Rise of Islam

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Africa (600-1400)


Islam Came to Africa (late 600s) The three western kingdoms during this period were: Western kingdoms Ghana (900-1100), Mali 1200-1400s) Songhay


  • Government:

  • Upon arrival small kinship groups

  • Tribal leadership:

  • Based on small regional governments:

  • Islam led to the change (kingdom of Ghana took lead (why)

  • The arrival of Islam led to the discovery of gold: African merchants looking for salt

  • 7th century Islam in north Africa and along eastern shores

  • 8th century west Africa under their control

Commercial influence




  • Muslims and Africans formed commercial relationship: Ghana traded gold, slaves and ivory; for manufactured goods, horses, cloth and manufactured goods

  • Kingdom of Ghana began to dominate because of this commercial trade: (9-12 centuries)

  • Money from trade led to big army;

  • Vast trading network formed; Muslims came by camel caverns and by way of the Mediterranean

  • Arabic language and laws

  • Western kingdoms Ghana, Mali Songhay

  • Grew from sub Saharan trade; salt for gold

  • Ghana 900-1100 (military kingdom) ; standing army, gold basis for Mediterranean trade

Social Classes




  • Kingdom hereditary (Maternal)

  • Social class King (hereditary and service) Muslim administrators, merchants, slaves

  • No private property in Sub Saharan region; as a result, hard to accumulate wealth

  • Slaves seen as wealth; (why) because slave holders could increase agricultural production which meant surplus; which meant more money

Gender relationships



  • Sex determined gender roles; specialized labor performed by men

  • Metal workers most important; because technology created weapons (spears, knives etc.) & agricultural tools; which led to power

  • Men provided heavy labor; but both men and women harvested crops; women gained prestige as potters

  • Women took care of domestic roles and child rearing; men dominated public life

  • Women enjoyed had a greater role in society than other societies (why); because of their child bearing skills

  • Women also served as merchants, and they participated in long distance trade

  • Sometimes they even engaged in combat

  • The arrival of Islam did not change women’s roles much; most of them still were able to freely engage with men outside the home

Slavery:



  • Most slaves were POWS, other came from debt, witches and criminals

  • Within Africa most slaves worked as labors: miners, construction workers, porters

The Slave Trade:



  • began in 9th century: why? Because of commercial trade that picked up in sub Saharan

  • Muslims provided markets to India, Persia, southwest Asia and Mediterranean

African Religion




  • Most African cultures were monotheistic; individual sprits influenced nature,

  • Ancestors had power to intervene in affairs

Christianity and Islam reach Sub Saharan



  • Christianity arrived in north Africa 1st century

  • Came by way of the Mediterranean basin; most prominent areas (Egypt and Alexandria)

  • 4th century it became established in Axum; why? Trade and rulers of Axum converted

  • Strong centralized rule link to the growth of Christianity; as centralized rule declined so did growth of Christianity;

  • It rebounded in 12th century- 16th why centralized rule rebounded



Mali

  • Mostly farmers, benefited from gold trade,

  • Mansea Musa, fostered trade and intermarriage (Africa and Islam)

Congo


  • Central Africa 13-15th centuries; fell to Portuguese

  • Great Zimbabwe: South Africa based on gold trade (controlled east Africa coast) 14-15 centuries; center of vast trading network

Rise of Islam
- 622Mecca moved to Medina

- Holy book the Koran

- Foundation of Islam: Five Pillars

- Jihad, Sunni and Shiite, Shira (law) (

- Caliph and Caliphate/Dar Al Islam (regions where Islam was practiced
Umayyad Caliphate (661-750)

- Europeans, Byzantine, and Persia main conflicts

- 7th and 8th centuries conquered bebers in North Africa and controlled Iberian Peninsula

- Arabs were 1st class citizens, only paid taxes command by pillar of Islam, other paid poll tax

- Arabic became official language of the time; gold/silver coins became standard monetary unit

- fought Byzantine Empire; and made their way into Europe

- Brought back Greek classics of Aristotle,
Abbasid 750-1258


  1. Centered around trade; Golden Age of Islam (arts and sciences flourished (9th century) mathematics and medicine Mohammed Al Razi (published massive medical encyclopedia)

  2. Expanded on knowledge gained from India (math) Algebra

  3. Credit introduced; receipts and bills manufacturing big/steel (sorrowed)

  4. Built magnificent capital at Baghdad: one greatest culture centers of the world

  5. Tolerant of religious faiths (Jews and Christians often persecuted; Sufis: most effective missionaries: stressed personal relationship with Allah

  6. fell to Mongols

Women



  1. In Arabia: women did not have the rights to property/ or to inherit property

  2. seen more as property; infanticide (killing of unwanted babies)

