Enabling Global Open Access through Collaboration Agenda Motivations for oa

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Enabling Global Open Access through Collaboration


  • Motivations for OA

  • International Initiatives

  • The Dual Road to OA

    • Institutional Repositories - Current Status
    • Open Access Journals - Bioline International as a case study
  • Roles of Libraries in the Global OA Movement

Why Open Access?

  • Open Access is intended to improve research access, thereby maximizing research impact

  • Equalize the north-south flow of knowledge, thereby creating a truly global knowledge commons

Opportunities ?

Paradox of R&D and Scholarly Communications

  • Emphasis on generation of research - lack of attention to its dissemination, even less attention on preservation and stewardship

  • Publicly funded research results privately owned

  • Eagerness to translate university research into marketable products

  • Growing “enclosure” of the knowledge commons

Open Access ?

  • Scholarly literature that are freely available online

  • Primarily peer-reviewed journal publications

  • Directed at publicly funded research

  • Free from price barrier

  • Free from permission barrier

  • Free to copy and reuse

  • Free to distribute

Other problems

  • Data, information, knowledge highly fragmented

  • High cost of research literature

  • Divergence of information systems

  • Lost of digital information

  • Indigenous knowledge systems poorly represented - “lost” science

Added benefits of OA

  • Increase citation impact and hence return on investment

  • Raise institutional prestige

  • New usage of research results

  • Promote collaboration and broaden participation

  • Enable new service and business models

  • Enhance public subsidies

International Initiatives

  • Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002)

  • Berlin Declaration on Open Access (2003)

  • World Summit on the Information Society, Geneva (2003): Principles and Plan of Actions; Tunis Commitment, Tunisia (2005)

  • OECD Ministerial Declaration on Access to Research Data (2004)

  • IFLA Statement on Open Access (2004)

  • Funding agencies moving towards open access policies

    • Wellcome Trust (UK)
    • RCUK (UK)
    • NIH (US)
    • SSHRC (Canada)
    • German Research Council
  • Salvador Declaration on Open Access: the developing world perspective (Sept. 2005)

Most recent developments

  • European Commission

    • Economic and Technical Evolution of the Scientific Publication Markets in Europe (April, 2006)
  • Canadian Institute of Health Research (CIHR)

    • Committee to draft OA policy on publicly funded health research in Canada (April 2006)

Recent OA Meetings

  • Open Access for Developing Countries, 9th International Congress on Medical Librarianship, 20-23 September 2005, Salvador, Brazil

    • http://www.icml9.org/meetings/openaccess/public/documents/declaration.htm
  • International Conference on Strategies and Policies on Open Access to Scientific Information, Beijing, China (2005)

  • Workshops on Open Access Repositories, MS Swamanathan Research Foundation, Chennai, India, 2003

  • OSI organized workshops in S. Africa (2003), Ukraine (2005), Lithuania (2005)

  • Series of OAI meeting in Geneva and Berlin meetings

How to provide Open Access?

Recommends two complementary strategies to open access:

  • Recommends two complementary strategies to open access:

    • 1. Publish in Open Access Journals
    • 2. Publish in conventional journal and Self-Archive a copy of the published paper in one’s institutional archive

How many authors are self-archiving?

Top 10 countries with the most registered archives


  • SciELO

  • IBICT (Brazilian Institute of Information on Science and Technology) Instituto Brasileiro de Informacao em Ciencia e Tecnologia


  • IAS

  • INSA

  • IISc

  • MedKnow

  • Medler Centre

Part 2 Bioline International http://www.bioline.org.br

Core Partners

Funding Support

  • University of Toronto Libraries

  • Department of Social Sciences, U of T at Scarborough

  • Open Society Institute. Information Access Program

What is Bioline International?

  • Electronic aggregator of full text journals from developing countries

  • OAI data provider

  • Development project - using open source software and open standards

  • Aims to influence scholarly communication practices and access to research literature

  • Will open access improve the visibility and impact of journals from developing countries?

Journals from developing world

Why Bioline International?

  • Publications from developing countries are poorly represented in the “big deal”

  • Making the “lost science” visible

  • Bridging the South-North knowledge gap

  • Better understanding of global science

Increased visibility

      • Traditional directories and indexes ( e.g. EBSCO’s A-Z service, Ulrich’s Serials Directory)
      • Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ), African Journal Online (AJOL), Virtual Health Library of Latin America and Caribbean (BRIME), ISI Web Content
      • Accessibility from library catalogs through OpenURL
      • Soon accessible through HINARI and AGORA
      • OAI compliant search services (e.g. Oaister, Google, Scirus)

Circle of Accessibility

Downloads and visitors

Article submissions

International submissions

Projected Impact Factor

Economics of OA-P for India


  • OA is increasing the visibility, accessibility and impact of some of the journals from developing countries

  • Google is king?

  • Need to develop value-added service with OA databases and Open Standards

  • Alternative measure of research impact is emerging but OA is the foundation

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