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CHENNAI – 600 005.

State Integrated Board of Studies


Post Graduation – 2 Year Course

Mandatory Areas
1. Applied Geomorphology

2. Advanced Climatology

3. Hydrology and Oceanography

4. Geography of Water Resources

5. Economic Geography

6. Urban Geography

7. Social Geography

8. Cultural Geography

9. Political Geography

10. Geographical Thought

11. Geography of India

12. Regional Planning and Development

13. Remote Sensing and GIS

14. Research Methodology in Geography

15. Medical Geography

16. Environmental Geography

Suggested Optional Areas

1. Quantitative Techniques and Computer Applications In Geography

2. Transport Geography

  1. Population And Settlement Geography

  2. Gender Geography

  1. Disaster Management

  2. Agricultural Geography

1. An Analysis of Terrain Mapping

2. An Analysis of Geographical Data

3. Quantitative Techniques and computer Applications

4. Aerial Photographs, Remote Sensing and GIS

Mandatory Areas

1. Applied Geomorphology

Introduction to geomorphology as a science: definition, nature, scope and recent developments.

Fundamental concepts:

(i) Geological structure and landforms

(ii) Uniformitarian

(iii) Multi cycle and polygenetic evolution of landscape

(iv) Frequency concept of geomorphic processes

(v) Climato-genetic geomorphology

Continental drift theory and its basic considerations; Plate tectonics-meaning and concept, margins and boundaries, plate movements and cycle; Tectonic activities along boundaries and distribution of plates.

Hill slope-definition and forms of slope, geomorphic processes and slope forms, slope evolution: wearing, parallel retreat and slope replacement models.

Weathering : Causes; types of weathering: physical, chemical and biological.

Mass movement, causes, classifications and types of mass movements- slow and rapid mass movements.

Geomorphic processes and resulting land forms:

(i) Fluvial

(ii) Glacial

(iii) Aeolian

(iv) Karst

Applied geomorphology: Meaning and concept, role of geomorphology in environmental management of the following:

(i) Accelerated erosion and sedimentation

(ii) Construction of large dams

(iii) Urban geomorphology

Books for references:

Selby, M. J. 1991: Earth’s Changing Surface, Clarendon Press, London

Small, R.J. 1978: The Study of Landforms, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

Sparks, B.W. 1960: Geomorphology, Longman, London.

Strahler, A.N. and Strahler, A.H. 1984: Elements of Physical Geography, John Wiley, New York.

Thornbury, W.D. 1954: Principles of Geomorphology, John Wiley, New York.

Wooldridge, S.W. and Morgan, R.S. 1959: The Physical basis of Geography- An Outline of Geomorphology, Longman, London.

2. Advanced Climatology

The composition and structure of the atmosphere – Insolation, heat balance of the earth – Greenhouse effect – heat budget of the earth, temperature inversion, Atmospheric motion, causes of air motion, vertical motion, local winds, jet streams. General circulation of the atmosphere, atmospheric moisture, Humidity, Evaporation, Condensation – cloud formation and classification – precipitation

Tropical and temperate weather systems – Air masses and fronts, temperate cyclones, thunderstorms, monsoons, tropical cyclones, ocean atmospheric interaction – El Nino and Southern oscillation and La Nina.

Climatic classification: Approaches, climatic classification of Koeppen, Trewartha and Thornthwaite. Major climates of the world – Tropical rainforest, Mediterranean, Tropical arid and semi arid climates.

Climatic changes : Evidences, past and present, possible causes, ozone depletion, global warming, environmental impacts.

Applied climatology: Climate and agriculture, weather relation of crops – rice, wheat, coffee, tea and coconut, Agro-climatic regions of India, droughts: definition, classification, impact of drought on agriculture. Weather and health, climates and diseases. Urban climates: micro climate in urban areas, urban heat island.

Books for references:

Barry R.G. and Chorley P.J. 1998 ‘Atmosphere Weather and Climate’, Routledge, London & New York.

Critchfield II.J. 1980 ‘General Climatology’, Printice Hall, New york.

Lal D.S. 1988 ‘Climatology’, Chitanya Publishing House, New Delhi.

Ramasastry A.A 1988 ‘Weather & Weather Forecasting’, Central Electrical Press.

Robinson .P.J & Henderson S. 1999 ‘Contemporary climatology’, Henlow.

Savindra Singh 1998 ‘Climatology’, Pryag Pustak Bhawan – India.

Trewartha G. T. & Horn L.A. 1980 ‘Introduction to Climate’, Mc Graw Hill company, London.

3. Hydrology And Oceanography

Definition, nature, scope and historical development of hydrology- Relationship of hydrology with other physical sciences.

Hydrological cycle-sub cycle- estimation of global water budget- human impact on hydrological cycle.

Rainfall: frequency, intensity and measurement, accuracy of rainfall measurement, determination of average rainfall (Arithmetic mean, Theiesson polygon, isohytel methods), variations in rainfall and world distribution.

Sources and measurement of stream flow, hydrograph and its components, analysis of hydrograph, factors affecting the hydrograph shape, methods of hydrograph separation, variations in runoff, rainfall-runoff relationship.

Major topographic features of ocean basins- bottom relief of Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans.

Oceanic temperature: distribution and causes of variation.Origin, causes, types and effects of the ocean currents, currents of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian ocean.

Composition of oceanic water and distribution of salinity and density.

Origin, causes, types and effects of the ocean currents, currents of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian ocean. waves and tides.

Sources, classification and distribution of ocean deposits, corals-origin, types and conditions for development. Theories about the origin of coral reefs (Subsidence and standstill).Marine resources.

Books for references:

Chorley, R.J., 1969: Water, Earth and Man, Methuen, London

Chow, V. T., Maidment, D.R. and Mays, L.W. 1988: Applied Hydrology ,McGraw Hill, New York.

King, C.A.M. 1962: Oceanography for Geographers, Arnold, London.

King, C.A.M., 1972: Beaches and Coasts, Arnold, London.

Linsley, K., Kohler, M. and Paulhus, J.L. 1975: Applied Hydrology, Tata McGraw Hill, New York.

Meinzer, O.E. 1942: Hydrology, Dover Publication Inc. New York.