  3. Husband did not have to pay back dowry

  4. Koran changes this (651-652)

  5. women seen as equal to Allah; infanticide forbidden and dowries returned

  6. still patricidal; primary duty was to care of husband

Byzantine Empire (4th century to 15th century)


Culture:

  • It used the Greek language; its architecture had distinctive domes; Libraries, museums, marble palaces, churches, baths

  • its culture in general had more in common with Eastern cultures like those of Persia;

  • its brand of Christianity became an entirely separate branch known as Orthodox Christianity

  • especially over the economy, whose industries, such as silk production (a trade learned from china), they monopolized

Trade:


  • The Byzantines also used coined money, the value of which remained remarkably stable, making it a very desirable currency for business

Government: (absolute rule)




  • Constantine (1st Christian emperor; Caesaropapism: not only secular lord; but prominent figure ecclesiastical affairs

  • After 6th century absolute rulers (above law)

  • Byzantine Court: Dress: crowns; silk robes, purple (color of emperors)

  • High officials seen as slaves not subjects

Justinian Rule:




  • Under Justinian, who reigned from 527 to 565,

Major accomplishments:




  • the former glory and unity of the Roman Empire was somewhat restored (in Constantinople) recaptured Italy, Sicily, northwestern Africa and southern Spain

  • Could not keep control of this territory (Sasanids; east and Slavic’s in north)

  • The region flourished in trade and the arts.

  • Christian Constantinople and Islamic Baghdad rivaled each other for cultural supremacy.

  • The Justinian period is perhaps most remembered for two things:

  • (1) the Justinian Code, a codification of Roman Law

  • that kept ancient Roman Legal principles alive

  • (in the West these went unused for a time), and

  • (2). the flowering of the arts and sciences



  • evident in the construction of major buildings and churches

  • most notably Hagia Sophia, an enormous cathedral that still stands today

  • (But now as a mosque). (Gold silver, gems etc.)

Major Conflicts (Islam)




  • The rise of Islam (7th century) pose major threat

  • By mid 7th century taken over Syria, Egypt, Palestine, and north Africa

  • 7th and 8th centuries threatened Constantinople

Technology and Innovation saved Empire




  • Greek Fire used to hold off forces (burned/floating on water) Balkan peninsula Anatolia protected

  • Byzantine empire more compact (after 8th century)

  • Theme system: imperial province under control of general (military defense/and civil administration

  • Appointed by emperors; closely watched

  • Free peasants recruited (army) allotted land; strengthened peasants/ agriculture

  • Theme system quicker mobilization and led to resistance against Islamic forces

  • Late 9th-11th centuries great influence; reconqueared Syria 10th century

  • Syria and Armenia in the east; southern Italy in the west; Danube River in the north and Cyprus and Crete in the south

  • So much wealth no taxes for (2 years)

More culture (The Orthodox Church)




  • The Byzantines are also remembered mosaic art; a form they used to decorate churches

Major differences between Roman Catholic Church and Orthodox Church




  • In contrast to the Roman Catholic emperors of the West, who regarded the pope as the leader of Byzantium’s church

  • Church conducted services in Greek and bowed to will of emperors

  • Secular rulers headed the church (which, remember, was Orthodox).

  • For centuries the two churches managed to tolerate each other

  • but in the time the difference became too great (11th century)

What led to their schism?



  • They disagreed over the sacrament of communion

  • whether priests should be allowed to marry

  • the use of local languages in church

  • They even were at odds regarding the nature of God

  • specifically God as a trinity

  • they disagreed over the placement of icons during worship

  • 1054 c.e, unable to reconcile their differences

  • the pope excommunicated the patriarch of Constantinople

  • who did the same to the pope

  • Orthodoxy influenced the East and Roman Catholicism influenced the West. Keep this schism in mind as you review the Crusades,

  • Christian Europe’s war with the Islamic world; the Byzantine is right in the middle

  • the secular empire was more centralized in the east (Byzantine Empire)

  • than in the west (Roman Empire) during the Middle Ages

  • Interestingly, the reverse was true in terms of their religions

  • Christianity as practiced by Roman Catholics was very centralized

  • with power stemming from Rome

  • and services held in the Roman (Latin) form

  • In the east, Orthodox Christianity was more localized.

  • Russian churches, conducted services in their own language

  • In this sense local customs merged with Christian practices in the Orthodox Church.

