When the war broke out the recruiting offices were flooded. When the war broke out the recruiting offices were flooded

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When the war broke out the recruiting offices were flooded.

  • When the war broke out the recruiting offices were flooded.

  • People thought the war would be short, glorious and exciting; however, it became a war of attrition (a gradual wearing or weakening)

  • A private’s pay was $1 per day

  • You first went to Valcartier for a few weeks training and then sent off to London for some more training

  • You were given a Ross Rifle (sporting gun) that was not an effective weapon, as it kept jamming.



When WWI broke out Blacks attempted to join the military but they were rejected.

  • When WWI broke out Blacks attempted to join the military but they were rejected.

  • There was a resistance and reluctance on the part of the Canadian military to accept blacks into the armed forces. They did not think that white soldiers wanted to fight along side black soldiers.

  • The white officers had the mentality that this was a “white man’s war”. They were in charge of choosing who was allowed in, therefore many Blacks were not allowed in. “We don’t want a checker board Army”



Black Leaders started to put pressure on the government to form an all black battalion.

  • Black Leaders started to put pressure on the government to form an all black battalion.

  • In 1916, The No. 2 Construction Battalion was formed.



The No. 2 Construction Battalion was the first and only all Black Battalion.

  • The No. 2 Construction Battalion was the first and only all Black Battalion.

  • There were approximately 1000 men in this battalion. 500 of the men were from Nova Scotia. Later some Americans joined.

  • It was based out of Truro/Pictou.

  • From 1917-1919 they spent time building railroads for the final attacks against Germany.

  • They were not allowed to fight but rather help make fighting easier for whites with construction.

  • They did meet many important needs of the war. i.e. providing lumber to reinforce the trenches.



Tommy Ricketts from NFLD was the youngest man to win the Victoria Cross. He joined the army at 14 years of age in 1916 and was recognized for a battle in 1917.

  • Tommy Ricketts from NFLD was the youngest man to win the Victoria Cross. He joined the army at 14 years of age in 1916 and was recognized for a battle in 1917.

  • Francis Pegahamagabow was the most decorated Aboriginal soldier in WWI.



Trench foot = roting of the flesh between the toes

  • Trench foot = roting of the flesh between the toes

  • Trench Mouth = Painful infection of the gums

  • Body lice lived in the mud-caked uniforms

  • Rats fed off the garbage and human waste

  • Men were shell-shocked

  • Land between the trenches was called “No Man’s Land”

  • 1915 Christmas Eve, Canadian and German soldiers sang Silent Night across No Man’s Land











Belgium

  • Belgium

  • The task was to hold 3.5 km of line in face of German attack.

  • Germans used Chlorine gas

  • 5200 Canadian deaths

  • 1 out 5 killed in action, gassed, missing or wounded



Troops from NFLD were involved. 90% were killed or wounded.

  • Troops from NFLD were involved. 90% were killed or wounded.

  • Faced strong German line that used machine guns at Beamont Hamel

  • 141 days

  • Canadians fought so heroically they became known as Storm Troops

  • 24,000 Canadian casualties

  • British only advanced 11km

  • Tanks were used for the 1st time





Germans dug into the hills and could control the surrounding areas

  • Germans dug into the hills and could control the surrounding areas

  • The British and French failed to push the Germans out

  • First time all 4 Canadian divisions fought together

  • They planned a surprise attack

  • They gained more ground, guns and German POWs than the first 2 ½ years of the war.

  • 4 Canadians were awarded the Victoria Cross

  • 10,000 Canadians killed

  • Location of Canadian War Memorial





Belgium was once under the North Sea

  • Belgium was once under the North Sea

  • Shelling destroyed drainage ditches and the land became mud

  • Boards were used as pathways

  • Soldiers and horses could drown in the mud if they slipped in some places

  • 16,000 Canadians died

  • Only gained 7 km of mud, which the Germans eventually won back.





Germans had the most aircraft (400) compared to British (113) and the French (156)

  • Germans had the most aircraft (400) compared to British (113) and the French (156)

  • Manfred von Richthofen (Red Baron) was the most famous German flyer of WWI. He was shot down by Canadian Roy Brown.

  • Gas-balloons = Zepplin Dirigibles (airships) were used as observation missions and bombing raids

  • Most famous Canadian pilots were the Black Flight, who shot down 10 German planes in 1 day in 1917.



Canada’s most famous ace (shot down 5 enemy planes) was Billy Bishop.

  • Canada’s most famous ace (shot down 5 enemy planes) was Billy Bishop.

  • He shot down a German plane on his first day.

  • During a 5 day period, he shot down 13 planes.

  • He could hardly land, but was known for his shooting abilities.

  • He won the Victoria Cross

  • He became the Director of Recruiting for the Royal Canadian Air Force in WWII.





The German U-boat (submarine) was the deadliest weapon. On average it sank 160 ships per month

  • The German U-boat (submarine) was the deadliest weapon. On average it sank 160 ships per month

  • May 1915: The British passenger liner Lusitania was crossing the Atlantic. It was torpedoed and 1098 people drowned. There were Americans on board and this incident brought the USA into the war.