Rahgunath, H.M. 1997: Hydrology- Principles, analysis, Design, New Age International Pvt. Ltd,New Delhi

Shepard, F.P., 1963: Submarine Geology, Harper and Row, New York

Small. R.J. 1989: Geomorphology and Hydrology, Longman Group Ltd, London.

Steers, J.A. 1953: The Sea Coast, Collins, London
4. Geography of Water Resources

Definition, nature and scope of the geography of water resources. Distribution of water (surface and subsurface), water table-changing trends in use of water, water crises in world.

Water demand and use: methods of estimation, agricultural, industrial and municipal uses of water.

Agricultural use of water: estimation of crop-water requirement, water balance and drought; major and minor irrigation projects, water harvesting techniques, soil water conservation.

Irrigation- water logging, salinity and alkalinity of soils, over exploitation of groundwater, water quality parameters, water pollution: river and ground water pollution.

Water resource problems: Water demand and supply, water quality, interstate water disputes, institutional and financial constraints, water rights, eco hydrological consequences of environmental degradation, footprints of water, virtual water.

Impact of water resources development on economic development, important water resources projects in India, positive and negative environmental impacts of water resources projects (with special Books for reference to Bhakra Nangal, Indira Gandhi Canal and Damodar Valley Corporation).

Problems of water resource management: Floods, magnitude/frequency, structural and non-structural adjustment of flood hazards; flood forecasting. Droughts-occurrence and management.

Conservation and planning for the development of water resources, integrated basin planning; conjunctive use of surface and ground water resources; watershed management, water policy, water management in urban areas, inter basin transfer of water (interlinking).

Books for references:

Chorley R.J. (ed) 1969 ,Introduction to Physical Hydrology’, Methuen, London.

JonesJ.A.1977‘Global Hydrology –Processes, Resources and Environmental management’, Longman, London.

R.K. Sharma 1987 ‘Hydrology and Water Resources’, Dhanpatrai & sons.

Tideman 1996 ‘Watershed Management’, Omega, New Delhi.

Todd 1959 ‘Ground Water Hydrology’, John Wiley, New york.

5. Economic Geography

Definition: Nature, Scope and Recent trends of Economic Geography – Its relation with economics and Allied subjects.World Economies: bases of classification, patterns and characteristics of developed and developing economies of the world.

Classification of Economies, Local and Spatial organization – Sectors of Economy –Primary, Secondary and Tertiary – The Impact of Economic activities on environment.

Natural resources: Classification – Renewable and Non-renewable – Biotic and Abiotic – Conservation of resources – Changing nature of economic activities – Mining, Forestry, Agricultural, Industry, Trade and Transport.

Agriculture: Physical, Social, Cultural environment influencing crop production – Spatial Distribution of major food and cash crops of the world – Agricultural types and classification.

Minerals and Industries: Classification of Minerals – Ferrous and Non-Ferrous and their World Distribution – Energy Minerals and Resources - Industries: Factors of Localization – Major Industries – Iron and Steel, Textile, Chemicals, Cement, Paper, Ship building, Small scale and Cottage industries, Information &Technology industries(IT)

Trade and Transport: Geographical Factors in their development – Major water, land and air transport –Network structure and economic activities, impact of transport on economic activities, Edward Ullman’s spatial interaction model. Basic concepts in location problems, location models of Weber, Christaller and Losch

Concept of economic growth and development, globalization and pattern of economic development.

Recent trends in pattern of international trade.

Emergence of a new global economy – transnational integration and its spatial outcomes.

Major regional trade blocks of the world, free trade initiatives (GATT, UNCTAD, WTO)

– Globalization and their effect on Developing Countries of the World.

Books for references:

Jones, C.F. and Darkenwald, G.G. 1954, Economic Geography, Macmillan, New York.

Leong. G.C. and Morgan, G.C. 1975: Human and Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, Hong Kong.

Miller, E. 1962: A Geography of Manufacturing, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliff, N. J.

Morgan, W.B. and Manton, R.J.C. 1971: Agricultural geography, Methuen, London.

Paterson, J.H. 1976: Land, Work and Resources- An Introduction to Economic Geography, Edward Arnold , London

Sen, A. 1990: Jibanjatra O Arthaniti (Bengali) Ananda Publishers, Kolkata.

Simmons, I. G. 1981: The Ecology of Natural Resources, ELBS/ Edward Arnold, London.

6. Urban Geography

Nature, scope and significance of Urban Geography; different approaches to the study of urban geography – recent trends – definition of urban centres – origin and growth of urban centres – process of urbanization – factors associated with the growth of cities.

Classification of urban centres on the basis of a) size b) function c) rank size rule and d)laws of prime city, Harris and Ullman Nelson’s scheme of classification – classification of Indian cities by Ashok Misra.

Urban centres – their spatial and functional relationships, Central Place theory of Chirstraller and Losch, theories of Perroux and Bourdeville. Economic bases of urban settlement

Urban morphology; land use models – theories of Burgess, Harris and Hoyt’s Central Business district and its characteristics; morphology of Indian cities, Urban housing – Urban slums – urban housing policies and programmes – Urban fringe – its characteristics and development.

Process of urbanization in India – problems and prospects. Social Area Analysis

Books for references:

Hall, Tim, 1998, Urban Geography, Routledge, Londo

Cherry, Gordan, E1974, Urban Planning Problems, Leonard Hills Books, London.

Alam, S.M.& Alikhan F Eds’87, Poverty in Metropolltan Cities, Concept, New Delhi.

Alikhan F.1987, Urbanisation in the Third World: An African Experience Booklinks, Hyderabad.

Naidu, Ratna, 1990, Old Cities, New Predicaments, A Study of Hyderabad, Sage, New Delhi.

Sengupta, Chandan, 2000, Urban Poverty & Vulnerability in India, Oxfam, India Trust.

Alam, S.M.& Khan, W.1972, Metropolitan Hyderabad and its Region, Allied, Bombay.

Alam,S M ,1964, Hyderabad—Secunderabad, Twin Cities, Asia Publishing House, Bombay

Carter H 1972, The Study of Urban Geography, Edward Arnold, London

Singh K and Steinberg, F eds,1998, Urban India in Crises, New Age Interms, New Delhi.