  • these religions in these two empires centered on control

  • For stability, either the heads of the church or the heads of the state needed to be in control

  • During the Middle Ages, the West centralized power in the Church,

  • thereby decentralizing political power

  • political leadership was blessed by the Church

  • hence often under the control of the Church as well

  • at least in the early centuries of the Middle Ages

  • Political conflict: 800 Charlemagne; 962 Otto I (attacked lands of southern Italy)

  • In the East, the situation was the exact opposite: Political emperors were in control of both politics and the church, and church practices were localized, but not political authority. The point to remember here is that in the early centuries of the Middle Ages, the East was more of a secular empire with an official church religion; the West was more of a religious empire with subservient political units.

Economy and Society




  • Strong economy supported by agricultural surplus, trade and craft workers;

  • Egypt major source of grain (until Arab control) Anatolia afterwards

  • Constantinople 5-13th centuries 1 million people

  • Peasants key to success; military service and agriculture

  • Peasants became dependent class; (early )

  • 6th-7th centuries invasions broke trend

  • 6-10 centuries emperors limited land accumulation

  • 11-13th centuries trend broken

Industry and trade




  • Artisans and craft workers; glassware, woolen textiles, gems, works in gold and silver

  • 6th century: silk becomes manufactured (monks); key to economy

  • Closely regulated by government (one aspect of it; weaving, dyeing, sales)

  • Trade routes in each direction (served western Eurasia)

  • Central Asia, northern Europe and Black Sea/ Mediterranean region

  • 6-12 centuries Byzantine gold recognized; levied taxes (lots of wealth generated)

  • Served as western anchor of Eurasian trade network; (Silk Road)

Early Middle Ages (500-1000)


Germanic Invasions (400-700)


  • The rise of the Franks; alliance with church Built empire Germany through France; Church provided organization and leadership; Germanic tribes protection

  • Battle of Tours 732 (Charles Martel) ; saved Roman Catholic Church and stopped the spread of Islam

  • Government structure tribal leadership (decentralized)

(800-843): brief centralization because of Charlemagne; led to Carolingian Renaissance: Revival of learning and centralized rule; Renaissance ended in 843 Treaty of Verdun and 2nd wave of invasions

Invasions


  • Visigoths controlled southern Gaul and Spain, Ostrogoths established kingdom (Italy), Burundians, Anglo, Saxons (Britain), and the Franks Gaul, Vandals , Lombard

  • Germanic tribes invaded Roman empire 4th century

  • 378 Visigoths defeat Rome battle of Adrianople (Bulgaria)

  • Germanic tribes semi-nomadic (cattle and farmed)

  • Laws based on customs; governed themselves through tribal assemblies

  • These assemblies set foundation for parliamentary government and common law England

  • For centuries Germanic tribes and Romans had contact; Attila the Hun

  • 476 western Roman Empire falls (Odoacer)

  • Provincial governors still rule; Roman bureaucrats, tax collectors and generals

  • Population (5th century) declines; invasions and power struggles continue (crumbling of cities)

  • Led to decreased trade; due to instability

Brief Revival in western Europe

- Charlemagne Merovingian kings, based society on the city, had great military conquests,

- 805 all of continental Europe except Spain and Scandinavia and southern Italy

- Revival of learning, 7-8th century Anglo-Saxon kingdom, and Education read/write preserved work of the ancients.

- Carolingian rulers if they would have continued may have used the Missi Dominici; and reestablished centralized rule


  • Internal disunity and external invasions brought end (Carolingian rule)

  • Carolingian empire relied on bullion (silver) traded for jugs, glassware, wine)

  • Bullion used for minting of coins (important to western economy)

End of Revival

  • Louis the Pious (814-840) (Charlemagne’s son) lacked (father’s) military skill and strong will

  • Local Counts pursued own interests; Louis’s sons also caused internal decay (disputed inheritance/waged wars)

  • Which left western Europe weak and divided; as a result it was open to invasion

2nd Wave of invasions (9-11 centuries)

Muslims:


  • 9th century three groups invaded Frankish Empire in search of wealth (south: Muslims; east Magyars and North came the Vikings)

  • Muslims raided churches, towns, cities in Mediterranean Europe (9th-end of 10th century)

  • Muslims also take over Sicily, southern cities in Italy and France

Magyars:

  • Magyars (descendants of nomadic people in Central Asia) (expert horsemen: raided cities in Germany, Italy and France

  • Magyars: 9th- mid 10th century

Vikings:

  • Vikings AKA Norsemen: (most feared of the three) started raids in northern France (in Charlemagne’s time)

  • Norsemen expansion began 800 CE; motives: included population pressure (Scandinavian lands), and resistance to Christian missionaries (conflicted with pagan gods/beliefs)

  • 8th century Vikings develop shipbuilding techniques (allowed them to travel the Ocean)

  • Traveled from Norway, Denmark and Sweden (used Atlantic Ocean) settlements in Greenland, Iceland