  • 1917 Germany introduced a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare. This meant U-boats would sink any allied or neutral ship; not just warships.

  • Convoy system = ships sailed in fleets and escorted by armed destroyers.

  • Canadian shipyards built ships and 1000s of Canadians joined the British Royal Navy and Royal Naval Canadian Volunteer Service and Royal Naval Air Service



Halifax was an important naval base during WWI

  • Halifax was an important naval base during WWI

  • In Bedford Basin, at the upper end of the harbour, convoys assembled for the dangerous trip across the North Atlantic carrying troops and supplies.

  • At 8:45, on Dec. 6th, 1917, the French munitions ship, the Mont Blanc collided with the Imo, a steamer heading out to sea with supplies for Belgium.

  • The Mont Blanc caught fire. Unable to sink the ship, the crew abandoned it and made for the Dartmouth shore.

  • At 9:05, the Mont Blanc exploded with such force that the northern part of the city was flattened and the air was filled with flying glass and debris.





Windows were broken in Truro and the sound reached Sydney and Charlottetown.

  • Windows were broken in Truro and the sound reached Sydney and Charlottetown.

  • A column of smoke, fire and steel bits rose to a height of 3km., then rained down on the harbour and parts of the city with the force of gunfire.

  • The explosion unleashed a tidal wave that demolished ships, docks and buildings.

  • The number of deaths was 2000.

  • Thousands more were injured.

  • A citizens’ committee, including members of the Halifax and NS governments, the police and the army, was set up to coordinate the relief effort.





In 1917, there were many causalities in France.

  • In 1917, there were many causalities in France.

  • It was clear that the troops overseas needed more reinforcements and Ottawa passed the Military Service Act.

  • The Military Service Act became law, which was conscription.

  • Conscription is the compulsory enlistment of citizens for military service.

  • This act made every British subject between the ages 20 – 45 liable for service in the Canadian Military, black or white.

  • Was seen as a slap in the face to Blacks as they had previously tried to enter the military but were not allowed. Now they were being forced to enter.



To wage a war successfully, a country needs the support of its people

  • To wage a war successfully, a country needs the support of its people

  • Propaganda is a technique for influencing people’s minds and shaping public opinion.

  • More than any earlier war, the news media were used to spread propaganda to win WWI.

  • Newspapers, magazines, telegraphs, cable and early radio.

  • It encouraged citizens to enlist in military service and work for the war effort.











Sometimes men who did not volunteer for the army were considered cowards.

  • Sometimes men who did not volunteer for the army were considered cowards.

  • Some received white feathers, symbols of cowardice, in the mail.



Germany decided to launch an offensive on the Western Front before the USA arrived.

  • Germany decided to launch an offensive on the Western Front before the USA arrived.

  • Canadian & allied troops launched a counter attack

  • US tanks arrived and Germany fell back

  • Eventually the Allies recaptured all of France and Belgium

  • On the 11th month, 11th day, 11th hour (Nov. 11th, 1918), there was an armistice (temporary agreement to stop fighting.

  • Germany formally surrendered



More than 30 nations

  • More than 30 nations

  • 8 million deaths

  • 24 million wounded, gasses, blinded, crippled or paralyzed

  • At one point the war cost $10 million an hour

  • By 1918, the total war cost was $186 Billion!



Peace Treaty

  • Peace Treaty

  • Big Four = Woodrow Wilson (USA); George Clemenceau (France); David Lloyd George (England); Vitoria Orlando (Italy)

  • Wilson proposed a 14 point plan to bring peace and future security to the nations of the world. These were high goals – too high to be acceptable to most nations

  • The Big Four did not consult the defeated countries.



The central powers found it extremely difficult to accept the terms of this treaty.

  • The central powers found it extremely difficult to accept the terms of this treaty.

  • The Germans did not want to give back to France the province of Alsace-Lorraine

  • The treaty blamed Germany for starting the war and ordered it to make reparations, or payments for war damages, to the countries it had fought.

  • Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire lost large parts of their former land areas.

  • National groups in the former Austria-Hungary Empire now formed the new nations of Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia.

  • The Ottoman Empire lost all of its possessions in the Middle East, keeping only Turkey.

  • The League of Nations was established, whose work was to keep peace in Europe.



The basis of the League of Nations was an agreement in which nations pledged to avoid war and deal frankly with one another.

  • The basis of the League of Nations was an agreement in which nations pledged to avoid war and deal frankly with one another.

  • Membership grew from 29 nations to 62 nations, each of which had one vote in the league’s assembly.

  • This body could investigate and discuss disputes and vote on admitting states into the league.

  • The council met at least once a year and dealt with any matter affecting world peace. Chief meeting place was Geneva, Switzerland.

  • The league set up the World Court, made up of 15 judges who were chosen to serve 9 year terms. They met had The Hague.

  • It was a pioneer for the United Nations




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