7. Social Geography
Nature and Development of Social Geography – Philosophical bases of Social Geography – Positivists – Structuralism – Radical, humanist, Post-modern and Post structuralism – Social Geography in the realm of Social sciences.
Space and Society: Understanding society and its structure and process – Geographical bases of social formations – Contribution of Social Geography , social theories – Power relations and space.
Towards a Social Geography of India – Social differentiation and Region formation – Evolution of Socio-cultural regions of India – Bases of Social Region formation – Role of Race, Caste, Ethnicity, Religion and Languages – Indian Unity and Diversity – Social Transformation and Change in India.

Human Social Well-being : Concepts of Human well-being, physical quality of life – Human Development – Measurement of Human development with Social, Economic and Environmental Indicators – HDI – patterns of social well being in world and India.

Public policy and Social planning in India: Review of Five year plans and area plans towards Social policy in India
Books for reference:

1. Jones Emrys and Eyles John (1977): An introduction to social geography,

Oxford University Press

2. Aijazuddin Ahmed (1999): Social Geography, Rawat Publications, New Delhi

3. Knowles R, Wareing J (1998): Economic and Social Geography

4. Smith David (1977): Geography - A Welfare Approach, Edward Arnold

5. Knox P. L (1975): Social Well-being: A Spatial Perspective, Oxford University

Press, London

6. Orange Mike (1998). Cultural geography, Routledge Publication, London.

7. Gergom. D. and Lassy J. (1985). Social relations and spatial structure,


8. Cultural Geography

Meaning and nature of cultural geography, Components of culture, cultural traits, complexes and systems. Basic cultural processes- Convergence and divergence processes, cultural perception, behaviouralism and cultural relativism.Fundamental themes in cultural geography: Concepts of cultural region, cultural diffusion, cultural ecology, culture integrations and cultural landscape.

Cultural diversity: Language, religion and tribal groups, Linguistic culture region, Language pattern in India, Linguistic diffusion, Linguistic ecology, Linguistic cultural integration, Linguistic landscapes. Religious culture region, Major religions of the world, Religious diffusion, Religious ecology, Religious cultural integration, Religious landscapes. Major tribal groups of the world and India.

Folk and Popular geography. Folk culture regions, Folk culture diffusion, Folk ecology, Folk architecture in the cultural landscape, Folk dwellings: house types, structural and functional elements of a house. Popular culture- popular culture regions, popular culture diffusion, the ecology of popular culture, landscapes in popular culture.

Human Settlements, significance of settlement studies, place names versus settlements, Meaning, scope and approaches of settlement geography, Types and patterns of settlements, Causes of diverse types of rural settlements.

Cultural geography of the Himalaya, The cultural patterns- Hindu, Lamaist-Buddhism, Islamic, Indo- Mongolid and Nepalic culture areas. Major communities of the Himalaya.

Books for references:

1. Crong Mike (1998): Cultural geography Routledge publications, London

2. Readings in Cultural Geography: Wagner and Mikesell

3. Jordan and Lester, G. (1979): The Human Mosaic Harper Row, New York

4. Massey et al (ed) (1999): Human Geography today, Polity Press, Cambridge, 1999

5. Mukerjee, A. B., Aijaxuddin Ahmed (1985): India Culture Society's Economy, Inter India Publications, New Delhi

6.Getic-et al 1988 ‘Introduction to Geography’, W.M.C. Brown Publishers, Disbuque.

7.J.E. Spencer and W.L Thomas 1978 ‘Introducing Cultural Geography’,John Wiley & Sons, New York.

8.Jan O. M. Brock & W. Webb 1973 ‘A Geography of Mankind’, McGraw Hill Book Company.

9. Philip L. Wagner & W. Mikesell 1962 ‘Readings in Cultural Geography’, The University Chicago Press.

10. Majid Hussain 1994 ‘Cultural Geography’, Anmol publications Pvt., Ltd. New Delhi.

9. Political Geography

Definition, nature and scope of political geography, approaches: the functional approach and the unified field theory - State, nation and nation State- Geographic elements of the state; physical, human, economic, administrative and circulatory systems- Unitary, federal and regional state- Distinction between frontiers and boundaries, demarcation of boundaries, classification and functions of boundaries.

Land locked states: advantages and disadvantages- Core areas and capitals, their types and classification- Global strategic views: Mahan and Sea power; Mackinder and Heartland; Spykman and Rimland Servasky and Air power.

The developing laws of the sea; geopolitical significance of Indian Ocean-Political geography of India with special reference to water disputes and riparian claims, Kashmir problem and Indo-Pak relations-Electoral studies in political geography – Trend in electoral geography, Geography of voter's participation, regional stability urban-rural conflict, revised model of electoral geography - Political Geography of Resource Conflicts – Water Sharing Disputes, Disputes and Conflicts Related to Forest Rights and Minerals.

Books for references:

Alexander, L.M. World Political Patterns Ran Mc Nally, Chicago, 1963.

Deblij, H.J. and Glassner, Martin Systematic Political Geography, John Wiley, New York, 1968.

Dikshit, R.D .Political Geography: A Contemoporary perspective, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 1996.

Dikshit, R.D. Political geography: A Century of Progress, Sage, New Delhi, 1999.

Sukhwal, B.L. Modern Political Goegraphy of India Sterling publishers, New Delhi. 1968.

Taylor, Peter: political Geography Longman, London. 1985.

Fisher Charles A.: Essays in Political Geography, Methuen, London, 1968.

Pounds N.J.G.: Political Geography. McGraw Hill, New York, 1972.

John R. Short: An introduction to Political Geography Routledge, London, 1982.

Moddie, A.E: Geography Behind Political Hutchinson, London, Latest edition.

Prescott. J.R.V..: The Geography of Frontiers and Boundaris Aldine, Chicago.