  • 1000 CE established colony in Newfoundland (Canada) explored Atlantic Coast (present day Maine)

  • 1500 CE colony in Greenland disappears (global cooling)

  • Significance: new agricultural communities in Atlantic Basin

  • Norsemen traveling were merchants searching for commercial interests or

  • Migrants seeking lands; or raiding and plundering (eastern Europe and Mediterranean lands)

Rise of Feudalism (800-1000) Due to lack of centralized rule, because kings could not protect their people; Feudalism created protection and met economic needs




  • Feudalism: early political and social order of the western Europe

  • Decentralized government based on hierarchy of lords and vassals (controlled political and military affairs)

  • European nobles built decentralized government: purpose to protect lands and maintain public order

  • Nobles collected rents, and fees, administer local affairs/ justice, and sought to increase authority (at expense of others)

  • Feudalist society built on a hierarchical system based on loyalty

  1. Kings (owned entire territory called kingdom)

  2. Lords (AKA: Nobles) In exchange for military service and loyalty: gained fiefs (large plots of land)

  3. Lesser lords (Vassals) lords divided land into smaller plots in turn vassals provided military service and loyalty

  4. Serfs (AKA: peasants) worked the land (provided agricultural produced needed for lords to maintain control over lands)

  • Feudalism brings changes for peasants and slaves (made up majority of population)

  • Serfs usually had right to work certain lands in exchange for labor services and rents: such as own harvest: dozen eggs, a chicken etc.

  • Male serfs: worked in the field (3 days a week), and provided other public works

  • Female serfs: churned butter, brewed beer, sup thread, wove cloth etc.

  • Serfs paid fees to lords for marriage

Fiefs/manors

  • Fiefs = plots land

  • Become known as manors: principal form of agricultural organization in western Europe

  • Lords and peasants live on manors

Manors= self-sustaining

Trade during this period (800-1000)



  • Towns sparsely populated and did not support (long distance trade)

  • Regional trade continued (local markets & fairs)

  • Maritime trade flourished in the Mediterranean

  • Christian merchants traded with Muslims in Spain, Sicily and north Africa

Women



  • Women: ran households and were active labors on estates

1000-1450 Western Europe (High Middle Ages)




  • 10th and 11th centuries political stability led to economic recovery; (why) invasions coming to an end, the Crusades led to return of trade & money, merchants used money for protection from kings instead of lords, (why) merchants only needed to pay taxes no other obligations

  • 11th century new technology also helped revivalist economy and centralized rule; which created food surplus (2nd agricultural Revolution 100-14000

  • Gravity switches from Mediterranean to more northern lands (Franks)

  • Tools (classical Mediterranean) not suited for terrain of France

  • Heavy soils require proper tools; plows with iron tips became available in 8th century

  • Hitched to oxen or draft horses (harnesses/collar) allow for this to happen

  • New lands were cleared for production; , water mills create renewable inanimate source of energy

  • New method of rotating crops (greater intensity of cultivating)



Trade during (High Middle Ages)

Before the Crusades



  • This trade indirectly linked them with larger Muslim world (communication and exchange)

  • 1000 many crops of Muslim world taking shape in Mediterranean world (wheat, rice, eggplant, limes artichokes)

  • Came to Sicily, Spain and southern Italy

  • Not as prominent as their eastern counterparts

  • Maritime travel also flourishes in North & Baltic Seas (most active was Norsemen)

  • Raided lands from eastern Europe to the Mediterranean

  • Merchants followed raiders went from plundering to trading

  • Went from ports of Russia to Ireland, carrying fish/furs from Scandinavia,

  • Honey from Poland, wheat from England, wine from France, beer form the low countries and swords from Germany

  • Took Russian rivers to Black Sea; which allowed trade with Byzantine Empire and Abbasid empires

  • This provided line between western Europe (Carolingian empire) and Islamic world

Formation of Christian Europe (476-700)

  • Christian church moral and cultural source after Roman Empire fell

  • The Franks, monasteries and Pope play major role in Christianity (western Europe)

  • Latin and institution survives as a result

  • Church serves as scribe, record keepers sectaries etc. (administrative tasks)

  • Frankish kings see themselves as protectors

  • Charlemagne (School in Aachen) reassembled classical literature and produced copies of bible)

  • Encouraged priests to provide free instruction reading and writing

  • Increased literacy and writing (Latin)

Spread of Christianity

  • Military force helped spread Christianity (Charlemagne)

  • Waged war against the Saxons (Germany) 772-804

  • By 1000 Christianity was embraced in most of western Europe

The Papacy

Start of Investiture Controversy:



