional emphasis that is based on indoctrination, regardless of the introduction of new technologies and learning resources into most schools. Such mode of education, no doubt, cannot produce the creative and intelligent individual (Ahmad, 2005). Educational outcomes cannot be creative unless creativity is addressed in every detail in the educational work (Al-Barak, 2001). In such circumstances, it has become inevitable to provide widespread programs to train teachers in how to attend to creativity in their students. Rote learning should be ceased. More time should be given to creative and authentic productions, in same time we must take our students away of all kinds prejudice and it side effects because our area nowadays is always under politics and religion confliction.

Teachers should adopt new approaches and methods that center around building some mind and personal abilities as emotional and linguistic intelligence in same time how can he provide his students some techniques and plan for facing prejudice rather than memorization of facts and information. The success of these efforts will naturally depend on the teachers’ aptitude and conviction to teach for these desired outcomes. Without such desire and understanding on the part of teachers, the outcome will be graduates with enhanced convergent rather than divergent thinking.

The problem in State of Kuwait is the evaluation in the educational system is based only on written exams at the end of the scholastic academic year. Furthermore, exams and the type of questions asked in them do not reflect the aims of the subject matters nor do they reflect the student’s level of creativity and his/her ability to apply the mental skills and abilities that relate to personality, or how is his achievements and works in his scholastic activities and programs, so no consideration about his personal and work activities, and unfortunately some schools by their activities supporting the prejudice among their students for example. No doubt then that there are creative and talented students are not so good at academic achievement. Those students are completely ignored and with time they get depressed. The creative and personal potential within such students wither, so they end with both academic and creative failure. They may get involved with evil peers who take them to such social disorders as drug addiction and theft, and the educational system is to be blamed.

When evaluating the student, it is of paramount importance to take into consideration his/her creative productions and distinguished activities. For this reason, the traditional exam system should be reformed and improved, so the student’s various abilities, whether academic, creative or personal, can be objectively assessed. Formative evaluation accompanying creative activities help to straighten interaction and democratic dialogue between the teacher and the students, which can establish an environment that is conducive to the required educational outcomes.

Since there is in State of Kuwaiti ministry of education an administration named the Scholastic Activities Administration that cares for the students, cultural, scientific, literary and artistic competitions and activities should be established, it suppose create some scholastic activities for facing all kinds of prejudice, the researcher recommends that a body whose mission is to monitor scholastic creative activities. This body should mainly aim at providing the due care for creative students. This body can include sections for creative activities, training, competitions, facing prejudice, and evaluation.

Each of the aforementioned sections of the proposed body should have specific artistic, administrative and educational tasks to perform with cooperation among them and between them and the administrations in the ministry of education. The state of Kuwait possesses the bases of suitable and positive scholastic activities and its relevant components such as creative minds, experiences, human and material resources, and future strategies. Yet, the present researcher observed there were and still lack of the following in some sides in the Kuwaiti educational system:

- Decision makers those are able to make the right decisions.

- The application of educational plans and strategies.

Large numbers of educational and psychological studies, recommendations, plans and strategies about how can we create educational environments away of any prejudice and conflictions exist but unfortunately there is no sector to monitor the application of these recommendations and strategies and force educational administrations to apply them. Doing research and preparing strategies are a waste of time unless the findings of studies are put into practice.


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