Deshpande C.D: India-A Regional Interpretation Northern Book Centre, New Delhi, 1992.
10. Geographical Thought

Classification of knowledge, Nature of Geography and its place among sciences -Evolution of relationship between Systematic Sciences and Systematic Geography. Need for a Regional concept in geography. Nature of Geographic knowledge during ancient (Greek and Roman) and medieval (Arab) periods - Foundation of Modern Geography-contributions of Varenius, Kant, Humboldt and Ritter- Emergence of Geography as a study of (i) physical features (ii) chorology (iii) landscapes. Concepts and dualism in Geography: Environmental Determinism and Possibilism, Areal Differentiation; Physical vs Human Geography, and Systematic vs Regional Geograp

Appearance of Time and Genesis dimension in geography Paradigms in geography. Cognitive explanations in geography. Causal, Temporal and Ecological explanations in geography.

Advent of Scientific and Technological Revolution of the 1950’s and geographical issues. Laws and Models in geographical enquiry. Quantitative Revolution and Theory Building. Behavioral Approach in geographical learning

Relevance Movement in geography. Humanistic and Radical approaches. Positivism in geography. Revival of Ecological Studies in geography. Spatial System Theory and Postmodern geography.

Books for references:

Dickinson, R E (1969), The Makers of Modern Geography, London.

Dikshit, RD (1997), Geographical Thought- A Contextual History of Ideas, Prentice

Hall of India, New Delhi.

Harvey David (1989), Explanation in Geography, Edward Arnold, London.

Hartshorne, R (1959), Perspectives on the Nature of Geography, Rand MacNelly, Chicago.

James PE and Martin J Geoffrey (1972) All possible Worlds, John Wiley and Sons,New York.

Johnston, RJ (1983) Geography and Geographers, Edward Heinemann, London

Peet, Richard (1998) Modern Geographical Thought, Oxford, Blackwell Publishers.
11. Geography of India

Physiography – Climate- Origin and Mechanism of Indian Monsoon - drainage systems. Soils, Vegetation. Schemes of Natural Physiographic and climate classifications.

Tribal areas and their problems, Population growth, distribution, density, Sex Ratio and literacy, Population problems and policies. Urbanisation in India.

Resources conservation and utilization of land, mineral, water, biotic and marine resources. Agricultural land use pattern, Green revolution and its impact on Indian

Agriculture. Agriculture infrastructure - Irrigation, Fertilizers and Seeds, Dry zone Agriculture. Agro-Climatic Regions of India.

Industry - factors of Localization, classification and detailed study of the following-Iron and steel, Cement, Fertilizer, paper and Pulp and Sugar industries. Study of the network of Road, railways, Airways and Water ways. Regional disparities in development in India.

Geographical study of Tamilnadu : Relief, Climate, Vegetation, Soils, Agricultural development, Irrigation, Mineral and Power resources, Industrial development, Population Growth and Distribution, Transport and Trade.

Books for references

A Ramesh and P.S. Tiwari 1983 ‘Basic Resource Atlas of Tamil Nadu, Dpartment of geography’, University of Madras..

Dubey, R.N. 1971 ‘Economic Geography of India’.

‘Manorama’ year book – 2006.

Singh, R.L.India 1970 ‘A Regional Geography’, UBS Publishers and Distributors Ltd., Seena Publication.

Spate, O.H.K. 1962 ‘India and Pakistan’.

T.C.Sharma and continuo 2004 ‘Economic and Commercial Geography of India
12. Regional Planning And Development

Regional concept in Geography, Conceptual and theoretical framework, merits and limitations for application to regional planning and development; changing concept of the region from an interdisciplinary view-point.

Concept of space, area and locational attributes. Approaches to delineation of different types of regions and their utility in planning. Planning process - sectoral, temporal and spatial dimensions;

Indicators of development and disparities - case study of India. Regional development strategies - concentration verus dispersal, case studies for plans of developed and developing countries.

Short- term and long term planning in a national context. Regional plans of India Regional development in India - problems and prospects.

Concept of Multi-level planning: Decentralised planning; Peoples participation in the planning process; Panchayati Raj system. Role and relationship of Panchayati Raj institutions (Village Panchaayat, Panchayat Samiti and Zila Parishad) and administrative structure (Village, Block and District).

Books for references:

Spate,OHK, India and Pakistan , 1974, Methuen & Co., London ,1967.

R.L.Singh (ed ) , India – A Regional Geography , National Geographical Society of India,Varanasi, 1971.

Deshpandey, C.D., Regional Geography of India.

Tiwari,Geography of India,1992.
13. Remote Sensing and GIS

Historical development of Remote sensing as a technology - Relevance of remote sensing in Geography - Concepts and basics. Energy source, energy and radiation principles, energy interactions in the atmosphere and earth surface features. Remote sensing systems: platforms and sensors.

Air Photos and Photogrammetry : Elements of Photographic system : type, scales and ground coverage, resolution, radiometric characteristics, films, filters, aerial cameras, geometric fundamentals of photogrammetry, elements of vertical photographs, relief displacement, image parallax, strereoscopic, orthophotos. Airphoto interpretation : shape, size, pattern, tone, texture, shadows, site, advantage and limitation and remote sensing and its comparison with map, aerial photographs and satellite imagery.

Satellite Remote Sensing: History and development of various types of satellite and space programme with special reference to Indian Space Research programme. Types of imagery, techniques of visual interpretation, ground verification, transfer of interpreted thematic information of base maps.

Post classification analysis- Digital Image Processing (DIP): i) Image rectification, ii) geometric correction iii) Radiometric correction iv) Atmospheric correction - Image enhancement: i) Contrast stretch, ii) Filtering- Low Frequency, High frequency iii) Linear edge enhancement iv) Band ratioing

Image classification: i) Supervised, ii) Unsupervised, iii)Post classification analysisiv) Accuracy assessment v) Ground truth data collection

Application of remote sensing: Air photo and image interpretations and mapping, forest and wild life, mines and Geology. Land use and land cover, Soil, land evaluation, weather studies, water resources; Urban studies and hazard management and environmental management. GIS - Introduction, definition and scope, its application in various fields and planning.

Introduction to GIS software - GIS single layer operations – clip, split, dissolve, map form, Buffering, overlay functions – union, intersect, identity, Set theory concepts – Boolen concept – simple and complex querying using GIS data.