  • Papacy claims spiritual authority over all lands of Roman Empire

  • For a century after fall of the Roman Empire; church allies with Byzantine emperors

  • Late 6th centuries popes act independently (strengthen western church; eastern Orthodox churches)

  • By 11th century clear difference between two branches & Pope and Emperor excommunicate each other

  • Pope Gregory I led growth (509-604); Gregory the Great

  • Pope mobilized against Lombards; (late 6th century)

  • Also kept archbishops in line (Papal primacy = Pope was final authority of church)

  • He strongly emphasized the sacrament of pence (confess sins and atone for them)

  • This greatly enhances influence of church (daily lives)

  • Missionary work helped spread religion (especially in England)

  • By 7th century Christianity stable footing in England

  • By 9th century securely linked with church

Monasticism

  • Began in Egypt (2nd &3rd centuries); some lived as hermits and other formed communes

  • 4th becomes popular; in Roman Empire (Italy, Spain, Gaul, British Isles)

  • Saint Benedict sets course for movement

  • 529 Benedict’s rule: Celibacy, Chastity and poverty

  • Monks were also spend time in prayer, meditation and work

  • Day consisted of manual labor, reflection study

  • St. Scholastica helped provide religious guidance for women in convents

  • Monasteries become dominant feature of social and culture life in western Europe (Middle Ages)

  • Provided order in countryside, accumulated authority (over serfs) and landholdings

  • Especially prevalent in France and Germany

  • Like Buddhist in Asian lands and Muslims they provided services

  • Served as Inns, orphanages, refuges and schools

Western Europe after the Crusades started (1096-1300)


  • 11th century: revival of trade agricultural revolution, lack of invasions crusades

  • As a result: resumed trade with north Africa India and China; created a need to sell items; which led to new economic methods such as:

  • Setup trade fairs, and money exchangers and created leagues (Hanseatic League )

  • Rise of Guilds (Artisans)

  • Commercial revolution: return of money, banking, etc.

  • Investiture conflict 1075; Gregory VII v. Henry IV

  • Concordat of Worms Scholasticism (Thomas Aquinas)

  • Gothic style architecture (flying buttress, stained glass window)

  • Code of chivalry; hundred years war 1337-1453

China 220-618 Sui dynasty (580-618)




  • Fall of Han in 220; regional kingdoms fight for power

Centralized rule returned in 6th century which led to three major dynasties: Sui, Tang and Song; corruption and inequality led to the fall of each dynasty… The Mongols also ruled China from 1279-1368



  • 6th century Yang Jian (Sui dynasty) reestablished centralized rule lasted for 30 years

  • Enforced strict rule (Just like Qin)

Relationship with southeast Asia also returned (why) Stability and prosperity returned thanks to centralized rule


  • 580 military expeditions into central Asia and southern China

  • 589 controlled all of China

  • Built strong centralized government, fortified walls, and built granaries, levied high taxes

  • Biggest project was the Grand Canal; it facilitated trade between northern and southern China

  • Rice and other agricultural products; from the Yangtze river

  • Rivers flow from west to east; practical way to transports goods

  • Created political and economic unity

  • Internal conflict and revolt (northern China) caused assassination of Sui Yangdi (618) over Korea and canal

Tang Dynasty (618-907)




  • Led by Tang Taizong (627-649)

  • Built capital at Chang’an; was a Confucian ruler

China Prosper during Tang (Why) good domestic policies such as




  • Price of rice remained low and tax rate 2.5; compulsory labor services increased rate

  • Grand canal with horses/roads led to great communication and transportation

  • The equal field system: this was aimed at keeping fair land distribution (avoid problems of late Han time period)

  • 1/5 hereditary and the rest based on fertility and need

  • System promoted prosperity and stability in countryside

  • Bureaucracy positions based on merit; (Han) civil service examination

  • Few influential families worked they way in

  • System worked so well disappeared after the follow of Qing (13th century)

  • System promoted prosperity and stability in countryside

  • Bureaucracy positions based on merit; (Han) civil service examination

  • Few influential families worked they way in

  • System worked so well disappeared after the follow of Qing (13th century)



Example of analysis: All of these policies, listed above led to content people which brought stability and prosperity, which brought success
8th century problems arise with system; rising population, bribery, intimidation (of administers) sparked strain

  • Large pieces of land fell out altogether (Buddhist monasteries) (Problems with Equal filed System)

Military expansion also created success



  • Military expansion (north) Manchuria, Mongolia, and became overlord to Silla (Korea)

  • Portion of Tibet (plateau)t under their control

  • And they also gained portion of northern Vietnam

  • Foreign relations tributary relationships (back from Han times)

  • Tributary relationship: states subordinate to China would kowtow to Chinese emperor and he recognize their authority

