Health, comfort and safety Feeling of safety emerging issue

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The “Space” experienced?

Health, comfort and safety

  • Feeling of safety emerging issue

  • Health and comfort of occupants is far from ideal

  • Related to(?):

  • Indoor Environment quality

  • Increase of the ageing population

  • Increasing individualisation

  • We do know:

  • Domestic: increase in asthma and allergies

  • Workplace: losses in work productivity

Direct financial impact to business (Fisk)

Energy use and sustainability

  • Policies towards enhanced sustainability

  • Industrial shift from a product towards performance based approach

  • High potentialities for energy savings

  • Much research and many actions: still more use of energy is foreseen

Contradiction or optimisation - European (global) targets

  • To reduce the demand for energy by 18% by the year 2010, to contribute to meeting the EU’s commitments to combat climate change and to improve the security of energy supply

  • Health targets specified by the WHO Europe:

    • “By the year 2015, people in the Region should live in a safer physical environment, with exposure to contaminants hazardous to health at levels not exceeding internationally agreed standard.” (European Health21 target 10) and
    • “By the year 2015, people in the Region should have greater opportunities to live in healthy physical and social environments at home, at school, at the workplace and in the local community.” (European Health31 target 13)

Reasons/causes for failure?

  • Different incentives or motives of stakeholders

  • Lack or miscommunication between different stakeholders

  • Gaps in knowledge for example Performance criteria for healthy buildings

  • Incomplete or non-existing regulation for indoor environment quality

  • Existing regulations for other issues can be in contradiction: for example possible effects of energy regulations on indoor environment quality


  • To realise sustainable low-energy spaces, in which the People of Europe live, work or move in, under healthy, comfortable and safe conditions

  • Without a coherent and integrated / disciplinary approach, the target of an eco-friendly, sustainable and minimal energy environment on the one hand and the ambition of a healthy, comfortable and safe space on the other appear to be conflicting and contra productive

Performance Concept

  • “Ends rather than means”

What is needed?

  • A conceptual model for integrated approach of health, comfort, safety, sustainability and energy, understandable to all stakeholders, with which one can:

  • A. qualify and/or quantify the perception of the People of Europe with respect to health, comfort and safety feelings influenced by different behaviour;

  • B. assess exposure levels and means to control exposure to unhealthy, uncomfortable, unsafe conditions for the People of Europe;

  • C. design and build environments that are perceived as healthy, comfortable and safe by the People of Europe and are sustainable and low in energy use at the same time;

  • D. produce and maintain healthy, comfortable, safe and sustainable low-energy products for enclosed spaces.

First questions

  • What are the performance indicators that describe the comfort, health and safety conditions/perceptions of the People of Europe from their perspective, and

  • What are the performance indicators that describe the sustainability and energy use of enclosed spaces in which people live, work and move in?

International Status

  • HOPE: Health Optimisation Protocol for Energy-efficient Buildings: Pre-normative and socio-economic research to create healthy and energy-efficient buildings

    • R&D project (Energie program)
    • 3 years: start 1 January 2002
  • PeBBu: Performance Based Building

    • thematic network (Growth program)
    • 4 years: start 1 September 2001


  • What is a healthy Building and what is energy-efficient building?

  • What is an energy-efficient healthy building?

  • Are buildings with energy saving measures energy-efficient?

  • What is the health status of occupants in buildings with energy saving measures as compared to buildings without energy saving measures?

  • How can we assure that buildings are healthy and energy-efficient at the same time?


  • A set of qualitative (prescriptive) and quantitative (measurable) performance criteria for healthy and energy-efficient buildings for Europe

  • A protocol for testing performance criteria for healthy and energy-efficient buildings

  • To check performance criteria in existing buildings by:

    • a multi-disciplinary study in 180 office and multi-apartment buildings of which 75% are designed to be energy-efficient
    • a detailed investigation on at least 32 of the above buildings


  • A database of the health and energy efficiency status of 180 buildings, with information on:

    • energy consumption and energy efficiency
    • comfort and health status of the occupants
  • A protocol for improving a building that is unhealthy and/or not energy-efficient

  • A public web-site with:

    • Progress and results of project
    • Possibility for non-participants to add data on their own buildings into the database and characterise how healthy and energy-efficient their own building is as compared to the investigated buildings

Main contractors

  • CIB: International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction (NL)

  • Belgian Building Research Institute (B)

  • Centre Scientifique et Technique du Bâtiment (F)

  • TNO Building and Construction Research (NL)

  • EGM Architects (NL)

  • Technical research Centre of Finland (FIN)

  • University of Manchester (UK)

  • University of Salford (UK)

  • Building Research Establishment (UK)


  • Stimulation and pro-active facilitation of international dissemination and implementation of Performance Based Building in building and construction practice, and maximization of the contribution to this by the international R&D community, through:

    • stimulation and facilitation of the international programming and coordination of research and implementation projects
    • Stimulation of actual investments in such research and implementation projects
    • Providing the EU Network members with an optimal access to knowledge and experience as available in non-EU countries
    • Coordinated dissemination and implementation of international research in the area of Performance Based Building




    • Construction Materials and components
    • Indoor Environment

    • Design of Buildings
    • Built Environment


    • Regulation
    • Innovation
    • Information and Documentation


  • Title: Healthy, comfortable, safe and sustainable, low-energy “space” for the people of Europe

  • Objective: To realise sustainable low-energy spaces, in which the People of Europe live, work or move in, under healthy, comfortable and safe conditions.