Network analysis, Digital elevation model.Introduction to GPS – Components of GPS, Functioning – Identification of location and altitude and mapping using GPS

Books for references

Lillesand, Thomas M. & Kiefer Ralph (2000): Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation, John Wiley

Agarwal C. S. and Garg, P. K. (2002): Text Book on Remote Sensing, Wheeler Publishing, New Delhi

Prithvish Nag and M. Kudrat (1998): Digital Remote Sensing, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi

Avery T.E., and G.L. Berlin (1992): Fundamentals of Remote Sensing and Air Photo Interpretation, 514 Ed. Macmillan, New York, USA.

Campbell, J.B. (2002) Introduction to Remote Sensing, 3rd ed., Taylor & Francis, New York,USA.

Lillesand, Thomas M. and R. Kiffer (1994), Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation, 3rdedition, John Willy & sons, Inc New York, USA.

Sabins, F (1982): Remote Sensing Principles and Application, Freemass and Compare, NewYork, USA

Jensen, J.R. (2000), Remote Sensing of the Environment: An earth Resource Perspectives,Pearson Education Inc. India.

Aggarwal C.S. and P.K. Garg (2000). Remote Sensing, A.H. Wheeler & Co. Ltd, New Delhi.

Nag and Kudrat (2002), Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation, Concept Publishers, Delhi.

Meenakhi Kumar(2000), Text book on Remote Sensing; NCERT, New Delhi.

Anji Reddy (2000) Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (An Introduction),Hyderabad.
14. Research Methodology In Geography

Research : Meaning and definition – need for Scientific research- Types of research and fundamental research in Geography – Traditional and scientific – Theories and laws in geography – data Explosion – Quantitative Revolution – development of quantitative revolution in geography.

Uses of models and empirical techniques in the analysis of Geographic problems, Research designs – Identification of problem. Hypothesis - Formulation of hypothesis. in Geography.

Data acquisition and analysis – Source of data- Primary, Secondary and alternative source – Drafting of questionnaire- types-Schedules-Various methods of primary data collection- Interview. Data transformation to mappable form – designing of appropriate maps and charts – Ground truth verification.

Sampling – types of sampling – spatial sampling – Area, line and point Sampling, significance of sampling in Geographical research. Literature review and the role of internet, preparation of bibliography.

Thesis writing: Organization of the thesis, the preliminaries, the text and Books for reference materials – drafting of the thesis – first, second and final report – Writing of Research papers and abstract and preparation of research programmes. Study Tour Report Writing.

Books for references:

Amodoe & Colledge1975 ‘An Introduction to Scientific Reasoning in Geography’, John Willey and Sons.

Aslam Mohammed and Professor Moonis Razaa 1971 ‘Statistical Methods in Geographical Studies’.

Launsberry J.P. 1979 ‘Introduction to Scientific Geographical Research’, Brown & Co, Iowa.

Cole and King 1989 ‘Quantitative Geography Techniques and Theories in Geography’, John Wiley and sons Ltd., LondoN

Davis K.D. 1972 ‘The Conceptual Revolution in Geography’, university of London Press, London.

Gregory S. 1963 ‘Statistical Methods for Geographers’, Longman, London.

Sadhu Singh 1980 ‘Research Methodology in Social Science’, Himalaya Publishing Company, Bombay.

15. Medical Geography

Medical Geography: Nature, Scope and Significance; Environmental influence on health; Relationship between socio – cultural factors & health.

Human health in India; Indicators of health: changes in birth, death rates & infant mortality rates, life Expectancy, changes in sex ratio, literacy and population growth, population control; Nutrition: mal & under nutrition – causes & consequences.

Disease classification & distribution: T.B., Cancer, Leprosy, Pneumonia, HIV/AIDS,Cholera; Cholera Disease diffusion model.

Development of health care system in India with special reference to Tamilnadu; Study of present health care systems: Deficiencies & problems of efficiency enhancement; Health care problems in India: Urban & rural differences with special reference to Tamilnadu.

Role of WHO, UNICEF, Red Cross; Indian Health Care Planning: Child and Family Health Welfare, Immunization, Rural Health and Health for All Programmes, National Health Care Infrastructure; Health & GIS.

Books for references:

Cliff A and Haggett P. 1989 ‘Atlas of Disease Distribution’, Basil Blackwell, Oxford.

May J.M. 1961 ‘Ecology of Human Disease’, M.D. Publications, New York.

Mc Glashan N.D. 1972 ‘Medical Geography’, Methuen, London.

Peter Haggett. 2002 ‘Geography of Epidemics’, Arnold, London.

Pyle .G. 1979 ‘Applied Medical Geography’, Winston, Halted Press, Silver Springs M.D. U.S.A.

16. Environmental Geography

Concept of Environment: Nature and scope of environmental geography-Man and environment relationship - Major elements of Environment; Functioning of Environmental systems: role of biotic and abiotic elements; Biodiversity: meaning, biological evolution, interaction between species; Environmental factors influencing biodiversity-.

Concept of eco system- structure, classification and function-Terrestrial and Aquatic ecosystems - location, types and characteristics; Energy flow in an ecosystem; Ecological pyramids and food chains; Succession, restoration and simplification of ecosystem; Ecosystem stability: risk, conservation and management; Biogeochemical cycles.

Natural hazards: earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunami, tropical cyclones, droughts, floods, famines; Forest fires: distribution, causes and consequences; Disaster management-Human interference on eco system-population growth and its impact on eco system.

Man’s modification of environment: Agriculture-Green revolution-HYV,Pesticides-Man’s impact on land, mining, soil and coastal areas.

Human settlement and environment: Urban and industrial environment: environmental degradation-emerging environmental issues-pollution and environmental health.

Conservation and management of environment; Concept of sustainable development; Sustaining living resources; Conservation of wildlife and biological diversity; Land degradation and pollution; Environment impact assessment; Environmental issues and policies.

Books for references:

David Harvey, Justice, Nature, and Geography of Difference, Blackwell,2000 .

John Bellomy Foster, The Vulnerable Planet, Monthly Review Press,1994

Savindra Singh, Environmental Geography, PPB, 2000

David Pepper, Eco-socialism: From Deep Ecology to Social Justice,Routledge, 1
Suggested Optional Areas
1. Quantitative Techniques and Computer Applications In Geography

Probability Distribution

Probability; Law of multiplication; Probability distribution: binomial distribution, normal probability distribution; properties of normal curve.