  • Fostered trade, cultural exchange and diplomatic relations in Asia

However expansion also is very costly; combine that with political corruption; led to downfall of empire



  • During mid-8th century poor leadership led to rebellion (An Lushan) captured capital of Chang’an

  • Nomadic Turkish people (Uighurs) brought into restore control; they sacked capital after control was restored

  • Revolt and rebellion continued; to bring control military commanders given greater authority

Song Rule (960-1279



  • Brought China under centralized rule; never very dominate

  • Mistrusted military; focused on administration, industry, arts and education

  • Song Taizu (960-976)

  • Increased size of bureaucracy paid extremely well

  • Two big problems of Song Financial & Military

  • I.e. Large bureaucracy and civil administrators running government

  • High taxes and lack of military expertise led to problems

  • 10-12th centuries Khitan, semi nomadic tribe from Manchuria (northern border)

  • Controlled vast empire from north Korea to Mongolia

  • They demanded tributary payments of silk and silver

  • 12 century Jurchen conqueared Khitan and overran northern border; and captured capital Kaifeng

  • China capital moved to Hangzhou (port city in the south)

  • 1279 Mongols overran Chinese and incorporated southern portion into empire

Technological advances: brought on by need for stability




  • High class porcelain, lighter, thinner and more adaptable than earlier pottery

  • When fired with glazes could become an attractive part of art

  • Porcelain diffused among societies (esp. Abbasid) demand very high

  • Southeast Asia, India, Persia, and port cities of east Africa

  • Became known as Chinaware



Metallurgy improved for military purpose; but led to rise of agriculture as well


  • Metallurgy also improved- production of steel and iron surged during this period

  • Techniques were improved

  • Weaponry and agricultural tools biggest beneficiaries in this (used coke instead of coal produced superior metal)

  • 9-12 centuries iron production increased tenfold

  • 16.5 million arrowheads a year

  • Bridge and pagodas also used Iron cultural diffusion also takes place in weaponry; nomadic tribes use it to improve their own weapons

New inventions during this time period gun powder, naval technologies and printing



  • Taoist learned how to make gunpowder during tang times (looking for ways to prolong life)

  • mid 10 century used gun powder in bamboo

  • 13th century used in Eurasia and metal barrel cannons

  • Printing becomes common during Tang/Song times

  • Block printing techniques

  • Carved a reverse imagine of an entire page into a wooden block

  • Inked the block and than pressed a sheet of paper on top

  • By 11 century used moveable type, but old method still used because language contains 40,000 characters

  • Printing = quick, cheap, mass quantities, education Confucian and Buddhists texts by late 9th century

  • Esp. in south western China

Led to long distance travel aided by technological advancements




  • Chinese mariners stayed close to home before Tang times (Korea Japan) but relied on Arab, Persian mariners for long distance trade, spices and other exotic tastes develop during Tang times from southeast Asia

  • Song times: Iron nails, bulkheads, canvas and bamboo sails magnetic compass, rudder

  • Traveled into Indian ocean Ceylon, Persia, and east Africa

  • Compass becomes widely known in Indian Ocean

  • Song Times gunpowder, iron production increases tenfold (800-1100) 120,000 tons a year

  • Steel production & water wheel bellows (temps needed; device that blows strong current of air)



  • Economy improved: urbanization, population growth, agricultural surplus improved technology, transportations systems, industrialization

  • Rice, wheat millet- political influence, foreign expansion fueled economy; created a need for new business practices




  • Promissory notes and checks Flying cash (credit( during Tang times)

  • Paper money cash deposited/ printed notes

  • Problems developed due increased trade and government hording of coins

  • Merchants sometimes not able to honor these notes; Shortage of copper coins during Song and Tang times due to trade

11th century economy dependent on paper money Created problems





  • Government takes over issuing paper money to avoid riots (1024) Sichuan province most active in printing with serial numbers

  • Nomadic tribes soon to introduce practice

  • Counterfeiting, oversupply presented some problems

Due to long distance trade cultural revival:




  • Trade came to China by land and sea transformed china into cosmopolitan society

  • Muslim traders from Abbasid and central Asia help revive the Silk Roads network, also Byzantine merchants traded on silk road

  • Musicians and dancers came from Persia; Arab Malay, Persian and Indian trades came by way of Indian Ocean and China Sea ports (Guangzhou and Quanzhou)

  • Pearls and incense from India, tortoise shells Vietnam Spices southeast Asia, horses and melons central Asia

  • Mahayana Buddhism appears

  • Buddhism appears as early as 2nd century; during Han times; hover not very popular

  • Confucius set upon honest and maintaining public order loses credibility after Han times

