The how: a formula for deconstructing symbolic elements



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The HOW: A formula for deconstructing symbolic elements:




Content

Form

Use

Ideas

Concepts

Construction

Flexibility

Visual representation

Iconicity

Complexity

Purpose

Communication themes

Word classes

Organization

Retrieval


Content (Semantics)

  • concepts: the ability to assimilate and accommodate experiences, views and perspectives (Blockberger & Sutton, 2003)

  • iconicity: the ability to apply these concepts to stylized graphic representations (Bornman et al, 2009, Stephenson, 2009)

  • word classes: the ability to recognize that these concepts may be grouped into word categories (Aitchison, 2001, Wilkinson & Rosenquist, 2006)

  • (phonological or sound structures in words)

Form (Grammar {morphology and syntax})

  • construction: elements and sequences (Trudeau et al, 2010)

  • complexity: sub elements and semantic components (Binger & Light, 2008; Schlosser et al, 2011)

  • organization: sentence elements and word order(Fitzgerald key: Fitzgerald, 1929, Ratcliff et al, 2009)

Use (Pragmatics)

  • flexibility: expansion and development (McFadd & Wilkinson, 2010)

  • purpose: language learning, language use and communication (Dietz et al, 2012)

  • retrieval: navigational routes (Light et al, 2003)



References

Aitchison, J. (2001) Words in the Mind (2nd Edition), Oxford: Blackwell

Bates, E. (1988) From first words to grammar: individual differences and dissociable mechanisms. New York, CUP

Bedrosian, J. (1997) Language Acquisition in young AAC system users: Issues and directions for future research. Augmentative and Alternative Communication. 13 (3), 179-185

Binger, C. & Light, J. (2008) The Morphology and syntax of individuals who use AAC: research review and implications for effective practice Augmentative and Alternative Communication 24 (2) 123-138

Blockberger, S. & Sutton, A. (2003) Ch 3: Toward Linguistic Competence: Language experiences and knowledge of children with extremely limited speech IN: Light, J., Beukelman, D., & Reichle, J. (2003) Communicative Competence for Individuals who use AAC: from research to effective practice Brookes London

Bloom, L. (1991) Language development: from two to three. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press

Bornman, J., Alant, E., & Du Preez, A. (2009) Translucency and learnability of Blissymbolics in Setswana speaking children: an exploration Augmentative and Alternative Communication 25(4) 287-298

Brown, R. (1973) A first language: the early stages. Cambridge, Harvard University Press

Clark, Eve (1991) Acquisitional principles in lexical development. In S.A.

Gelman and J.P. Byrnes (eds) Perspectives on language and thought: interrelations in development. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. p.31-71

Crystal, D. (1989) Grammatical analysis of language disability. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press

Dietz, A., Quach, W., et al (2012) AAC assessment and clinical decision making: impact of experience Augmentative and Alternative Communication 28(3) 148-159

Dromi, E. (1996) Early lexical development. London, Singular Publishing

Fallon, K., Light, J. and Achenbach, A. (2003) The semantic organisation patterns of young children: Implications for augmentative and alternative communication. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 19 (2), 74-85

Fitzgerald, E (1929) Straight language for the deaf: a system of instruction for deaf children, www.myeasybee.com/blog/fitzgerald-key-back-to-the-basics

Hochstein, D., McDaniel, M. and Nettleton, S. (2004) Recognition of vocabulary in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy: a comparison of two speech coding schemes. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 20 (2), 45-62

Iacono, T. (1992) Individual language learning styles and AAC. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 8 (1), 33-40

Light, J., Beukelman, D., & Reichle, J. (2003) Communicative Competence for Individuals who use AAC: from research to effective practice Brookes London

Light, J., Drager K., McCarthy J., Mellott S., Millar D., Parrish C., Parsons, A., Rhoads, S., Ward, M. and Welliver, M. (2004) Performance of typically developing four and five year old children with AAC systems using different language organization techniques. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 20 (2), 63-88

McFadd, E., & Wilkinson, K. (2010) Qualitative Analysis of Decision Making by Speech-Language Pathologisits in Designing Aided Visual Displays Augmentative and Alternative Communication 26 (2) 136-147

Murray, J., & Goldbart, J. (2009). Cognitive and language acquisition in typical and aided language learning: a review of recent evidence from an aided communication perspective. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 25(1), 31-58

Nelson, K. (1986) Event knowledge: structure and function in development. Hillsdale, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

Raghavendra, P. and Fristoe, M. (1990) A spinach with a ‘V’ on it: what 3 year olds see in standard and enhanced Blissymbols. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 55 (1), 149-159

Ratcliff, A., Sutton, B., & Lehman, M. (2009) Metrics for comparing three word based software programs used for AAC Augmentative and Alternative Communication 25(3) 176-186

Schlosser, R. , Shane, H., Sorce, J., Koul, R., & Bloomfield, E. (2011) Identifying performing and underperforming graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions in animated and static formats: a research note Augmentative and Alternative Communication 27 (3) 201-214

Schlosser, R. and Sigafoos, J. (2002) Selecting graphic symbols for an initial request lexicon: integrative review. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 18 (2), 102-123

Stephenson, J. (2009) Iconicity in the development of picture skills: typical development and implications for individuals with severe intellectual disability Augmentative and Alternative Communication 25 (3) 187-201

Sutton, A. Morford, J. and Gallagher, T. (2004) Production and comprehension of graphic symbol utterances expressing complex propositions by adults who use AAC systems. Applied Psycholinguistics, 25 (3), 349-371

Sutton, A., Soto, G. and Blockberger, S. (2002) Grammatical issues in graphic symbol communication. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 18 (3), 192-204.

Trudeau, N., Sutton, A., et al (2010) Strategies in construction and interpretation of graphic symbol sequences by individuals who use AAC systems Augmentative and Alternative Communication 26(4) 299-312

Von Tetzchner, S. and Martinsen, H. (2000) Introduction to AAC. 2nd edition, London, Whurr.



Wilkinson, K., & Rosenquist, C. (2006) Demonstration of a method for assessing semantic organization and category membership in individuals with ASD and receptive vocabulary limitations Augmentative and Alternative Communication 22(4) 242-257

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