Bi-variate Distribution and Correlation

Scatter diagrams; Regression lines and residuals; Product moment correlation and Spearman’s rank correlation; Frequency distribution; Lorenz curve; Ternary diagram; Weaver's combination index.

Geographic Data and Digital Mapping

Geographic data: data types and data structure; Number system: binary, octal, decimal and hexadecimal; Introduction to MS office: word, excel, and power point; Hardwares and softwares for preparation of maps and graphs; Representation of geographic data: histogram, bar graph, line graph, scatter diagram, pie diagram, and trend line.

Computation of Statistical Parameters

Numerical data handling using computer; Measures of central tendency: average, median, mode, and weighted mean; Measures of position: quartiles, deciles, and percentiles; Measures of variation: range, variance, and standard deviation; Co-relation coefficient.

Books for references:

Aslam Mahmood & Prof. Moonis Raza 1977 ‘Statistical Methods in geographical studies’, Rajesh Publications.

Hugh Mathew & Ian Foster 1989 ‘Geographical Data: Sources, Presentation’, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Mcgullah 1972 ‘Quantitative Techniques in Geography’.

Monk House F.J. 1984 ‘Maps and Diagrams’, Methuen & Co., Ltd., London.

Rahunathan Singh 1972 ‘Practical Geography’.

Singh, R.L. & Dutt 1968 ‘Elements of Practical Geography’, International Students Edition, Allahabad.
2. Transport geography

Nature, scope, significance and development of transport geography- Factors associated with the development of transport system; economic, social, cultural and institutional.-Economic, regional and transport development.

Different modes of transport: railways, roads, airways, and waterways, pipelines, etc.- Structure- accessibility and flow models; network structure, graph theoretic measures, measurement of accessibility, models of network change, linear programming and gravity models.

Theories related to freight route structure- Bases of spatial interaction, complementarity, intervening opportunities and transferability- Patterns of movement: the type, patterns of movement and transport modes. Transport network; the function, pattern of movement, geometry and transport development.

Transport policy and planning in India- urban transport: growth and problem of urban transportation. Environmental degradation: vehicular pollution and congestion alternatives to the transport system in mega cities in India - National highway development and planning in India.

Books for references

Chorley R.J. & Hagett P.: Models in Geography Methuen & Co. London. 1967.

Hurst, M.E.(ed.): Transportation Geography, McGraw-Hill, 1974.

Hagget, F and Chorlley, R.J. Network Analysis’, Edward Arnold, London, 1968.

Hay, A.: Transport Economy, MacMillan, London, 1973.

Hoyle, B.S.(ed): Transport and Development, MacMillan, London, 1973.

Raza, M. and Agrawal Y.P. :Transport Geography of India, Concept, New Delhi, 1985.

Robison H & Bamford C.G.: Geography of Transport Machdonals & Evans. London 1978.

Taffe, E.J. & Gauthier (Jr.) H.L. Geography of Transportation, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1973.

Ullman E.L.: American Commodity Flow University of Washington Press 1957.

White H.P. and Senior, M.L. Transport Geography, Longman, London, 1983.
3. Population and Settlement Geography

Nature and scope of population and settlement geography-Factors influencing spatial distribution and density of population - Population growth: global trends and patterns - Population structure: Age and Sex specific - Population composition: Economic and Ethnic - Census definition and categories in India

Demographic Attributes - Determinants and Measures of Fertility, Morbidity and Mortality; Migration –Types, causes and consequences-Theories of Population Growth: Malthus and Marx - Demographic Transition Model - Population- Resource Region (as per Zelinsky) .

Settlement-Factors responsible for settlement-site, situation and function-types of settlement-Rural Settlements - Definition, nature and characteristics of rural settlements - Morphology of rural settlements: site and situation, layout-internal and external - Rural house types with reference to India - Social segregation in rural areas; Census categories of rural settlements

Urban Settlements - Urban morphology: Classical models-Burgess, Homer Hoyt, Harris and Ullman - Metropolitan concept, City-region settlement system-primate city rank size rule and Conurbation - Functional classification of cities: Harris, Nelson and McKenzie

Books for references:

Agarwala, S.N. 1985: India’s Population Problems, Tata McGraw hill, New Delhi. Beaujeu- Garnier, J 1966; Geography of Population, Longman, London.

Bhende, A.A. and Kanetkar, T. 1978: Principles of Population Studies, Himalayan

Publishing House, Mumbai.

Carter, H.1975: The Study of Urban Geography, Edward Arnold, London

Chandna, R.C. 1986: A Geography of Population, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi

Clarke, J. I. 1971: Population Geography and the Developing Countries, Pergamon Press, Oxford

Daniel, P. and Hopkins, M. (1989): A Geography of Settlement, Oliver and Boyd, Essex.

Ghosh, S. 1998 : Settlement Geography, Orient Longman Ltd. , Kolkata.

Hassan, M.H. 2005: Population Geography, Rawat Publications, New Delhi

4. Gender Geography

Growth and evolution of the discipline; its connotation; traditional concept of interdependence between men and women; emergence of patriarchy, capitalism and postmodern feminist movement.

Gender based demographic structure; gender gaps in infant mortality rates; maternal mortality rate; female infanticide; gender and longevity gap- their spatial variations.

Male-Female involvement in Economic and Social Activities; multiple role of women in land, water and forest resource management.

Involvement of women in household activities, agriculture, mining, construction, industry, service and informal sectors.

Gender gaps in social and public life: education, wage differentials in economic activities, health care and nutrition.

Scope for bridging gender gap: empowerment of women and education, economic opportunities, access to reproductive health services, involvement in decision making processes in development and environmental management.

Books for references:

Boserup, E(1989) Women’s Role in Economic Development. Earthscan, London.

Dankelman, I & Davidson, J (1989)Women and Environment in the Third World. Earthscan, London.

Deblig, H.J (1991) Human Geography-Culture, Society and Space (5th ed.), JohnWiley, New York.

Haraway, D. (1991) Simians, Cybergs. and Women-The Reinvention of Nature.Rautledge, New York.

Johnston, R.J (ed.) (1996), The Dictionary of Human Geography, Blackwell, Oxford,

Koblinsky, M. (eds.): The Health of Women-A Global Respective. Westview

Press, Boulder, 1993.