  • Nestorian Christians Zoroastrians, 6th century , mid 7th century Muslim communities (south China) foreign merchants and nomadic setters most interested in these foreign religions

  • Buddhism came to China over Silk roads during Son and Tang times

  • Sizeable Buddhist community in western China in 6th century (had the most influence of all religions)

  • Morality, peaceful existence/away from secular world high standards and promise of salvation attractions to religion

  • Zen Buddhism popular among educated classes; Confucius’s saw Buddhism as drain on treasury/ and labor pool (due to rejection of wealth)

  • Taoists saw it as a threat to their religion; wave of persecutions and lost influence around 800

  • Donated harvest during famines

  • Concentrate on celibate lifestyle and Chinese focused on filial piety and family and maintaining offspring- foreign origins and economic- no taxes raised concern from Chinese’s religious scholars

  • Buddhists translate vocab to Chinese (dharma (basic doctrine) to Dao and Nirvana to wuwei (daoist ethic of non-competition)

  • Chan Buddhism popular (Buddhism with Chinese characteristics

  • Neoconfucinism focuses on nature of soul, logic, individual relationship with the cosmos Zhu Xi considered one of the most politer writers

  • Establish Buddhist values in China; and spread them throughout east Asia until 20th century creed developed during song times

China’s influenced southeast Asia




  • Korea and Vietnam invaded as early as Han and Qin times

  • Tang times reestablished expansion both used aspects of Chinese culture and politics

  • 7th tang take over some of Korean peninsula, but Silla recover to prevent complete takeover

  • Tang emperor becomes overlord in Korea (in theory a vassal state)

  • Tributary relationship develops

  • Korean merchants in China (established trade)

  • Experienced Chinese political and cultural traditions

  • Writes also studied literature (Confucian ideas) popular among literate aristocrats

  • Chan Buddhism popular among commoners and peasants (salvation)

Differences between the two

- Aristocrats dominated Korean society



Vietnam

  • Vietnam much more resistant. However, they do adopt agricultural techniques

  • They also studied Confucian ideals and Chinese administrative techniques/adopted tributary system

  • However they resented China’s domination series of revolts; 10th century won independence

Differences between the two

  • Women play more proximate role in Vietnam ;and they tried to stick to their religions

  • Buddhism came from China and India; bureaucracy modeled after China

Japan (600-1400)



  • Japan four main islands of coast of mainland Asia

  • Chinese never invaded Japan; huge cultural and political influence

  • Early inhabited of Japan were nomadic people from northeast Asia

  • Dating back to the ice age 200,000

  • Religion, language and material culture derived from northeast Asia

  • Later waves came from Korean peninsula; introduced cultivation, metallurgy (iron & bronze) and horses

  • China’s imperial government had influence in Japan; aristocratic clan tries to centralize power in central Japan

  • Buddhist missionaries went to Japan (6th century) Buddhism and Shintoism practiced simultaneously

  • 1st and only clan to rule Japan was Yamato clan (5th century) 1st and only clan to rule it)

  • (7th century) adopts bureaucratic style used in Tang China (Taika reforms)

  • Similarities to Tang: court Bureaucracy, equal field system, support Confucius and Buddhism (710-794 Nara period) Chinese influence greatest)

  • Japanese reject idea of civil service exam and Confucianism (education not nearly as important as birth)

  • Noble classes were birth not earned



Uniqueness to culture

  • Still observe red rituals of Shinto (religion) veneration of ancestors and revolved around natural sprits and deities

  • Shinto “ways of the gods; Kami(nature and all of it forces)

  • Goal is to become apart of Kami following certain rituals and customs;

  • Proper conduct; and moral behavior also emphasized ; Yamato’s promoted idea that they were direct descendants of sun god

  • Japanese emperor: moves capital to (Heian794); Heian period 794-1185

  • Japanese emperors severed more as figure heads; real power lay in the hands of the Fujiwara family (aristocratic clan) through manipulating royal family

  • The imperial throne survived because of this split (emperor and ruling agents)

  • During this period (Golden Age) in literature

  • literature similar to Chinese; boys and men learned Chinese, read the classic works (China’s) scholars used some of the characters of the Chinese script (to represent Japanese)

  • records kept in Chinese

  • Women did not receive formal education; most notable literary contributions women (written in Japanese)

Decline of Heian

  • Changes in countryside; while government lost touch

  • Equal field system fell into disuse; aristocratic families gain lots of land and power

  • 11th century Minamoto and Taria clans are dominate

Feudal Japan

  • 12 century Minamoto is victorious over Taria

  • They did not overthrow governor (ruled land in name of the emperor)