  • Includes 7 tasks, 4 domains and 5 “spaces”, creating a three-dimensional framework that provides a systematic basis for outlining, linking, integrating and managing multiple sub-projects.

Tasks foreseen

  • Stage RTD

    • Task 1 Conceptual modelling: What are the performance indicators that describe the comfort, health and safety conditions/perceptions of the People of Europe from their perspective, and what are the performance indicators that describe the sustainability and energy use of enclosed spaces in which people live, work and move in?
    • Task 2 Gaps and RTD: What are the gaps in knowledge?
    • Task 3 Fundamentals – Innovation: Which fundamental research/innovations are needed to bridge the gaps?

Tasks foreseen

  • Stage Demonstration

    • Task 4 Prototyping: Which prototype(s) will be developed?
  • Stage Dissemination

    • Task 5 Standardization: Which European standards/guidelines are lacking to be able to design, build and maintain healthy, comfortable, safe and sustainable low-energy enclosed spaces in which people live, work and move in?
    • Task 6 Education and training: Which type of dissemination/ education is needed or most effective to transfer the acquired knowledge, products and tools to the stakeholders addressed?

Task 7 Management

  • Task leaders: responsible for the financial and organizational management of a specific task

  • Domain leaders: responsible for the scientific contents of a specific domain that run in each task

  • Overall Management: responsible for the overall management of the integrated project, divided into: Scientific-organizational management and Financial-organizational management

  • Steering committee: comprising of industrial partners from each space

Timing and budget

  • At least 5 years

  • 30-50 million Euro

  • Cyclic approach for identification of gaps, RTD required and identification of prototypes to be developed.

  • Continuous activities: standardization and dissemination

82 organisations expressed their interest

  • Belgium: Foundation Universitaire Luxembourgeoise (J. Nicolas); BBRI (P. Wouters); Catholic University of Leuven (H. Hens); Catholic University of Louvain (A. de Herde); Czech Republic: Charles University of Prague (I. Holcatova); Czech Technical University of Prague (F. Drkal); Denmark: Danish Building and Urban Research (H.Knudsen); Technology Institute Energy (S.O. Jensen); Technical University of Denmark (G. Clausen); Estonia: Tallinn Technical University (L.Sasi); Finland: Helsinki Technical university (O. Seppänen); VTT (K. Saarela); Halton Oy (K. Hagstrom); ACE (V. Peltonen); City of Helsinki; Fläkt Woods Group; Granlund Consulting; France: EDF (D. Valery); CSTB (S. Kirchner); University of Rochelle (P.blondeau); Gaz de France (I.Palero-Perray); INSA Toulouse (B.Perrin); Germany: Technical University of Berlin (B. Müller); University of Jena (W. Bischof); Fraunhofer Institute (E. Mayer); University of Nuernberg (P.Pluschke); Dresden University (J. Grünewald); Calsitherm GmbH (W. Hüttner); Hungaria: EMI, Budapest (Z. Gereben); Greece: National Observatory Athens (C. Balaras); Aristotle University (K. Paioaannou); Terranova (A. Lagoudi); Israel: Technion Haifa (R. Becker); Italy: University of Milano (M. Maroni); KITE (I. Meroni); Stazione Sperimentale del Vetro (P. Polato); Lithuania: JSC Eksergija (V. Martinaitis); Kaunas University of Technology (B. Cernius); IAC, Kaunas (O.Samajaunkas); Norway: NTH Trontheim (J. Thue) ; Poland: Silesian University of Technology (Z. Popiolek); TU Lodz (D. Gawin); Polish Academy of Sciences (H. Sobczuk); Portugal: University of Porto (E. de Oliveira Fernandes); Scotland: University of Strathclyde (J.A. Clark); University of Edinburgh (C. Hall); Scottish Energy Systems Group (SESG); Slovenia: ZRMK (M. Sijanec Zavrl); University of Bratislava (P. Matiasovski); Slowakia: Technical University of Slowakia (Dusan Petras); Spain: AICIA (J. Molina); Cartif (P. Cabellero); University of Madrid (A.J. Garriga Trillo); Sweden: JW (J. Kronvall); SP (Björn Lundgren); FORMAS (N. Dawidowicz); Chalmers University (C.-E Hagentoft); Lund University (A. Elmroth); Switzerland: EPFL (C.-A. Roulet); Vaudois Uni. Hospital Centre (F. Spertini); E4 Tech (F. Foradini); EMPA (V. Dorer); Enecolo (P. Toggweiler); The Netherlands: TNO (P. Bluyssen); TU/e (P. Rutten); CIB (J. Bramwell); VROM (P. van Luijk); WHC (M. Weerdenburg); ISSO (A. Boerstra); UK: BRE (G. Raw); Martin Centre - University of Cambridge (K. Steemers); Cambridge Architectural Limited (H. Mulligan); BDSP Partnership ltd. (N. Campbell); University College Dublin (O. Lewis); Oxford Brookes University (M. Hutchins); General: INIVI EEIG (P. Wouters); REVHA (O. Seppänen); Eurovent (European Manufacturers of Air Handling equipment); Eurofuel (Oil Heating association); European Property Federation (Association of European Building owners), Rockwool Benelux (C. Hamans).

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