5. Disaster Management

Definition, nature and classification of disasters., types of disasters, major disasters of world, disaster profile of India

Natural Disasters: Tectonic Disasters: Volcanoes, Earthquakes, Tsunamis, Landslides.

Hydrological Disasters: Floods and Droughts, Climatic Disasters: Cyclones, Heavy Precipitation.

Human Induced Disasters: Epidemics, Industrial and Transport Disasters; Wars and Terrorism induced Disasters

Vulnerability, Affecting Factors, Planning for Disaster Mitigation and Preparedness - Mitigation Measures of Disasters - Response to Disasters – Community, Non-Government Organizations, National and International. Post Disaster Recovery and Rehabilitation - Impacts of Disaster on Society and Economy

Remote Sensing and GIS Applications in Disaster Prevention and Monitoring.

Books for references :

Nlaikie, P and other (1994) At Risk: Natural Hazards, People;s Vulnerabilityand Disasters, Routledge, London.

Carter, NW (1991), Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook, ADB, Manila.
Cuny, FC (1983) Disasters and Development, Oxford University Press.

Hewitt, K (1977) Regions of Risk: A Geographical Introduction to Disasters,Longman, Harlow.

Kates RW and I Burton (1986) Geography, Resources and Environment, Vol. I & II, Themes from the work of Gilbert F White, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago

Smith K (1996) Environmental Hazards: Assessing Risks and Reducing Disasters, Routledge, London.

Varley, A, Disaster, Development and Environment, John Wiley and Sons,Chichester.

6. Agricultural Geography

Agriculture – Nature and scope and significance of agricultural geography - Concept, origin, dispersal and Development of agriculture through the ages in important agricultural areas of the world. Development of Agricultural Geography with special reference to India. Factors influencing Agriculture:

Physical- relief, climate, soil, water, storage etc. Social - land ownership,

land tenure and size of land holdings/ Land capability.

Economic - Input of human and animal power, irrigation and fertilizers,

Mechanization etc others- Financial management, Market system, Transport,

Trade etc.

Water resources, quality of water for irrigation, water quality criteria,

various methods of irrigation and their comparative advantages. Soil and

water balance.

Types of Agriculture - Shifting cultivation, Plantation agriculture, Mixed farming, Collective and state farming, Extensive and Intensive agriculture, Dry farming etc. and their characteristics.

Agricultural land use: Concept, history, principles, objectives, policies, planning of land use, Land classification: need and basis of land classification - Indian pattern. Land use data:Sources, types, mapping and problems. Models in agricultural land use:concept, need and principles. Von Thunen's Agricultural Location theory. Preparation and planning of detailed performa for land use surveys.

Quantitative method/Measurements of the levels of agricultural development:

Concept and methodology – Agricultural regionalization -Concept, methods of delimitation (Including statistical methods). Agricultural Regions of the World (Whittlsey).

Crop ranking, Crop combination regions - meaning and methodology (Detailed study of Kendal's, Weaver's, Doi’s and Prof. S.M. Rafi Ullah's method). Cropping intensity, Crop diversification – methods and deductions. Agricultural efficiency -concept, methods of measurement, crop-land use and deficiency diseases.

Green revolution and its impact on Indian agriculture – Problems and prospects of Indian agriculture (General treatment).

Books for references:

Symons, Leslic (1967): Agricultural Geography, G. Bell and Sons, London.

Geoffrey, H.F.: (1970) Geography of Agriculture: Themes in Research, Practice Hall, N.J.

Morgon, W.B. and Munton, R.J.C.: (1971) Agricultural Geography Methuen, London.

Singh Jasbir and Dhillon S.S. (1994) Agricultural Geography, Tata Mc Graw Hill, New Delhi.

Husain, Majid (1996), Systemic Agricultural Geography Rawat Publications, Jaipur.

Tarrant, J.R. (1974) Agricultural Geography, Willey, New York.

Safi, Mohammad (2007) Agricultural Geography.

Singh Jasbir (1989) Agricultural Geography.

Bowler TR (1992) The Geography of Agriculture in Developed Market Economics, Longman.

Grigg D (1995) Introduction to Agricultural Geography, Routkdge, London.


  1. An Analysis Of Terrain Mapping

Profile Analysis: Transverse and Longitudinal

a) Serial Profiles

b) Superimposed Profiles

c) Composite Profiles

d) Projected Profiles

e) Longitudinal or valley Thalweg Profile.

Linear Aspects of streams:

a) Relationship between stream order and stream Number

b) Relationship between stream order and Average stream length.

Areal Aspects of streams:

a) Drainage Frequency

b) Drainage Texture/Density

Relief Aspect of Streams

a) Area Height Curve

b) Altimetric frequency curve

c) Hypsographic Curve

d) Hypsometric Integral Curve

e) Clinographic or clinometric curve

Slope Analysis

a) Wentworth’s Method of Average Slope

b) G. H. Smith’s Method of Relative Relief.

Block diagrams – One point perspective & Two point perspective – Preparation of block diagrams from contour maps – Multi section method. Block diagrams representing erosional and depositional features produced by river, glacier, wind, underground water and waves.

Books for references

Buch T.W. 1980 ‘Maps – Topographical and Statistical’, Oxford, London press, London.

Chorley R.J. 1972 ‘Geomorphology’, Methuen, London.

Monkhouse F.F. 1980 ‘Maps and Diagrams’, Wilkinson H.R. Methuen and Co. Ltd.

Negi, Balbir Singh 1995 ‘Practical Geography’, 3rd edition, Kedar Nath and Ram Nath, Meerut, Delhi.

R.K. Sharma 1987 ‘Hydrology and Water Resources’, Dhanpatrai & Sons.

Ragunandan Singh & Kannja 1990 ‘Map work and Practical Geography’, Central Book Depot, Allahabad.
2. An Analysis of Geographical Data
Climate data representation by diagrams and maps:

- Line and bar graph

- Poly graph

- Rainfall deviation diagram

-Rainfall variability

- Climograph (Taylor and Foster’s)

- Climatograph

- Hythergraph

- Isopleth

- Wind rose diagram

Diagrams: Types and properties of diagrams representing socio-economic data:

- One dimensional diagram - Bar diagram: Simple bar, multiple bar, comparative


- Two dimensional diagram- pie diagram proportional circle, rectangle, square.