  • 1192 Yoritomo Minamoto Appointed military governor (shogun; ruled in place of emperor)

  • From 1185-1573 Medieval period in Japan; time period between Chinese influence (Nara &Heian) and Tokugawa (16th century)

  • Kamakakura (1185-1333) and Muromachi (1336-1573)

  • During feudal time period political decentralization (lords in control land and economic affairs)

  • Below shogun was (Daimyo) rich landowners/Samurai

  • Lords battled for power in the countryside; little time for emperors court in city (Heian an Nara)

  • Lords valued military and discipline; Samurai (mounted warriors)were most valued

  • Lords relied on Samurai to protect land and for conquest

  • Samurai supported by agricultural surplus; devoted life to archery, marital arts, riding and hunting

  • Japan’s political development different from middle kingdom (China)

  • They followed strict code of conduct (Code of Bushido) loyalty, courage and honor (commit suicide if not followed)

  • Japan got concept of centralized rule , Buddhist religion, Confucian ideals from China

The Mongols




  • Ancient times (steppe tribe) broken into many clans

  • From central and east Asia

  • 13th century Chinggis Khan unites all tribes

  • Military central unit of empire 100,00-125,000 men

  • Conquered most of Eurasia; great equestrian skills

  • Rode on horseback; used bows and arrows (could hit targets from 200 meters;650 feet)

  • Could ride 62 miles a day; spread lives of most captives; killed those who resisted

  • 13th century Kahn unified Mongolian tribes, conquered northern China (1211-1234) and central Asia (1224)

  • Interested in conquest not administration; no central government

  • Controlled army and had overlords (generous tribute)

  • 1227 Great Kahn dies and empire split into four regional empires

  • Great Khans ruled China; central Asia, Persia and Russia

  • Kublai Khan (1st too really promote culture) supported Daoism, Muslims and Christians and promoted Buddhism

  • 1264-1294 he presided over empire at its height; gained all of China 1279

  • 1279-1368 Yuan Dynasty

  • 1270-1280 tried to extend rule into southeast Asia (Vietnam, Cambodia, and Burma (not very successful

  • Mongols (Golden Horde) overran Russia; 1237-1241 and then explored Hungary, Poland and east Germany (1241-42)

  • Did not conquer Russia (but dominated region until mid 15th century

  • And were in area until 18th century

  • Kahn’s brother toppled Abbasid dynasty in 1258;

  • Mongols in Persia worried about tax receipts and control; allow Persian to fulfill provincial governors spots

  • Tolerant of all religions until 1295 Ikhan Ghazan (leader) converted to Islam (showed cultural diffusion)

Mongol rule in China




  • Thought of themselves as superior; talked about killing all Chinese (instead tax them to death)

  • Would not let Mongols intermarry and Chinese could not learn Mongols language

  • Tolerated all religions; but got rid of Confucian educational system

Trade



  • Linked cultures from all over Eurasian landmass

  • Encouraged communication and travel (courier network/news, information government orders

  • They also facilitated domestic travel, missionary efforts and trade

  • Worked to secure trade routes and safety of merchants

  • Long distance trade sped up (central Asia); commercial investments increase)

  • Trade linked China and western Europe; (Just like Silk Road) in earlier times

  • Diplomatic relations established in Korea, Vietnam and India as well as western Europe

  • Missionary efforts (Sufi missionaries/Islam) Turkish people in central Asia

  • Lamaist Buddhist (Tibet sparked interest among Mongols: Neorastrian Christians from central Asia (converted some Chinese to Christianity)

  • Roman Catholics also made their way to China:; during the 13th century consider military alliance between Mongols and Christians (against Muslims)

  • Pope Innocent IV 1240s-1250s sent envoys to meet with Mongols (purpose convert to Christianity) He replied submit to Mongols or face destruction

  • 1287 Mongols planned attack to Muslims in southwest Asia; goal to recapture Jerusalem (expel Muslim control from area)

  • Rabban Sauma (Nestorian Christian) was sent to Europe gain support for plan)

  • Met with Persians and Europeans (effort failed)

  • 1000 Christian missionaries all over (Baltic lands and the Balkan region) Sicily and Spain

  • 13th century traveled into China; John Montecorvino (1291) most active in China

  • He translated (New Testament and Book of Psalms (into Turkish); built churches and baptisized followers; 6000 by 1305)

  • Missionary efforts continued into China (14th century; limited success)

Resettlement




  • The need for educated people and artisans led to resettlement

  • Most important were Uighurs (Turks; allies to the Mongols)

  • Lived along cities of Silk Roads (ran administrative duties of Empire)

  • Arab and Persian Muslims served same function

  • Talent also came from captured peoples; 1230s conducted census


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