- Three dimensional diagram- Sphere, cube

Distribution maps

- Dot method

- Choropleth – monovariate and bivariate

Miscellaneous diagrams and graphs

- Trend graph

- Age and Sex pyramid

- Flow diagram, and accessibility maps.

Statistical Analysis : Measures of Central Tendency, Dispersion, Correlation and Regression, Parametric and Non-Parametric Analysis – Students ‘t’ test, F test, Chi-square test and ANOVA : One way and Two way ANOVA- Testing of Hypothesis

Books for references:

Alvi, Z. 1995: Statistical Geography-Methods & Application, Rawat Publications,Jaipur.

Clark, W.A.V. and Hosking, P.L. 1986: Geographical Methods for Geographers,John Wiley and Sons, New York

Croxton, F.E., Cowden, D.J. & Klein, S 1969: Applied General Statistics, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi

Dickinson, G.C. (1973): Statistical Mapping and Presentation of Statistics

Goon, A.M., Gupta, M.K. & Dasgupta, B. 1992: Fundamentals of Statistics,Volume 1, The World Press Pvt. Ltd., Kolkata

Pal, S.K. 1998: Statistics for Geo-Scientists- Techniques and Application, concept Publishing Company, New Delhi.

3. Quantitative Techniques and Computer Applications

Bi-variate Distribution and Correlation: Scatter diagrams; Regression lines and residuals-residual mapping; Product moment correlation and Spearman’s rank correlation; Frequency distribution; Lorenz curve; triangular graph, Crop combinations and concentration techniques – Weaver’s and Doi’s method – Crop diversification – Index of Agricultural productivity.

Geographic Data and Digital Mapping- Geographic data: data types and data structure; Number system: binary, octal, decimal and hexadecimal; Introduction to MS office: word, excel, and power point; Hardwares and softwares for preparation of maps and graphs; Representation of geographic data: histogram, bar graph, line graph, scatter diagram, pie diagram, and trend line.

Numerical data handling using computer; Measures of central tendency: average, median, mode, and weighted mean; Measures of position: quartiles, deciles, and percentiles; Measures of variation: range, variance, and standard deviation; Co-relation coefficient. Students‘t’ test, F test, Chi-square test and ANOVA: One way and Two way ANOVA- Testing of Hypothesis

Books for references:

Saroj K. Paul : Statistics for Geoscientists : Techniques and Applications, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi, 1998.

C. B. Gupta : An Introduction to Statistical Methods, Vikas Publishing House, Delhi,1974.

S. Gregory, : Statistical Methods and the Geographers, Longman, London, 1964.

R. J. Johnston : Multivariate Statistical Analysis in Geography, Longman Scientific and Technical, John Wiley & Sons, 1989 ( 4th edition).

Rogerson. P.A. (2010), Statistical Methods for Geography, (A Student’s Guide), 3rd Edition,

4. Aerial Photographs, Remote Sensing, GIS And Its Applications

Indexing of aerial photographs. Introduction to vertical aerial photographs and its geometry.

Introduction to stereoscopes

i) Orientation & construction of 3-D model under Pocket stereoscope.

ii) Orientation & construction of 3-D model under Mirror stereoscope.

iii) Stereoscopic Vision test

Determination of scale

i) By establishing relationship between Photo distance and Ground distance

ii) By establishing relationship between Photo distance and Map distance

iii) By establishing relationship between Focal length and Flying height

iv)Determination of Average Scale of Vertical Aerial Photograph

Relief Displacement

i) Calculation of Relief Displacement

ii) Object height determination from relief Displacement


i) Introduction to Parallax bar

ii) Object height determination from Parallax

Calculation of Photo coverage Area

Visual Interpretation and Mapping of Aerial photographs

i) Land use/ Land cover mapping

ii) Annotations of Satellite image

iii) Difference between aerial photographs and maps.

Visual and Digital interpretation of satellite image

  1. Land use and Land cover mapping

Remote Sensing

Digital Image: Introduction to image processing - Definition, size and Image Formats; Image Processing System: Image Registration: Image to map and Image to Image; Image Enhancement Techniques: Histogram Equalization. Contrast stretching, filtering and band rationing.

Image Classification: selection of training sets, ground truth identification – (Accuracy estimation) – Area computation method – Dot grid, Digital planimeter. supervised and unsupervised classification; land use / Land Cover Mapping : Urban Land use/Land cover classification system; Multilevel land use classification; Land use/land cover mapping using imageries – Accuracy estimation from thematic details – from satellite imagery.; Transfer of information to the base map; land use change detection.
GIS and Its Applications

Geographical Information System (GIS) – Definition, Components and Significance- Global Positioning System (GPS) – Principles and Uses.

GIS Data Structures –Geo referencing - Creation of Geo-data base and shape file.

Types (spatial and non-spatial), Point, Line and Area; Raster and Vector Data Structure. 4. GIS Data Analysis – Input, Editing and Output; Overlays. 5. Application of GIS – On screen digitization/vectorisation of spatial data in the form of 3 layers: Point, Polyline and polygon. Adding attributes to these layers and statistical calculations. Displaying attribute data on map by various methods. Preparing layout and printing of theme map.

Books for references:

Burrough, P.A and McDonnell, R.A.,1998: Principles of Geographical Information Systems, Oxford University Press, Oxford

Campbell, J.B. 1996: Introduction to Remote Sensing, Taylor & Francis, London.

Heywood, I., Cornelius, S. and Carver, S., 2001: An Introduction to Geographical

Information Systems, Pearson Education, Indian Branch, Delhi

Lillesand, T.M. & Kiefer, R.W. 2003: Remote Sensing & Image Interpretation, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York.

Nag, P, ed 1992: Thematic Cartography and Remote Sensing, Concept Publishing Co., New Delhi

Nag, P. & Kudrat, M 1998: Digital Remote Sensing, Concept Publishing Co., New Delhi.

Narayan, L.R.A. 1999: Remote Sensing and Its Application, Universities Press (India) Ltd., Hyderabad.

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